Kidney anomalies are the most frequent abnormality detected on prenatal ultrasound. Some are inconsequential and others are life-threatening. All must be addressed by neonatologists. This edition of Pediatric Clinics of Perinatology covers these anomalies. In addition, it addresses a variety of other nephrology and urology issues that neonatologists confront. Some are rare and the chapter may then serve as an important resource. Others are common, and thus will provide updated information on diagnosis and management.