Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture

Other | September 1, 2011

byShumway, Sandra E., Sandra E. Shumway

not yet rated|write a review
Scallops are among the better known shellfish and are widely distributed throughout the world. They are of great economic importance, support both commercial fisheries and mariculture efforts and occupy a unique niche in the marine environment. Contributions from world leaders in scallop research and culture cover all facets of scallop biology including anatomy, taxonomy, physiology, ecology, larval biology and neurobiology. Chapters are also devoted to diseases and parasites, genetics, population dynamics and the adductor muscle, with extensive reference lists provided for each chapter.

Since the publication of the first edition of Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture in 1991, commercial interest in scallops has grown globally and this is reflected in the seventeen extensive chapters covering both fisheries and aquaculture for all species of scallops in all countries where they are fished or cultured. The Second Edition is the only comprehensive treatise on the biology of scallops and is the definitive reference source for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, mariculturists, managers and researchers. It is a valuable reference for anyone interested in staying abreast of the latest advances in scallops.

* Offers over 30 detailed chapters on the developments and ecology of scallops
* Provides chapters on various cultures of scallops in China, Japan, Scandinivia, Eastern North American, Europe, and Eastern North America
* Includes details of their reproduction, nervous system and behavior, genetics, disease and parasites, and much more
* Complete updated version of the first edition

Pricing and Purchase Info

$287.99 online
$374.02 list price (save 23%)
In stock online
Ships free on orders over $25

From the Publisher

Scallops are among the better known shellfish and are widely distributed throughout the world. They are of great economic importance, support both commercial fisheries and mariculture efforts and occupy a unique niche in the marine environment. Contributions from world leaders in scallop research and culture cover all facets of scall...

Dr. Jay Parsons has been involved in the aquaculture sector for 30 years and has extensive experience in shellfish aquaculture research and management. Since 2003, Dr. Parsons has been with the Aquaculture Science Branch of Fisheries and Oceans Canada where he is Branch Director responsible for national aquaculture R&D programs and aqu...

other books by Shumway, Sandra E.

Shellfish Safety and Quality
Shellfish Safety and Quality

Kobo ebook|Jan 28 2009

$254.89 online$331.00list price(save 22%)
Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment
Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment

Kobo ebook|Aug 8 2011

$231.99

Scallops: Biology, Ecology, Aquaculture, and Fisheries
Scallops: Biology, Ecology, Aquaculture, and Fisheries

Kobo ebook|Jun 7 2016

$234.09 online$304.00list price(save 22%)
Format:OtherDimensions:1500 pages, 1 × 1 × 1 inPublished:September 1, 2011Publisher:Elsevier ScienceLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0080480772

ISBN - 13:9780080480770

Customer Reviews of Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture

Reviews

Extra Content

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Dedication v Preface vii Preface from first edition ix List of contributors xi

Chapter 1. New Phylogenies of the Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Reconciling Morphological and Molecular Approaches Thomas R. Waller

1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Molecular genetic studies 1 1.1.2 Methods and materials 7 1.2 New observations 10 1.2.1 Subfamily Camptonectinae Habe, 1977 10 1.2.2 Subfamily Palliolinae Korobkov in Eberzin, 1960 10 1.2.2.1 Tribe Pseudentoliini, new tribe 12 1.2.2.2 Tribe Adamussiini Habe, 1977 13 1.2.2.3 Tribe Eburneopectinini, new tribe 14 1.2.2.4 Tribe Serripectinini, new tribe 15 1.2.2.5 Tribe Palliolini Korobkov in Eberzin, 1960 17 1.2.2.6 Tribe Mesopeplini, new tribe 20 1.2.3 Origins of the Decatopecten and Pecten Groups 22 1.2.4 Eastern Atlantic Pecten 28 1.3 Conclusions 30 Acknowledgments 32 References 32 Appendix 43

Chapter 2. Development, Physiology, Behaviour and Ecology of Scallop Larvae Simon M. Cragg

