Small-Angle Scattering from Confined and Interfacial Fluids: Applications To Energy Storage And Environmental Science: Applications To Energy Storage  by Yuri B. MelnichenkoSmall-Angle Scattering from Confined and Interfacial Fluids: Applications To Energy Storage And Environmental Science: Applications To Energy Storage  by Yuri B. Melnichenko

Small-Angle Scattering from Confined and Interfacial Fluids: Applications To Energy Storage And…

byYuri B. Melnichenko

Hardcover | October 8, 2015

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This book examines the meso- and nanoscopic aspects of fluid adsorption in porous solids using a non-invasive method of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Starting with a brief summary of the basic assumptions and results of the theory of small-angle scattering from porous media, the author focuses on the practical aspects and methodology of the ambient and high pressure SANS and SAXS experiments and corresponding data analysis. It is illustrated with results of studies of the vapor and supercritical fluid adsorption in porous materials published during the last decade, obtained both for man-made materials (e.g. porous fractal silica, Vycor glass, activated carbon) and geological samples (e.g. sandstones, shales and coal). In order to serve the needs of broad readership, the results are presented in the relevant context (e.g. petroleum exploration, anthropogenic carbon capture and sequestration, ion adsorption in supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, etc.).
Yuri B. Melnichenko was educated as a physicist in the USSR, receiving his Ph.D. from Kiev State University (1984) and later a prestigious Doctor of Physics and Mathematics degree from the Academy of Sciences of USSR (1992). He is a Humboldt Foundation Fellow (1993, Germany), and a recipient of Max Planck Society award (1994, Germany)....
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Title:Small-Angle Scattering from Confined and Interfacial Fluids: Applications To Energy Storage And…Format:HardcoverDimensions:314 pagesPublished:October 8, 2015Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3319011030

ISBN - 13:9783319011035

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Table of Contents

1. Basic definitions and essential concepts of small-angle scattering 1.1 Interaction of x-rays and neutrons with matter; scattering length 1.2 Scattering vector and scattering cross section 1.3 Scattering length density and contrast 1.4 Absorption and transmission of x-ray and neutron beams 1.5 Form and structure factors 1.6 Complementarity of neutron and x-ray scattering techniques 2. Radiation sources 2.1 Constant flux reactors 2.2 Spallation neutron sources 2.3 Photon sources 3. Constant flux and time-of-flight instrumentation 3.1 General Purpose SANS instrument at HFIR, ORNL 3.2 Extended Q SANS instrument at SNS, ORNL 3.3 Perfect crystal USANS instrument at NIST 3.4 Time-of-flight USANS at SNS 3.5 SAXS and USAXS instruments at APS, ANL 4. Sample environment 4.1 Sample cells for ambient conditions 4.2 SANS high-pressure cells 4.3 SAXS high-pressure cells 5. Practical aspects of planning and conducting SAS experiments 5.1 Applying for beam time 5.2 Choice of the instrument configuration 5.3 Detector sensitivity and instrument backgrounds 5.4 Optimal sample thickness, transmission and multiple scattering 5.5 Subtraction of the sample background 5.6 Data acquisition time, masking and radial averaging 5.7 Absolute calibration 5.8 Instrument resolution 5.9 Effective thickness of powder samples 5.10 Contrast variation with liquids and gases 5.11 Average scattering length density of multicomponent samples 6. Fundamentals of data analysis 6.1 Correlation functions: mathematical form and geometrical meaning 6.2 Scattering from two-phase random systems: the Porod invariant 6.3 Asymptotic behavior: the Porod law 6.4 Radius of gyration 6.5 Asymptotic behavior: the Guinier approximation 6.6 Structural parameters of the two-phase porous medium 6.7 Bridging the asymptotic behavior: the unified scattering function 6.8 Scattering from fractal systems and the polydisperse spherical model 6.8.1 Scattering from mass, surface, and pore fractals 6.8.2 Polydisperse spherical model 6.9 Beyond the two-phase model 6.9.1 Partial scattering functions of multiphase systems 6.9.2 Scattering contrast and the invariant of a three-phase system 6.9.3 Oscillatory deviations from the Porod law 6.10 Interrelation between the reciprocal and real space 7. Structural characterization of porous materials using SAS 7.1 Porous media for energy, environmental, and biomedical applications 7.2 Porous silica 7.2.1 Porous Vycor glass 7.2.2 Silica aerogels 7.2.3 Porous fractal silica 7.2.4 Ordered mesoporous silica 7.3 Porous carbons 7.3.1 Activated carbons 7.3.2 Glassy carbon 7.3.3 Carbon aerogel 7.4 Alumina membranes 7.5 Porous polymer monoliths 7.6 Ceramics, alloys, and composite materials 7.7 Structure of sedimentary rocks 8. Neutron and x-ray porosimetry 8.1 Principles of the scattering-based porosimetry 8.2 Structure of nanoporous low-dielectric-constant films 8.3 Vapor adsorption in porous silica 8.3.1 Contrast matching SANS 8.3.2 Synchrotron SAXS 8.4 Carbonaceous materials 8.5 Kinetics of sorption and desorption 8.5.1 Dynamic micromapping of CO2 sorption in coal 8.5.2 Vapor adsorption in MCM-41 8.5.3 Vapor and water uptake in Nafion membranes 9. Individual liquids and liquid solutions under confinement 9.1 Confined electrolytes 9.1.1 Ion adsorption in electrolyte saturated porous carbons 9.1.2 Ionic liquids under confinement 9.2 Detection of the oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks 9.3 Cavitation on hydrophobic nanostructured surfaces 9.4 Liquid-liquid demixing in mesopores 9.5 Supercooled water in confined geometries 9.6 Order-disorder transitions in liquid crystals 10. Supercritical fluids in confined geometries 10.1 Specifics of the supercritical fluid adsorption 10.2 Density fluctuations near the liquid-gas critical point of confined fluids 10.3 Adsorption of supercritical CO2 in porous silica 10.3.1 Silica aerogels 10.3.2 Porous fractal silica 10.4 Methane in porous carbons 10.5 Hydrogen storage in activated carbons 10.6 CO2 sequestration in coal 10.7 Pore interconnectivity and accessibility to fluids in coal and shales 10.8 Structural stability of porous materials under pressure 10.9 Appendix: Derivation of the equation (10.23) for accessible porosity