Science And Society (a Longman Topics Reader) by Richard M. GrinnellScience And Society (a Longman Topics Reader) by Richard M. Grinnell

Science And Society (a Longman Topics Reader)

byRichard M. Grinnell

Paperback | October 24, 2006

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Part of Longman’s successful Topic’s Reader series, Science and Society is a brief thematic reader that touches on the nature of science and various scientific issues and controversies.

Title:Science And Society (a Longman Topics Reader)Format:PaperbackDimensions:272 pages, 8.2 × 5.5 × 0.6 inPublished:October 24, 2006Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0321318110

ISBN - 13:9780321318114


Read from the Book

The main objective of Introduction to Environmental Geology, third edition, is to help equip students—particularly those who intend to take only a single science course—with an understanding of the interactions between geologic processes and society. During the first half of the twenty-first century, as the human population increases and the use of resources grows, many decisions concerning our use of those resources, such as water, soil, air, minerals energy, and space to live will determine our standard of living and the quality of our environment. Scientific knowledge combined with our values will dictate those decisions. Your charge, whether as a future leader or simply an informed citizen, is to choose paths of development that are good for people and the environment, that larger community that includes plants, animals, water, and air—in other words, the environment consisting of ecosystems that we and all living things depend upon for our well-being. Earth's dynamic and changing environment constitutes one of the most compelling and exciting areas of study. Environmental geology is the application of geologic information to the entire spectrum of interactions between people and the physical environment. During a course in environmental geology, you will develop an understanding of how geology interacts with major environmental problems facing people and society. This is the essence of Introduction to Environmental Geology, third edition. Our strategy with this text is to: Introduce you to the basic concepts and principles of physical and environmental geology, focusing on earth materials and processes. Provide you with sufficient information concerning natural hazards and the geologic environment so that you will be a more informed citizen. You will be better prepared to make decisions concerning where you live and how society responds to natural hazards and catastrophes such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and flooding. Help you develop an understanding of relationships between natural resources and pollution. We seek, find, and use resources and, as a result, may pollute our environment. Thus, it is important to know how we might minimize pollution problems. Help you understand the basic concepts of environmental management as they relate to the geologic environment in areas such as waste management, environmental health, global change, and environmental assessment. After finishing your course in environmental geology, you will be better prepared to make decisions concerning where you build or buy a home, what resources you choose to utilize, and appropriate environmental actions relevant to society and Earth's ecosystems from a local to a global scale. Five Fundamental Concepts To this end, this book introduces a device we call the "Fundamental Concepts of Environmental Geology." These five concepts are designed to provide a memorable, transportable framework of understanding that you can carry away from the class and use throughout life to make informed choices about your interaction with and effect upon geologic processes: Human population growth: Population growth is the number one environmental problem. As population increases, so do our effects and demands on the environment. Sustainability: Sustainability is the long-term environmental objective of providing for the future of humans and other living things who share the planet. Earth as a System: The activities of human beings can have important effects on any or all of Earth's systems, often affecting the global environment. Hazardous Earth processes, risk assessment and perception: Earth's hazardous processes have always occurred and will always occur. Human beings need to recognize the threat of hazards, assess the risk to life and property, and either avoid them or plan accordingly. Scientific knowledge and values: Scientific inquiries often provide a variety of potential solutions to environmental problems. The solution we choose is a direct reflection of our value system. These concepts are introduced in the first chapter and then highlighted throughout the text (look for the "Revisiting the Fundamental Concepts" section at the end of every chapter). By tying the content to these five principles, the text provides a framework for understanding that will extend far beyond the confines of this course and into your everyday life. Organization Introduction to Environmental Geology, third edition, is well suited to your study of environmental geology, whether you are a geology major or are taking this class as a science elective. I have organized Introduction to Environmental Geology, third edition, to naturally flow from the introduction of fundamental principles of environmental science and geology, to more specific information concerning how Earth works, to natural processes and hazards, to understanding natural resources and their management, with the objective of minimizing environmental degradation. We end with a detailed discussion of global change, focusing on climate and some important interactions between society and the geologic environment. Introduction to Environmental Geology, third edition, consists of 19 chapters arranged in four parts: Part 1 introduces philosophy and fundamental concepts, the structure of Earth and plate tectonics, and the origin and significance of minerals and rocks. Thus, Part 1 presents fundamentals of physical geology with important environmental information necessary to understand the remainder of the text. Chapter 1 introduces five fundamental concepts of environmental science, with an emphasis on the geologic environment. Chapter 2 discusses the structure of Earth and the important subject of plate tectonics and how our planet works from a geologic perspective. Chapter 3 presents geologic information concerning rocks and minerals necessary for understanding environmental geology problems and solutions to those problems. In Chapter 3, we also introduce some of the fundamental principles of geology, including the law of original horizontality, the law of cross-cutting relationships, the concept of the depositional environment, the concept of the rock cycle, and the principle of magmatic differentiation. Part 2 addresses natural hazards, including an introduction to natural hazards, (Chapter 4) earthquakes (Chapter 5), volcanic activity (Chapter 6), rivers and flooding (Chapter 7), landslides (Chapter 8), coastal processes (Chapter 9), and impacts of extraterrestrial objects (Chapter 10). The intent is not to provide copious amounts of detailed information concerning these processes but to focus on the basics involved and the environmental concerns of earth processes and natural hazards. Part 3 presents the major resources associated with the geologic environment and the subject of pollution. Important topics include water resources (Chapter 11), water pollution (Chapter 12), mineral resources (Chapter 13), energy resources (Chapter 14), soils (Chapter 15), waste management (Chapter 16), and air pollution (Chapter 17). The focus is to present the basic principles concerning natural resources and to identify potential environmental problems and solutions. Part 4 is concerned with the important topics of global change, environmental management, and relationships between environment and society. Chapter 18 discusses global change with a focus on global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Finally, in Chapter 19, which is a "capstone," we discuss relationships between environment and society with topics such as environmental health, land-use planning, environmental law, environmental impact analysis, and how we may achieve the goal of obtaining environmental sustainability. Major New Material in the Third Edition The third edition benefited greatly from feedback from instructors using the text—most of the changes reflect their thoughtful reviews. Two new chapters—Impacts of Extraterrestrial Objects (Chapter 10) and Waste as a Resource: Waste Management (Chapter 16)—recognize the potential hazard from the former and importance of the latter to society. In addition to these new chapters, new or extensively revised discussions include: Human population growth (Chapter 1) Importance of isotopes to climate change (Chapter 3) Slow earthquakes (Chapter 5) Alaska earthquake of 2002 (Chapter 5) Evaluation of flooding (Chapter 7) Measuring coastal change (Chapter 9) Emerging global water shortage (Chapter 9) Cleaning Boston Harbor (Chapter 12) Minerals and sustainability (Chapter 13) Coal-bed methane (Chapter 14) Sequestration of carbon in the geologic environment (Chapter 18) Avoiding an environmental crisis (Chapter 19) In addition to the above mentioned new chapters and new or revised discussions, the discussion of many topics has been updated. At the request of reviewers, many figures have been revised to more clearly illustrate the topics under discussion. Features of the Text This book is sensitive to the study needs of students. Each chapter is clearly structured to help you understand the material and effectively review the major concepts. To help you use the material from the book, each chapter is organ~,zed with the following study aids: Learning objectives that state clearly what you should be able to do upon completing the chapter. Selected features, called Case History or A Closer Look, are added where appropriate to help you relate topics in `the text to the world around you. A chapter summary reinforces the major points of the chapter to help you refocus on the important subjects. The foundations of environmental geology are presented in Chapters 1 through 3, and Chapters 4 through 19 contain a discussion that revisits the five fundamental principles in terms of the material presented in the chapter. Detailed references are supplied at the end of the text to provide additional readings and to give credit to the scholars who did the research reported in the chapter. Key terms are presented at the end of the chapters. These will help you identify the important concepts and terminology necessary to better understand the chapter. Review questions help with your review of important subject matter and provide a page number where the answer may be found. Critical thinking questions stimulate you to think about some of the important issues in the chapters and try to relate these to your life and society. The appendixes in Introduction to Environmental Geology, third edition, are intended to add additional information useful in helping you understand some of the more applied aspects of environmental geology. This information may be most useful in supplementing laboratory exercises and field exercises in which you may participate. Specific topics include: Identification of rocks and minerals with accompanying tables and suggestions. Strength of rocks. Introduction to topographic and geologic maps with specific information concerning how to read topographic maps, construct topographic profiles, and understand geologic maps. Introduction to Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and Global Positioning System instrumentation (GPS). Discussion of how geologists determine and interpret geologic time. A glossary of terms used in the field of environmental geology.

