This book analyses the evolution of Sino-Russian oil and gas cooperation during the 1990s and 2000s. It describes how China has become a large importer of Russian oil, but not of its gas, and gives an explanation as to why this curious contrast has developed. The author argues that, given thetwo countries' energy endowments and needs, it has been almost inevitable that there should be a considerable amount of Sino-Russian oil and gas cooperation, but concludes that the imperatives of oil cooperation were much more powerful than those relating to gas. The book examines the progress of oil and gas exploration and development in East Siberia and Russia's Far East, and estimates the amount of oil and gas that Russia could export from these regions to China and Northeast Asian countries. It also provides a parallel analysis of China's potential to bea large scale importer of oil and gas and presents a detailed account of its dealings with the Central Asian Republics. This in-depth evaluation reveals the differences in the characteristics of the oil and gas sectors that have led to such contrasting outcomes. The final part of the book predicts the likely evolution of Sino-Russian oil and gas cooperation and the national, regional, and global consequences.