2.1 Introduction 45 2.2 Scallop life history characteristics 45 2.3 Larval development 55 2.3.1 Embryogenesis 55 2.3.2 Development of the larval shell 56 2.3.3 Organogenesis 59 2.3.3.1 Development of ciliation, the prototroch and the velum 59 2.3.3.2 Larval mantle 64 2.3.3.3 Musculature 64 2.3.3.4 Digestive tract 68 2.3.3.5 Sense organs 68 2.3.3.6 Apical organ 68 2.3.3.7 Statocysts 73 2.3.3.8 Eye spots 73 2.3.3.9 Mantle ciliation 74 2.3.3.10 Foot 77 2.3.3.11 Nervous system 78 2.3.3.12 Other organs 79 2.3.4 Metamorphosis 79 2.4 Comparative anatomy 81 2.5 Functional morphology 84 2.5.1 Locomotion 84 2.5.2 Feeding 85 2.5.3 Respiration 85 2.5.4 Sensory reception 86 2.6 Physiology and effects of environmental variables 87 2.6.1 Energy reserves and feeding 87 2.6.2 Respiration 88 2.6.3 Growth 89 2.6.4 Biochemical events during metamorphosis 90 2.7 Behaviour and larval distribution 90 2.7.1 Characteristics of locomotion during larval development 90 2.7.2 Responses to stimuli 91 2.7.3 Distribution of larvae 94 2.7.4 Development and the larval environment 98 2.7.5 Tolerance of environmental variables 99 2.8 Rearing methods 101 2.8.1 Spawning and manipulation of zygotes 101 2.8.2 Feeding 102 2.8.3 Control of disease in cultures 103 2.8.4 Collection of spat from wild stocks 104 References 105

Chapter 3. Structure and Function in Scallops Peter G. Beninger and Marcel Le Pennec

3.1 Introduction 123 3.1.1 An overview of the scallop body 123 3.2 The mantle and its derivatives 126 3.2.1 Gross functional anatomy 127 3.2.2 Microanatomy and functions 130 3.3 Pallial organs and particle processing 132 3.3.1 Gills 132 3.3.1.1 Gill axis and arch 135 3.3.1.2 Principal filaments and dorsal expansion 135 3.3.1.3 Ordinary filament 137 3.3.1.4 Haemolymph circulation in the gill 141 3.3.1.5 Particle processing on the gill 141 3.3.1.6 Particle selection at the gill 141 3.3.1.7 Particle retention lower size limit 143 3.3.1.8 Ingestion volume regulation on the gill 143 3.3.2 Labial palps and lips 144 3.3.2.1 Labial palps 144 3.3.2.2 Particle processing on the labial palps 144 3.3.2.3 Lips 147 3.4 Digestive system and digestion 150 3.4.1 Mouth and oesophagus 150 3.4.2 Stomach, crystalline style and gastric shield 150 3.4.3 The digestive gland 154 3.4.4 Intestine, rectum and anus 157 3.4.5 Digestive sites and postingestive selection 159 3.5 Cardio-Vascular system 159 3.5.1 General circulation 160 3.5.1.1 The arterial system 160 3.5.1.1.1 Anterior aorta 160 3.5.1.1.2 Posterior aorta 160 3.5.1.2 The venous system 162 3.5.2 The heart 162 3.5.2.1 The ventricle 162 3.5.2.2 The auricles and their excretory structures 163 3.5.2.3 Structure and ultrastructure of heart cells 163 3.5.2.4 Contraction 165 3.5.2.4.1 Refilling 165 3.5.2.4.2 Coordination of alternate AV beat 166 3.5.2.4.3 Pacemaker mechanism 166 3.5.2.4.4 Regulation of pacemaker 167 3.5.3 Haemolymph 167 3.5.3.1 Plasma 168 3.5.3.2 Haemocytes 168 3.5.3.2.1 Haemocyte types 169 3.5.3.2.2 Functions of haemocytes 169 3.6 Excretory system 170 3.6.1 Pericardial (auricular) glands 170 3.6.2 Kidney 172 3.6.3 Functions of the kidney and pericardial glands 173 3.7 Reproductive system 173 3.7.1 Sexuality: Gonochory, hermaphroditism and their variants 173 3.7.2 Origin and formation of the gonad 176 3.7.3 Anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the adult gonad 177 3.7.3.1 Outer epithelium 177 3.7.3.2 Perigonadal connective tissue 179 3.7.3.3 Inter-acinal connective tissue 179 3.7.3.4 Haemolymph sinuses 179 3.7.3.5 Acini 180 3.7.3.6 Evacuating ducts 180 3.7.4 Gametogenesis 180 3.7.4.1 Oogenesis 180 3.7.4.1.1 Premeiotic stage 180 3.7.4.1.2 Previtellogenic stage 181 3.7.4.1.3 Vitellogenesis and metabolite transport to the oocyte 181 3.7.5 Oocyte atresia 185 3.7.6 Spermatogenesis, spermatozoon ultrastructure and taxonomy 188 3.7.7 Fertilisation 190 3.8 Nervous and sensory systems 191 3.8.1 General organisation of the nervous system and functional anatomy of principal ganglia 191 3.8.1.1 Cerebral and pedal ganglia 191 3.8.1.2 The parietovisceral ganglion and its nerves 191 3.8.1.3 Histology and neurosecretions of the ganglia 196 3.8.1.4 The circumpallial nerve 198 3.8.2 Sensory structures 198 3.8.2.1 Visual system 198 3.8.2.2 Epithelial sensory cells and tentacles 198 3.8.2.3 Abdominal sense organ 199 3.8.2.4 Osphradia 201 3.8.2.5 Statoreceptors 204 3.8.3 Neurotransmitters and neurohormones 204 3.9 Foot-byssal complex 205 3.9.1 External morphology and development of the foot-byssal complex 207 3.9.2 Anatomy and histology of the foot-byssal gland complex 208 3.9.2.1 The protein gland 208 3.9.2.2 The enzyme gland 208 3.9.2.3 The byssus 210 3.9.3 Functioning of the foot-byssal complex 210 Acknowledgments 210 References 211

