This edited collection of 12 essays promotes comparative discussion on religious plural traditions in Europe and South Asia. The intention is to explore religious history and the dynamic process through which people engage with one another in and through their deepest differences, as ahistory of plural systems of religions in Europe and South Asia. It argues that while the significance of Christianity for Europe and Hinduism for South Asia cannot be ignored, this should not lead to overlook the importance of other religious traditions. Consequently, the complex network ofdifferent religious attitudes cannot be characterized by singular closed systems like Huntington's reductionist clash of civilizations suggests. Rather it requires a different view point: replacing the dominant monocausal and mono-linear concept of religious history through a "polyfocal" analysis of an open, pluralist field.