Sand and Sandstone by F. J. PettijohnSand and Sandstone by F. J. Pettijohn

Sand and Sandstone

byF. J. Pettijohn

Paperback | May 20, 1987

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The first edition appeared fourteen years ago. Since then there have been significant advances in our science that warrant an updating and revision of Sand and Sandstone. The main framework of the first edition has been retained so that the reader can begin with the mineralogy and textural properties of sands and sandstones, progress through their organization and classification and their study as a body of rock, to consideration of their origin-prove­ nance, transportation, deposition, and lithification-and finally to their place in the stratigraphic column and the basin. The last decade has seen the rise of facies analysis based on a closer look at the stratigraphic record and the recognition of characteristic bed­ ding sequences that are the signatures of some geologic process-such as a prograding shallow-water delta or the migration of a point bar on an alluvial floodplain. The environment of sand deposition is more closely determined by its place in such depositional systems than by criteria based on textural characteristics-the "fingerprint" approach. Our revi­ sion reflects this change in thinking. As in the geological sciences as a whole, the concept of plate tectonics has required a rethinking of our older ideas about the origin and accumu­ lation of sediments-especially the nature of the sedimentary basins.
Title:Sand and SandstoneFormat:PaperbackDimensions:553 pagesPublished:May 20, 1987Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/Trade