Chapter 4. Scallop Adductor Muscles: Structure and Function Peter D. Chantler

4.1 Introduction 229 4.2 Structure of the striated adductor muscle 231 4.2.1 Fibre microanatomy 231 4.2.2 Actin and thin filament structure 233 4.2.3 Thick filament structure 240 4.3 Structure of the smooth adductor muscle 243 4.3.1 Fibre microanatomy 243 4.3.2 Thin filament structure 245 4.3.3 The structure of paramyosin-rich thick filaments 247 4.4 Myosin 253 4.5 Function of the striated adductor 271 4.5.1 Mechanics 271 4.5.2 The interaction of myosin with actin 272 4.5.3 The crossbridge cycle 277 4.5.4 Myosin-linked regulation 282 4.6 Function of the smooth adductor 289 4.6.1 Physiology 289 4.6.2 Catch mechanism 292 4.7 Achievements and goals 296 Acknowledgments 298 References 298

Chapter 5. Neurobiology and Behaviour of the Scallop Lon A. Wilkens

5.1 Introduction 317 5.2 The visual system 317 5.2.1 Functional anatomy of the eyes 317 5.2.2 Retinal physiology 322 5.2.3 Receptor potential biophysics 324 5.2.4 Anatomy and physiology of vision in the central nervous system 328 5.2.5 Visual behaviours 332 5.3 The locomotory system 335 5.3.1 Escape responses and swimming 335 5.3.2 Sensory and motor functions of the mantle 341 5.3.3 Innervation and neuromuscular physiology of the adductor muscle 345 5.3.4 Coordination of locomotory behaviour by the central nervous system 348 Acknowledgments 352 References 352

Chapter 6. Reproductive Physiology Bruce J. Barber and Norman J. Blake

6.1 Introduction 357 6.2 Gametogenic cycles 358 6.2.1 Definition 358 6.2.2 Means of assessment 358 6.2.2.1 Visual observation 360 6.2.2.2 Gonad mass and index 360 6.2.2.3 Histology 367 6.2.2.4 Abundance of larvae and spat 369 6.2.3 Variations in gametogenic cycles 370 6.2.3.1 Intra-specific variations 370 6.2.3.2 Inter-specific variations 375 6.3 Regulation of gametogenic cycles 375 6.3.1 Gametogenesis and fecundity 376 6.3.1.1 Exogenous regulation 376 6.3.1.2 Endogenous regulation 381 6.3.2 Spawning and spawning synchrony 385 6.3.2.1 Exogenous regulation 385 6.3.2.2 Endogenous regulation 389 6.4 Energy metabolism 390 6.4.1 Tissue weights and indices 391 6.4.2 Tissue biochemical composition 392 6.4.3 Physiological indices 395 6.4.4 Radiotracer experiments 398 6.4.5 Ultrastructure and histochemistry 398 6.4.6 Mechanisms 400 6.5 Applications to aquaculture 401 6.5.1 Broodstock conditioning 401 6.5.2 Spawning 403 6.5.3 Larval growth and survival 403 6.6 Summary 404 6.6.1 Gametogenic cycles 404 6.6.2 Regulation of gametogenesis 404 6.6.3 Energy metabolism 405 6.6.4 Applications to aquaculture 406 References 406

Chapter 7. Physiology: Energy Acquisition and Utilisation Bruce A. MacDonald, V. Monica Bricelj and Sandra E. Shumway

