Galileo, Newton, Herschel, Huggins, Hale, Eddington, Shapley and Hubble: these astronomers applied ideas drawn from physics to astronomy and made dramatic changes to the world-pictures that they inherited. They showed that celestial objects are composed of the same materials as the earth andthat they behave in the same way. They displaced successively the earth, the sun and finally the milky way galaxy from being the centre of the universe.This book contains their biographies and outlines their greatest discoveries. Hard work, physical insight, desire for fame and a strong belief in the rightness of their own ideas were characteristics of all eight. Their often quirky personalities led them into bitter controversies with theircontemporaries. But their successes arose from the outstanding clarity of their thoughts, their practical ability and their strong sense of direction in science.