Site Characterization in Karst and PseudoKarst Terraines: Practical Strategies and Technology for Practicing Engineers, Hydrologists and Geologists by Richard C. BensonSite Characterization in Karst and PseudoKarst Terraines: Practical Strategies and Technology for Practicing Engineers, Hydrologists and Geologists by Richard C. Benson

Site Characterization in Karst and PseudoKarst Terraines: Practical Strategies and Technology for…

byRichard C. Benson, Lynn B. Yuhr

Hardcover | October 5, 2015

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This book provides a practical strategy for obtaining a more complete and accurate geologic site characterization. The strategy and methods to characterize complex geologic settings are readily available. The strategy utilizes readily available technology, basic science and good, old-fashioned common sense resulting in a solid understanding of geologic and even karst or pseudokarst conditions. We provide an introduction to many off-the-shelf methods available for site characterization as well as examples of their application throughout the book.

The purpose of a geologic site characterization is to understand the 3-dimensional geologic framework, along with the engineering and hydrologic properties of a site including any man-made impacts. A well-done site characterization is the cornerstone of all geotechnical, groundwater and environmental projects. The geologic conditions, particularly karst conditions, can significantly impact a site including its structural stability, groundwater pathways and potential for rapid transport or traps for contaminants. Once we have adequately characterized the geologic conditions can we carry our remediation, design and construction, model flow, and make risk assessments that are accurate and reliable.

This book is, for the most part, based upon the authors combined experience of more than 80 years as consulting geologists. The authors are a father and daughter team, who have worked together since 1978 providing consulting services through their company Technos, Inc. Their hands-on experience in site characterization, with both karst...
Title:Site Characterization in Karst and PseudoKarst Terraines: Practical Strategies and Technology for…Format:HardcoverDimensions:421 pagesPublished:October 5, 2015Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401799237

ISBN - 13:9789401799232

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Part I - A Brief Overview of Karst and Pseudokarst

1. Some Common Terms

1.1 Karst

1.2 Paleokarst

1.3 Pseudokarst

2. The Development of Karst Conditions

2.1 Carbonates and Other Soluble Rock

2.2 Post Deposition Processes

2.3 Some Properties of Karst Rock

3. Types of Karst Features

3.1 Sinkholes

3.2 Sinking Streams and Springs

3.3 The Epikarst Zone

3.4 Caves

4. Karst Maturity and Development

4.1 Karst Maturity

4.2 Karst Development Time Scale

5. Areas Affected by Karst and Pseudokarst

5.1 United States

5.2 Worldwide

6. Karst and Its Many Benefits

6.1 Springs

6.2 Caves

6.3 Sinkholes

6.4 Karst Aquifers and Groundwater


6.5 Mineral Resources

7. Karst and Its Damaging Impact

7.1 Structural Impacts

7.2 Ground Water Contamination

7.3 Pseudokarst Impacts (Natural and Man-Made)

8. Triggering Mechanisms for Sinkholes

8.1 Statistics

8.2 Water-Related Triggering Mechanisms

8.3 A Guideline to Minimize Sinkholes Triggered by Water

8.4 Other Triggering Mechanisms

8.5 Size and Rate of Sinkhole Collapse

9. Cave and Cavern Collapse

9.1 Breakdown Domes

9.2 Mechanics of Cavern Breakdown

9.3 Thickness of Rock Needed to Prevent Surface Subsidence or Collapse

9.4 Experience from Mine Failures

9.5 Propagation of Subsidence and Collapse from Great Depths

10. Insight into the Nature of Cover Collapse Sinkholes

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Insight from Scale Model Sinkhole Tests

10.3 Insight from Mine Backfill Stabilization

10.4 Conceptual Models of Cover Collapse Sinkholes

Part II The Strategy and Methods for Site Characterization

11. What is Site Characterization

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Uncertainties in Site Characterization