7.1 Introduction 417 7.2 Energy acquisition 417 7.2.1 Food sources 417 7.2.2 Feeding currents and mechanisms of particle capture 420 7.2.3 Particle retention efficiency 421 7.2.4 Feeding rates 424 7.2.5 Clearance rate in relation to food concentration 427 7.2.6 Influence of temperature on feeding rates 430 7.2.7 Pseudofeces production, pre- and post-ingestive particle selection 432 7.2.8 Absorption efficiency 436 7.2.9 Effects of suspended sediments on feeding and growth 439 7.2.10 Effects of flow on feeding and growth 445 7.2.11 Effects of harmful and toxic algae 447 7.3 Energy utilisation: Metabolic expenditure 453 7.3.1 Metabolic rate and oxygen availability 455 7.3.2 Metabolic cost of reproduction 458 7.3.3 Metabolic rate in relation to temperature and latitude 460 7.3.4 Metabolic rate in relation to activity levels 461 7.3.5 Anaerobic metabolism 463 7.4 Energy utilisation 467 7.4.1 Excretion and byssus secretion 467 7.4.2 Growth 468 References 474

Chapter 8. Physiological Integrations and Energy Partitioning Raymond J. Thompson and Bruce A. MacDonald

8.1 Introduction 493 8.2 Energy balance, physiological integrations and the partitioning of energy between growth and reproduction 493 8.2.1 Energy budgets 493 8.2.2 Scope for growth 494 8.2.3 Growth efficiency and turnover ratio 494 8.2.4 Growth of shell and somatic tissue 495 8.2.5 Reproductive effort 496 8.3 Changes related to age of individuals 498 8.3.1 Scope for growth 498 8.3.2 Growth efficiency and turnover ratio 498 8.3.3 Somatic growth and maximum size 499 8.3.4 Somatic production and reproductive output 500 8.3.5 Reproductive effort 502 8.4 Environmental influence on production 504 8.4.1 Scope for growth and growth efficiency 504 8.4.2 Growth of shell and somatic tissue 506 8.4.3 Reproductive effort 509 8.5 Reproductive value and cost 511 8.5.1 Residual reproductive value 511 8.5.2 Reproductive cost 512 8.6 Population production 514 Acknowledgments 516 References 516

Chapter 9. Nutrition in Pectinids Ana Farías and Iker Uriarte

9.1 Introduction 521 9.2 Pectinid feeding 521 9.3 Nutritional requirements during reproductive conditioning 528 9.4 Nutritional requirements of the larvae 529 9.5 Post-metamorphic nutritional requirements 533 9.6 Summary 536 References 536

Chapter 10. Genetics Andy Beaumont

10.1 Introduction 543 10.2 Chromosomal genetics and ploidy manipulation 544 10.2.1 Chromosome numbers and karyotypes 544 10.2.2 Ploidy manipulation 548 10.3 Genetic markers and population genetics 550 10.3.1 Genetic markers 550 10.3.1.1 Allozymes 551 10.3.1.2 DNA methods 551 10.3.1.3 DNA based markers 552 10.3.1.3.1 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) 552 10.3.1.3.2 Random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPDs) 552 10.3.1.3.3 Microsatellites 553 10.3.1.3.4 Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) 553 10.3.1.4 Mitochondrial DNA in scallops 554 10.3.1.5 Types of data produced by different markers 555 10.3.1.6 Analysis of data 555 10.3.2 Overall genetic variation 557 10.3.3 Genetic differentiation of populations 559 10.3.3.1 Placopecten magellanicus 559 10.3.3.2 Patinopecten (= Mizuhopecten) yessoensis 561 10.3.3.3 Pecten maximus 562 10.3.3.4 Aequipecten opercularis 563 10.3.3.5 Chlamys islandica 564 10.3.3.6 Chlamys farreri 565 10.3.3.7 Mimachlamys varia 565 10.3.3.8 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac 565 10.3.3.9 Argopecten gibbus 565 10.3.3.10 The Argopecten irradians species complex 566 10.3.4 Genetic differences at species level and above 567 10.3.5 Heterozygote deficiency 568 10.3.6 Heterozygosity and growth 571 10.4 Quantitative genetics 575 10.4.1 Heritability and artificial selection 575 10.4.2 Inbreeding and hybridisation 577 10.5 Genome mapping and gene sequences 579 10.6 Conclusion 580 Acknowledgments 581 References 581

Chapter 11. Diseases and Parasites of Scallops Sharon E. McGladdery, Susan M. Bower and Rodman G. Getchell

11.1 Introduction 595 11.2 Microbial diseases 595 11.2.1 Viruses 595 11.2.2 Prokaryota 605 11.2.2.1 Vibrionaceae 605 11.2.2.2 Intracellular prokaryotes (Rickettsiales; Chlamydiales and Mycoplasma) 607 11.2.2.3 Other bacterial pathogens of scallops