Segregation: A Global History Of Divided Cities

Paperback | July 11, 2016

byCarl H. Nightingale

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When we think of segregation, what often comes to mind is apartheid South Africa, or the American South in the age of Jim Crow—two societies fundamentally premised on the concept of the separation of the races. But as Carl H. Nightingale shows us in this magisterial history, segregation is everywhere, deforming cities and societies worldwide.

Starting with segregation’s ancient roots, and what the archaeological evidence reveals about humanity’s long-standing use of urban divisions to reinforce political and economic inequality, Nightingale then moves to the world of European colonialism. It was there, he shows, segregation based on color—and eventually on race—took hold; the British East India Company, for example, split Calcutta into “White Town” and “Black Town.” As we follow Nightingale’s story around the globe, we see that division replicated from Hong Kong to Nairobi, Baltimore to San Francisco, and more. The turn of the twentieth century saw the most aggressive segregation movements yet, as white communities almost everywhere set to rearranging whole cities along racial lines. Nightingale focuses closely on two striking examples: Johannesburg, with its state-sponsored separation, and Chicago, in which the goal of segregation was advanced by the more subtle methods of real estate markets and housing policy.

For the first time ever, the majority of humans live in cities, and nearly all those cities bear the scars of segregation. This unprecedented, ambitious history lays bare our troubled past, and sets us on the path to imagining the better, more equal cities of the future.

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When we think of segregation, what often comes to mind is apartheid South Africa, or the American South in the age of Jim Crow—two societies fundamentally premised on the concept of the separation of the races. But as Carl H. Nightingale shows us in this magisterial history, segregation is everywhere, deforming cities and societies wor...

Carl H. Nightingale is professor of urban and world history in the Department of Transnational Studies at the University at Buffalo, State University of New York. He is the author of On the Edge: Poor Black Children and Their American Dreams.

other books by Carl H. Nightingale

Format:PaperbackDimensions:538 pages, 9 × 6 × 1.4 inPublished:July 11, 2016Publisher:University of Chicago PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:022637971X

ISBN - 13:9780226379715

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments  Introduction

PART ONE: ANCESTRIES 

1 SEVENTY CENTURIES OF CITY-SPLITTING 
Before Race Mattered 
The Long Shadow of the Ziggurat 
Segregating Strangers 
Scapegoat Ghettos  
Quarters for Classes, Crafts, Clans, Castes, and the Sexes 
Ancient and Medieval Legacies 

PART TWO: COLOR AND RACE COME TO THE CITY 

2 WHITE TOWN/BLACK TOWN
Governor Pitt’s Madras 
The Rise and Fall of American (and South African) Segregation in Colonial Times 
Eastward Connections  
The Cross-Colonial Color Connection  
Color before Race 

3 RACE AND THE LONDON-CALCUTTA CONNECTION
The Modern Way to Split a City  
How London Conquered and Divided Calcutta  
Race and the Imperial City 
The London-Calcutta Sanitation Connection 
The West End–White Town Connection 
London’s Calcutta Problem 

PART THREE: SURGES OF SEGREGATION IN THE COLONIES 

4 THE STATIONS RAJ
Paradoxes of Detachment and Dependence 
Beyond Calcutta 
Stations of the Empire 
“Bring Your Cities and Stations within the Pale of Civilization” 
Stations for Sale?  
Beyond India 

5 SEGREGATING THE PACIFIC 
Incomings and Outgoings 
Segregating China’s Gateways 
Two Tides in the Pacific 
Segregating All Oceans 

6 SEGREGATION MANIA 
A Call to All Continents 
The Germ Theory of Segregation 
Segregation Sails East with the Plague 
Hunting Rats, Fleas, and Mosquitoes in Africa 
The High Tide of Segregation Mania 
The Long End of the Craze 
Legacies of the Mania 

7 THE OUTER LIMITS OF COLONIAL URBANISM
Imperial Monuments, Imperial Tombstones 
French Connections 
A French Calcutta?  
Planet Haussmann 
Splitting Cities, Beaux-Arts Style 
Sunset at New Delhi 
A Bitter Epitaph 

PART FOUR: THE ARCHSEGREGATIONISTS 

8 THE MULTIFARIOUS SEGREGATION OF JOHANNESBURG
Archsegregationism and the Wider World 
Squaring Race and Civilization 
A Keystone of Global Anglo-Saxondom 
The Birth of “Separate Development”  
From Labor Control to “Influx Control”  
Grandparents of the Group Areas 

9 THE FURIES FLY IN THE SETTLERS’ CITY
Arrogance and Its Agonies 
The Intimacies of Race War 
They Will Buy Us Out of the Country 
Pandora’s Segregationism 
The Birth Pangs of Nation-State Segregation 

10 CAMOUFLAGING THE COLOR LINE IN CHICAGO 
A Subtler Sort of Segregation?  
Segregating the United States 
Jim-Crowing the Neighborhoods 
Segregation by Profiteer, Protective Association, and Pogrom 
A Time for Camouflage 
The “Iron Ring”? 

11 SEGREGATION AT THE EXTREMES 
Split Cities and the Global Cataclysm 
Hitler’s “Death Boxes”  
A New Deal for America’s Color Lines 
The Sinister Synthesis of Apartheid 

PART FIVE: FRAGMENTED LEGACIES 

12 OUTFLANKING A GLOBAL REVOLUTION
Age of Liberation, Age of Apocalypse 
Have Ghettos Gone Global?  
Postcolonial and Neocolonial City-Splitting 
A New Century of Settler Segregation? 
Epilogue: People, the Planet, and Segregated Cities 

Notes  Index

Editorial Reviews

“Remarkably, Nightingale manages to write a history that is at once coherent and attentive to local difference, detailed and sweeping, accessible and scholarly.”   “Without a doubt, Segregation makes for a weighty addition to our literature on divided cities—one that should be read by scholars, students, and practitioners alike. Given the sweep and scope of Nightingale's accomplishment, it should not be surprising that we leave wanting even more.”