Michael Tonry, an internationally recognized authority on criminology, offers in these pages a comprehensive overview of current research, policy developments, and practical experiences concerning sentencing and sanctions. He examines the effects of increased penalties and considers whetherthey have made America a safer place. Tonry contends that in order for sentencing to be fair and effective, comprehensive and defensible policies must be in place and mechanisms must exist to implement those policies. He also looks at mandatory penalties, community sanctions, and sentencing changesin other countries, and proposes sentencing policies for the twenty-first century. Sentencing has been going through reform for over twenty-five years, yet political debate on the subject has changed remarkably little. By offering a complete survey of new developments in both research and policy, Sentencing Matters is certain to spark fresh dialogue on this divisive issue.