Ancient Greece was the birthplace of science, which developed in the Hellenized culture of ancient Rome. This volume locates science within ancient Greek society and culture, investigates its impact upon that society, and identifies it as a cultural phenomenon deserving no less attention thanliterary or artistic creativity.Chapters by seventeen international experts examine the role and achievement of science and mathematics in Greek antiquity through discussion of the linguistic, literary, political, religious, sociological, and technological factors which influenced scientific thought and practice. Greek science wasboth motivated and constrained by wholly 'unscientific' cultural interests, and by ideas and biases arising from the language and the paradigms of the day. For example, it is here argued that the prediction of eclipses was not a concern of ancient astronomers until after 'non-scientific' authorssuch as the historian Livy, elaborating on a good story with a moral, suggested that it should be.Familiar classical authors, such as Homer, Polybius, Cicero, and Pliny are here seen in a new light. Less-studied classical authors, such as Euclid, Hero, Galen, and Ptolemy, are also considered, and attention is drawn to areas where there is potential for new research and where editions andtranslations are still needed.