According to traditional interpretations, the Reformations in England and Scotland had little in common: their timing, implementation, and very charcter marked them out as separate events. This book challenges the accepted view by demonstrating that the processes of reform in the two countrieswere, in fact, thoroughly intertwined. From England's Declaration of Royal Supremacy in 1534 to Scotland's religious revolution of 1559-61, interactions between reformers and lay people of all religious persuasions were continual. Religious upheavals in England had an immediate impact north of theborder, inspiring fugitive activity, missionary preaching, and trade in literature. Among opponents of the new learning, cross-border activity was equally lively, and official efforts to maintain two separate religious regimes seemed futile. The continuing religious debate inspired a fundamentalreconsideration of connections between the courntries and the result would be a redefinition of the whole pattern of Anglo-Scottish relations.