Scientific Writing and Communication by Angelika Hofmann

Scientific Writing and Communication

byAngelika Hofmann

Paperback | January 15, 2014

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Scientific Writing and Communication: Papers, Proposals, and Presentations, Second Edition, covers all the areas of scientific communication that a scientist needs to know and to master in order to successfully promote his or her research and career. This unique "all-in-one" handbook beginswith a discussion of the basics of scientific writing style and composition and then applies these principles to writing research papers, review articles, grant proposals, research statements, and resumes and to preparing academic presentations and posters. It is ideal for a wide range of readers - from upper-level undergraduates and graduate students to postdoctoral fellows, faculty, and professional researchers in the life sciences, medicine, psychology, chemistry, physics, and engineering.

About The Author

Angelika H. Hofmann is Instructor for Scientific Writing and Communication at Yale University. Renowned in the world of scientific writing, she is the founder of "Bioscience-Writing," a venture that provides editing services and workshops at universities around the world.

Details & Specs

Title:Scientific Writing and CommunicationFormat:PaperbackDimensions:752 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.68 inPublished:January 15, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199947562

ISBN - 13:9780199947560

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Table of Contents

Preface: Preface1. Prelude1.1 Importance of Writing in Science1.2 About Readers1.3 About Writers1.4 About This Book1.5 Design of This BookPART I. SCIENTIFIC WRITING PRINCIPLES: Style and Composition2. Individual Words2.1 The Central Principle2.2 Word Choice2.3 Word Choice--Special Cases2.4 Redundancies and Jargon2.5 Abbreviations2.6 Nomenclature and Terminology2.7 Dictionaries3. Word Location3.1 Readers' Expectations3.2 Competition for Emphasis3.3 Placement of Words4. Technical Sentences4.1 Grammar and Technical Style4.2 Person4.3 Voice4.4 Tense4.5 Sentence Length4.6 Verbs and Action4.7 Noun Clusters4.8 Pronouns4.9 Lists and Comparisons4.10 Faulty Comparisons4.11 Common Errors5. Special ESL Grammar Problems5.1 Prepositions5.2 Articles5.3 Verbs5.4 Adjectives and Adverbs5.5 Nouns and Pronouns5.6 Grammar References6. From Sentences to Paragraphs6.1 Paragraph Structure6.2 Paragraph Organization6.3 Paragraph Coherence6.4 CondensingPART II. PLANNING AND LAYING THE FOUNDATION7. The First Draft7.1 The Writing Process7.2 Prewriting7.3 Authorship7.4 Drafting a Manuscript7.5 Outlining and Composing a Manuscript7.6 Writer's Block?7.7 For ESL Authors7.8 Outside Help8. References and Plagiarism8.1 About References8.2 Selecting References8.3 Managing References8.4 Text Citations8.5 Plagiarism8.6 Paraphrasing8.7 References Within a Scientific Paper8.8 The Reference List8.9 Common Reference Styles8.10 Citing the Internet8.11 Footnotes and Endnotes8.12 Acknowledgments9. Figures and Tables9.1 General Guidelines9.2 Importance of Formatting and Placement of Information9.3 Figure or Table?9.4 General Information on Figures9.5 Types of Figures9.6 Formatting Graphs9.7 Examples of Graphs9.8 Figure Legends9.9 General Information on Tables9.10 Formatting Tables* 9.11 Basics of Statistical Analysis* 9.12 Useful Resources for Statistical Analysis9.13 Other Kinds of Supplementary Information: Formulas, Equations, Proofs, and AlgorithmsPART III. MANUSCRIPTS: Research Papers and Review ArticlesA. Research Papers10. The Introduction10.1 Overall10.2 Content and Organization10.3 Elements of the Introduction10.4 Special Case: Introductions for Descriptive Papers10.5 Important Writing Principles for the Introduction10.6 Signals for the Reader10.7 Common Problems of Introductions10.8 Sample Introductions10.9 Revising the Introduction11. Materials and Methods Section11.1 Overall11.2 Content11.3 Organization11.4 Important Writing Principles for Materials and Methods11.5 Ethical Conduct11.6 Common Problems of Materials and Methods Section11.7 Sample Materials and Methods Sections11.8 Revising the Materials and Methods Section12. Results12.1 Overall12.2 Content12.3 Organization12.4 Important Writing Principles for the Results12.5 Signals for the Reader12.6 Common Problems of the Results Section12.7 Sample Results Sections12.8 Revising the Results Section13. Discussion13.1 Overall13.2 Content13.3 Organization13.4 First Paragraph13.5 Middle Paragraphs13.6 Last Paragraph13.7 Important Writing Principles