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0387963502

ISBN - 13:9780387963501

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction and Source Materials.- Sand and Sandstone Defined.- Relative and Absolute Abundance.- Distribution, Past and Present.- History of Investigation.- Economic Value of Sand.- References.- General Sources for the Study of Sand and Sandstone.- General.- Sandy Environments and Depositional Systems.- Specialized Studies.- Sedimentary Petrology.- Manuals, Encyclopedias, and Special Tables.- I. The Fundamental Properties of Sandstones.- 2. Mineral and Chemical Composition.- Weathering.- Transport.- Diagenesis.- Mixing of Sources.- Sedimentary Differentiation.- Rock Fragments.- Detrital and Chemical Minerals.- Sandstone Mineral Ages.- X-Ray and Other Methods.- Surface Appearance.- The Detrital Minerals.- The Silica Minerals.- Feldspars.- Micas, Chlorites, and Clay Minerals.- Heavy Minerals.- Rock Fragments.- The Chemical Minerals.- Carbonates.- Sulfates.- Sulfides.- Other Minerals.- Organic Matter.- Relation of Mineralogy to Texture.- Mineralogy and Size.- Mineralogy and Resistance to Abrasion.- Chemical Composition.- Chemical Composition as a Function of Mineral Constituents.- Isotopic Composition.- Chemical Classification of Sandstones.- Chemical Composition as a Function of Sandstone Type.- Chemical Composition and Tectonic Setting.- References.- 3. Texture.- Grain Size.- Meaning of Size.- Techniques.- Statistical Measures.- Shape and Roundness.- Surface Textures.- Textural Maturity.- Evaluation.- Control of Physical Properties.- Fabric.- Porosity and Permeability.- References.- 4. Sedimentary Structures and Bedding.- Current and Deformational Structures.- Bedding.- Contemporaneously Deformed Bedding.- Biogenic Structures.- Chemical Structures.- Obtaining Maximum Value from Sedimentary Structures.- References.- II. The Petrography of Sandstones.- 5. Petrography of Common Sands and Sandstones.- Nomenclature and Classification.- Defining Parameters.- Major Trends in Sandstone Classification.- Making a Choice.- to Petrography.- Feldspathic Sands and Arkose.- Definitions.- General Description.- Varieties and Types of Arkose.- Field Occurrence and Examples.- Provenance and Tectonics of Arkose.- Significance and Origin.- Lithic Arenites and Related Rocks.- Definitions and Nomenclature.- General Description.- Special Types.- Field Occurrence and Examples.- Origin and Significance.- Graywackes and Related Rocks: The Wackes.- Definitions and History of Term.- General Description.- Varieties and Types of Graywacke.- Field Occurrence and Examples.- The Matrix Problem.- The Problem of Na2O.- Significance of Graywackes.- Quartz Arenites (Orthoquartzites).- Definitions and Nomenclature.- General Description.- Varieties.- Field Occurrence and Examples.- Distribution in Space and Time.- Significance and Origin of Quartz Arenites.- Miscellaneous Sandstones.- Hybrid Sands and Sandstones.- Greensands.- Phosphatic Sandstones.- Calcarenaceous Sandstones.- Tuffaceous Sandstones.- Relative Abundance of Sandstones and the "Average" Sandstone.- Sandstone Petrogenesis.- Glossary of Rock Names Applied to Sands and Sandstones.- References to Glossary.- References.- 6. Volcaniclastic Sandstones and Associated Rocks.- Characteristic Petrographic Features.- Petrographic Classification.- Volcaniclastic Deposits.- Pyroclastic Flows.- Air Falls.- Debris Avalanches.- Lahars.- Redeposited Volcaniclastic Sandstones.- Examples.- Tectonic Setting.- Plate Boundaries and Intraplate Volcanism.- Plate Tectonics and Basin Fill.- References.- III. Processes that form Sand and Sandstone.- 7. Production and Provenance of Sand.- How Sand is Formed.- Weathering.- Volcanism.- Crushing and Fracturing.- Pelletization.- Precipitation.- Summary and Grain-Size Distribution.- The Problem of Provenance.- Definitions and Concepts.- Evidence from Detrital Components.- Mineral Stability, Climate, and Provenance.- Reading Provenance History.- Provenance and Plate Tectonics.- Examples of Provenance Studies.- References.- 8. Transportation and Deposition of Sand.- Fluid Flow and Entrainment.- Aspects and Fluid Flow.- Settling Velocity.- Entrainment of Single Grains.- Suspension and Discontinuities in Grain-Size Curves.- Bedforms in Flumes and Alluvial and Tidal Channels.- Paleohydraulics and Open Channel Flow.- Transport and Bedforms on Sandy Shelves and Beaches.- Subaqueous Gravity Flows.- Wind.- Fabric.- References.- 9. Paleocurrents and Dispersal.- Dispersal Patterns Defined by Composition and Texture.- Dispersal Patterns Inferred from Primary Structures.- Deducing Current Direction from Sedimentary Structures.- Paleoslope and Current Directions.- Paleocurrent Models.- Alluvial.- Shoreline and Shallow Marine Shelf.- Basinal Turbidite Models.- Eolian Paleocurrent Patterns.- Volcanic.- Summary.- Paleocurrents and Time.- Paleocurrents and Basin Analysis.- Paleocurrents and Plate Tectonics.- References.- 10.Sandy Depositional Systems.- Concepts and Methods.- Depositional Strike, Paleoslope, and Walther's Law.- Associated Lithologies, Vertical Sequence, and Memory.- Geophysical Logs.- Seismic Stratigraphy.- Compaction.- References.- Alluvial.- Meandering Streams.- Braided Streams and Alluvial Fans.- Anastomosing Streams.- Coal Measures and Other Economic Deposits.- Summary.- References.- Deltas.- River-Dominated Deltas.- Tide-Dominated Deltas.- Wave-Dominated Deltas.- Summary.- References.- Fan Deltas.- References.- Sandy Coastlines and Shelves.- Sandy Coastlines.- Sandy Shelves.- Summary.- References.- Slope and Deep Basin.- Turbidite Model.- Ancient Turbidites.- Summary.- References.- Eolian.- Summary.- References.- Sandy Reservoirs.- References.- Epilogue; Unresolved Problems and Future Research.- References.- 11. Diagenesis.- Aspects of Diagenesis.- Diagenetic Textures and Compositions.- Textures.- Mineralogy.- Physical Properties.- Chemical Properties.- Summary: Two Typical Examples.- Physical Diagenetic Processes.- Compaction.- Bioturbation.- Graywacke Matrix Formation.- Clay Mineral Dehydration and Compaction.- Brittle and Ductile Deformation.- Chemical Diagenetic Processes.- Precipitation.- Dissolution.- Recrystallization.- Partial Dissolution and Alteration.- Porewater Reactions and Formation Waters.- Sequence and Timing of Mineral Transformations.- Cement Paragenesis.- Diagenetic Ages.- Major Diagenetic Effects.- Carbonate Cementation.- Silica Cementation.- Clay Minerals.- Alteration of Volcaniclastics and Zeolites.- Common Accessory Diagenetic Minerals.- Porosity Reduction and Production.- Burial Diagenesis.- Conclusion.- References.- 12. Sandstones, Tectonics, and Continental Evolution.- Sandy Basins.- Plate Tectonics and Sedimentary Accumulations.- Geosynclines-The Classical View.- Plate Tectonic Settings.- Plate Convergence Settings.- Intra-oceanic Convergences.- Oceanic-Continental (Andean-Type) Convergences.- Continent-Continent Convergences (Himalayan-type).- Plate Divergence Environments.- Mid-Ocean Ridges.- Intra-Continental Rifts.- Plate Transform Boundary Settings.- Intra-Plate Settings.- Oceanic lntra-Plate.- Passive Continental Margins.- Continental Intra-Plate.- Evolutionary Sequences and Successor Basins.- Sandstone in the History of the Earth.- Sandstone Composition in Relation to Age.- Sandstones in Relation to Evolutionary Changes in Earth History.- Conclusions and a Look at the Future.- References.- Appendix: Petrographic Analysis of Sandstones.- Rock Description and Analysis.- A Comprehensive Petrographic Analysis: The Trivoli Sandstone of Southern Illinois.- References.- Author Index.