11.3 The Technical Literature

11.4 Concepts and Strategies for Site Characterization by Others

11.5 The Site Characterization


11.6 Some Pitfalls of Site Characterization

12. The Strategy

12.1 The Detection Dilemma

12.2 Appropriate, Adequate and Accurate Data

12.3 Key Steps in the Site Characterization Process

12.4 Summary

13. The Desk Study

13.1 What We Know and Don't Know

13.2 Sources of Existing Information and Data

13.3 Type of Data Available

13.4 Data Mining and Review

13.5 The Preliminary Conceptual Model

14. Aerial Photography and Remote Sensing Data

14.1 Availability

14.2 Scale

14.3 Coverage

14.4 Aerial Photos

14.5 Beyond Black and White Aerial Photos (Other Formats and Methods)

15. Site Walkover

15.1 The Initial Site Walkover

15.2 Importance of Observations

15.3 Some Tools for the Field

15.4 On-Site Walkovers and Off-Site Drives

15.5 Site Coverage

15.6 Observations and Mapping

15.7 Fly Over

15.8 Updating the Conceptual Model

15.9 Updating the Work Plan

16. Surface Geophysical Methods

16.1 Introduction

16.2 A Brief History of the Surface Geophysical Methods

16.3 An Overview of Surface Geophysics

16.4 Guidelines for the Selection of the Surface Geophysical Methods

16.5 Application of Surface Geophysical Methods

17. Invasive Methods

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Direct Push Methods

17.3 Borings

17.4 Excavations and Trenches

18. Geophysical Logging

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Geophysical Logging Measurements

18.3 Various Applications for Geophysical Logs

18.4 Downhole, Crosshole and Tomographic Measurements

19. Assessment of Larger Open Voids and Structures

19.1 A Variety of Methods

19.2 Visual Inspection

19.3 Photographic and Video Documentation

19.4 Cave Mapping Systems

19.5 Laser and Sonar System

19.6 Remotely Operated and Autonomous Vehicles for Inspections

20. Engineering Measurements and Monitoring

20.1 In-situ Geotechnical Measurements and Monitoring

20.2 Monitoring


21. Hydrologic Characterization and Measurements

21.1 A Complex System

21.2 Karst is a Multiple Porosity System

21.3 Lets Revisit the Issue of Scale

21.4 Temporal Aspects

21.5 Hydrologic Measurements

21.6 Surface Water

21.7 The Unsaturated Zone

21.8 The Saturated Zone

21.9 Groundwater Contaminants

21.10 Aquitards and Barriers

22. Dye Tracing

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Considerations for Dye Tracing

22.3 Results and Analysis of Dye Trace Studies

22.4 Limitations of Dye Traces

23. The Conversion of Data to Useful Information

23.1 Managing Data

23.2 An Assessment of All Data

23.3 Assembly of Data

23.4 Processing of Data

23.5 Integration of Data

23.6 The Final Interpretation and Conceptual Model

23.7 Visualization and Presentation of Data

23.8 Documentation - A Final Report

24. Risk Assessment

24.1 Definition of Risk

24.2 Objective and Subjective Methods for Risk Assessment

24.3 Regional Risk Assessments

24.4 Site-Specific Risk Assessment

Part III Case Histories

25. The Development Of A Landfill Over An Abandoned Limestone Mine

25.1 Background

25.2 An Assessment of the CCA and the Surface Fissures

25.3 An Assessment of the Mine Conditions

25.4 A Ground Water Monitoring Plan

25.5 Subsidence Risk Assessment

25.6 The Mine Backfilling Program

25.7 Conclusions

26. Site Characterization along Bridge Alignment

26.1 Background

26.2 An Initial

Site Assessment

26.3 The Approach

26.4 Phase I Reconnaissance Investigation

26.5 Phase II Confirmation Phase

26.6 Phase III Detailed Investigation

26.7 Risk Assessment

26.8 Conclusions

27. EPA Superfund Site

27.1 Background

27.2 Objectives of the Overall Investigation

27.3 Technical Approach

27.4 Site Preparation

27.5 The Desk Study

27.6 The Preliminary Conceptual Model

27.7 Shallow Geohydrologic Conditions

27.8 Deeper Geohydrologic Conditions

27.9 The Conceptual Model for the Site

27.10 Sinkhole Risk Assessment

27.11 The Ability of Geology to Support Proposed Remedy

27.12 About the Site Characterization Strategy