From the mid-19th century through World War I, Turner societies were among the most important secular organizations in German immigrant communities in America. Brought to the United States by refugees from the failed Revolution of 1848 in Germany, the Turner movement became a home for German abolitionists, workers' rights advocates, and other reformers. The societies were major centers of social, cultural, and athletic activities, particularly in the cities of the East and Midwest, and so played an important role in maintaining German culture while helping immigrants to adapt to American society. This book is the result of a project to locate the surviving documentation on the Turner movement, little of which was found in libraries or archives at the time the project began. The book shows that the extent of the movement, the range of its interests and activities, and the richness of its publishing record were much greater than has been appreciated. With an annotated bibliography, descriptions of archival collections, historical sketches of more than 150 societies, and an annotated list of all societies found in the United States, the research guide opens up new opportunities for examining the influence of Turners and German-Americans on the development of American society.