This edited collection is an introduction to the invertebrate work being performed by Russian scientists. The major emphasis is on studies of learning. In this book, the editors and contributors have brought together contemporary Russian experimental data on the behavior of various invertebrates including crustaceans, insects, and mollusks. The book should be useful for those interested in acquiring a working knowledge of the behavioral techniques, data, issues and history of Russian studies of invertebrate behavior. It will also be of interest to those studying the history of behavioral science in Russia.