Table of Contents

1. What is Science?

Orwell, George. “What is Science?”

Thomas, Lewis. “Alchemy.”

Sagan, Carl. “Why We Need to Understand Science.”

The Onion. "Revolutionary New Insoles Combine Five Forms of Pseudoscience."

Gould, Stephen Jay. "Sex, Drugs, Disasters and the Extinction of the Dinosaurs."

Ehrenriech, Barbara. “Science, Lies, and the Ultimate Truth.”

Orenstein, Peggy. "Why Science Must Adapt to Women."

Krauss, Lawrence. "School Boards Want to 'Teach the Controversy.' What Controversy?"

“American Institute of Biological Sciences Ethics Statement.”

2. Science and Human Behavior

Angier, Natalie. "Of Altruism, Heroism and Nature's Gifts in the Face of Terror." Buss, David. “The Strategies of Human Mating.”

Sinha, Gunjan. "You Dirty Vole."

Smuts, Barbara. “Apes of Wrath.”

Zimmer, Carl. "Whose Life Would You Save?"

3. Bodies and Genes

Duncan, David Ewing. "DNA as Destiny."

Everett, Jenny. “My Little Brother on Drugs.”

Begley, Sharon. “Designer Babies.”

Singer, Peter. "The Year of the Clone?"

Kahn, Jennifer. "Stripped for Parts."

4. The Environment

Leopold, Aldo. “Thinking Like a Mountain.”

Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Ice Memory."

Kristof, Nicholas D. "Warm, Warmer, Warmest."

Rauch, Jonathan. “Will Frankenfood Save the Planet?”

Diamond, Jared. “Easter Island's End."

Weisman, Alan. "The Earth Without People."

5. Frontiers

Ferber, Dan. “The Man Who Mistook His Girlfriend for a Robot.”

Hockenberry, John. "The Next Brainiacs."

Vlahos, James. "Will Drugs Make us Smarter?"

de Grasse Tyson, Neil. “Launching the Right Stuff.”

Davies, Paul. “How to Build a Time Machine.”

Guterl, Fred. "Pondering the Future of the Future."