This book examines the development of urban units and their relationship to the adoption of Roman cultural forms in the province of Baetica (roughly modern Andalusia) in the Early Imperial period. Its starting point is a general examination of the notion of `Romanization' followed by adiscussion of whether a positivistic interpretation of this concept can be inferred from the development of various sorts of towns found in the province. The nature, implications, extent, and results of Vespasian's Latinitas in the Iberian peninsula are discussed in depth in this respect. Thematerial remains of the province are also examined to see what light they can cast on the problem of `Romanization'. Finally, the degree to which non-Roman cultural forms persisted in the province is discussed with the implications that this may have for the cultural dynamics of the region. Theconclusions attempt to draw together the results of these analyses and suggest that Roman Imperialism is best seen through a model which envisages the creation of new synthetic cultural forms rather than through the traditional model of Romanization and resistance.