Small-scale Steelmaking by R. D. WalkerSmall-scale Steelmaking by R. D. Walker

Small-scale Steelmaking

byR. D. Walker

Paperback | February 28, 2012

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The contents of this volume cover all the major activities associated with small-scale steelmaking in mini-steelworks (except Direct Reduction, on which two comprehensive volumes have recently appeared - see refs 11 & 12, Chapter 2). There is, of course, an immediate problem of agreeing on a suitable definition of mini-steelworks and the entrepreneurial nature of many businesses based on the mini-steelplant route compounds this problem. Nevertheless, as is shown by the lucid review in the opening chapter, it is quite possible to derive a working definition of a mini­ steelworks. The succeeding chapters deal with steelmaking in a linear fashion; a survey of raw materials supply being followed by independent analyses of arc furnace practice, casting and rolling. The volume is rounded off by a consideration of the important topics of energy costs and environmental factors. As anyone associated with iron and steelmaking well knows, the indus­ try is not the exclusive preserve of the metallurgist, although he plays a prominent role in its activities. For this reason, it is hoped that the level of treatment will commend the book to a wide readership. that includes non-metallurgical professionals in plant management and elsewhere, as well as industrial metallurgists. Lecturers in universities, polytechnics and colleges of further education should find this volume useful as a course reader for final year and postgraduate studies of steelmaking.
Title:Small-scale SteelmakingFormat:PaperbackDimensions:182 pages, 22.9 × 15.2 × 1.73 inPublished:February 28, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401163723

ISBN - 13:9789401163729

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Table of Contents

1 Origins And Development Of Small-Scale Steelmaking.- 1.1 The Mini-Steelworks-What is it?.- 1.2 Equipment for Mini-Steelworks-An Historical Perspective.- 1.3 Mini-Steelworks in the 1960s and Later.- 1.4 Technological Developments.- 1.5 Future Prospects.- References.- 2 Arc Furnace Feedstock.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Influence of Process Route and Other Factors on Scrap Availability.- 2.3 The Origins of Steel and Cast Iron Scrap.- 2.3.1 Major scrap categories.- 2.3.2 Scrap from dismantling and demolition.- 2.3.3 Scrap from shipbreaking.- 2.3.4 Scrap arising from old cars, refrigerators and washing machines.- 2.4 Scrap Preparation Plant and Associated Equipment.- 2.4.1 General remarks.- 2.4.2 Scrap shearing and baling.- 2.4.3 Scrap fragmentation and shredding.- 2.4.4 Fragmentising equipment and practice.- 2.4.5 Economics of scrap processing.- 2.5 Technical Specification for Ferrous Scrap.- 2.6 Influence of Residuals on Steelmaking Practice.- 2.7 Other Sources of Iron.- 2.7.1 Directly reduced (DR) iron.- 2.7.2 Granulated and plate iron from the blast furnace.- 2.8 Other Materials.- 2.8.1 Deoxidisers and alloying additions.- 2.8.2 Flux additions.- 2.8.3 Oxygen.- References.- 3 Electric Arc Furnaces in Mini-Steelplants.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Scope.- 3.3 Electrical Requirements.- 3.4 Furnace Design.- 3.5 Water-Cooled Panels.- 3.6 Computer Control of Electric Arc Melting Operations.- 3.7 Oxy-Fuel Burners.- 3.8 Scrap Preheating.- 3.9 Continuous Feeding.- 3.10 Foaming Slag.- 3.11 De-Oxidation Practice.- 3.12 Performance Criteria.- 3.13 Ladle Refining.- 3.14 Steels Produced in the Mini-Plant Arc Furnace.- 3.15 The Future of the Arc Furnace in the Mini-Steelplant.- References.- 4 Casting Methods.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Choice of Casting Route.- 4.2.1 The finished product.- 4.2.2 Cast weight.- 4.2.3 The finance available.- 4.2.4 Plant location.- 4.3 The Ladle.- 4.3.1 Ladle structure.- 4.3.2 Ladle refractories.- 4.3.3 Ladle drying.- 4.3.4 Teeming control.- 4.4 Ingot Casting.- 4.4.1 The moulds.- 4.4.2 Teeming methods.- 4.4.3 The ingot.- 4.5 Continuous Casting.- 4.5.1 A brief history.- 4.5.2 Continuous casting today.- 4.5.3 Principles of operation.- 4.5.4 Continuous casting equipment.- 4.5.5 Operation of continuous casting plants.- 4.6 In-Line Rolling.- 4.6.1 Present applications.- 4.6.2 Metallurgical considerations of in-line rolling.- 4.7 Horizontal Continuous Casting.- 4.7.1 Principles of operation.- 4.7.2 Operational advantages.- 4.7.3 Present applications.- References.- 5 Rolling Mills for Mini-Steelplants.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Product Classification.- 5.2.1 Rod and bar products.- 5.2.2 Section products.- 5.2.3 Flat products.- 5.2.4 Alloy steel products.- 5.3 The Steel Stock.- 5.4 Heating of the Steel for Rolling.- 5.4.1 Design criteria.- 5.4.2 Types of reheating furnace.- 5.5 Mill Layouts for Small-Scale Steelmaking.- 5.5.1 Cross-country mills.- 5.5.2 Semi-continuous mills.- 5.5.3 Continuous mills.- 5.5.4 Individual mill stands.- 5.6 Roller Tables, Cooling Beds and Coilers.- 5.6.1 Coilers.- 5.7 Shears and Saws.- 5.8 Mill Rolls.- 5.8.1 Cast iron rolls.- 5.8.2 Steel base rolls.- 5.8.3 Cast steel rolls.- 5.8.4 Forged steel rolls.- 5.8.5 Carbide rolls.- 5.8.6 Roll selection for a small semi-continuous mill.- 5.8.7 Roll maintenance.- 5.9 Mill Guides.- 5.10 Pass Design.- 5.11 Mill Drives.- 5.12 High Reduction Mills.- 5.12.1 Advantages of high reduction systems.- 5.12.2 Forge systems.- 5.12.3 Roll forging systems.- 5.12.4 Roll systems.- References.- 6 Energy Requirements and Environmental Constraints.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Overall Energy Requirements for Steelmaking.- 6.2.1 Energy losses in electricity supply.- 6.2.2 In-plant energy losses.- 6.2.3 Energy-saving techniques.- 6.2.4 Continuous casting and energy saving.- 6.2.5 Energy consumption in direct reduction.- 6.3 Steelmaking and the Environment.- 6.3.1 Particulate and gaseous emissions.- 6.3.2 Dust and fume containment systems.- 6.3.3 Gas cleaning equipment.- 6.3.4 Water treatment.- 6.3.5 Solid wastes disposal.- 6.3.6 Noise.- References.