for the Discussion13.8 Signals for the Reader13.9 An Alternative: Results and Discussion13.10 Common Problems of the Discussion13.11 Sample Discussions13.12 Revising the Discussion14. Abstract14.1 Overall14.2 Content14.3 Organization14.4 Applying Basic Writing Principles14.5 Signals for the Reader14.6 Common Problems of the Abstract14.7 Reasons for Rejection14.8 Revising the Abstract15. Titles, Title Pages, and Key Words15.1 Overall15.2 Strong Titles15.3 The Title Page15.4 Running Title15.5 Key Words15.6 Revising the Title16. Revising and Reviewing a Manuscript16.1 Revising the First Draft16.2 Subsequent Drafts16.3 Reviewing a Manuscript17. Final Version, Submission, and Peer Review17.1 General Advice on the Final Version17.2 Submitting the Manuscript17.3 Writing a Cover Letter17.4 The Review Process17.5 Letter from the Editor17.6 Resubmission17.7 Paper AcceptedB. Review Articles18. Review Articles18.1 Overall18.2 Content18.3 Organization18.4 Abstract of a Review Article18.5 Introduction of a Review Article18.6 Main Analysis Section of a Review Article18.7 Conclusion of a Review Article18.8 References18.9 Signals for the Reader18.10 Coherence18.11 Common Problems of Review Articles18.12 Revising the Review ArticlePART IV. GRANT PROPOSALS19. Proposal Writing19.1 General19.2 Types of Proposals19.3 Choosing a Sponsoring Agency19.4 Federal Agencies19.5 Private Foundations19.6 Corporations and Other Funders19.7 Preliminary Steps to Writing a Proposal19.8 Online Resources19.9 Starting to Write a Grant19.10 Interacting With the Funder20. Letters of Inquiry and Preproposals20.1 General20.2 Content and Organization20.3 Abstract/Overview20.4 Introduction/Background20.5 Statement of Need20.6 Objective and Specific Aims20.7 Strategy and Goals20.8 Leadership and Organization20.9 Budget20.10 Impact and Significance20.11 Cover Letter20.12 Verbal Proposals20.13 LOI Outlines20.14 Revising an LOI/Preproposal21. Abstract and Specific Aims21.1 Overall21.2 Abstract21.3 Specific Aims21.4 Significance and Impact21.5 Applying Basic Writing Principles21.6 Signals for the Reader21.7 Common Problems21.8 Reasons for Rejection21.9 Revising the Abstract and Specific Aims22. Background and Significance22.1 Overall22.2 Emphasis, Organization, and Length22.3 References22.4 Elements of the Section* 22.5 Sample Significance Section for Federal Grants22.6 Signals for the Reader22.7 Coherence22.8 Common Problems22.9 Revising the Background and Significance Section23. * Innovation23.1 Content23.2 Organization23.3 Signals for the Reader23.4 Common Problems23.5 Revising the Innovation Section24. Preliminary Results24.1 General Content24.2 Organization24.3 Important Writing Principles24.4 Signals for Preliminary Results24.5 Common Problems of Preliminary Results24.6 Revising the Preliminary Results25. Approach/Research Design25.1 Overall25.2 Content25.3 Organization25.4 Closing Paragraph25.5 Signals for the Reader25.6 Common Problems25.7 Revising the Research Design and Methods Section26. Budget and Other Special Proposal Sections26.1 Budget26.2 Other Special Proposal Sections27. Revising and Submitting a Proposal27.1 General27.2 Before Sending Out the Proposal27.3 Revising the Proposal27.4 Submitting the Proposal27.5 Being Reviewed27.6 Site Visits*27.7 Reasons for Rejection27.8 If Your Proposal Is Rejected27.9 Resubmission of a Proposal27.10 If Your Proposal Is FundedPART V. POSTERS AND PRESENTATIONS28. Posters and Conference Abstracts28.1 Function and General Overview28.2 Content28.3 Organization28.4 Sections of a Poster28.5 Photos, Figures, and Tables28.6 Resources for Preparing and Presenting a Poster*28.7 Revising a Poster28.8 Presenting the Poster28.9 Sample Posters28.10 Checklist for a Poster28.11 Conference Abstracts29. Oral Presentations29.1 Before the Talk29.2 Content and Organization of a Scientific Talk29.3 Visual Aids29.4 Preparing for a Talk29.5 Giving the Talk29.6 Voice and Delivery29.7 Vocabulary and Style29.8 Body Actions and Motions29.9 At the End of the Presentation29.10 Questions and Answers29.11 Other Speech Forms*29.12 Resources29.13 Checklist for an Oral PresentationPART VI. JOB APPLICATIONS30. Writing for Job Applications30.1 Overall30.2 Curricula Vitae (CVs) and Resumes30.3 Cover Letters30.4 Accompanying Documents30.5 Research Statements30.6 Teaching Statements30.7 Resources30.8 Letters of Recommendation30.9 Checklist for the Job ApplicationAppendix A: Commonly Confused and Misused Words* Appendix B: Tips on MS Word* Appendix C: Tips on MS Excel* Appendix D: Tips on MS PowerPoint* Appendix E: MS Office Cheat SheetAnswer KeyGlossaryBibliographyCreditsIndex