Social Deviance and Crime: An Organizational and Theoretical Approach

Hardcover | April 18, 2000

byCharles R. Tittle, Raymond Paternoster

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Social Deviance and Crime unites two topics that are usually separated: the study of social deviance and the study of criminal behavior. Traditionally, the study of deviance introduces students to various types of deviance, giving the impression that these are distinct acts requiring equallydistinct and unique explanations. The study of crime has followed virtually the same path. Criminology textbooks usually describe a series of criminal acts, one at a time, fostering the impression that these acts have only one thing in common--they are all violations of the criminal law. As aresult, treatment of deviance and crime in most texts has proceeded along two different and parallel tracts, with little or no convergence. In Social Deviance and Crime, Tittle and Paternoster contend that acts of social deviance and criminality share important conceptual ground: both are types of behaviors that are socially disapproved, and specific acts differ mainly in the degree to which they are disapproved. The authors argue thatsocial disapproval is an important characteristic that links apparently diverse behaviors (religious and sexual deviance, organized crime, youth gangs, drug use, serial murder, etc.). This book differs significantly from other texts in the way it bridges deviance and crime within a single conceptualand explanatory framework. Social Deviance and Crime's approach is also unique. Texts in criminology and deviance often adopt either an "interactionist/constructionist" or a "substantive" perspective. This book treats deviance as an integrated concept, differentiated chiefly by how well deviant/criminal enterprises areorganized. The authors describe and analyze different types of deviant/criminal acts according to an ascending scale created by combining nine different features of organization. The text then explores theories and explanations about how deviance takes place, how it develops, and why it ismaintained. Also included is a discussion of variations in the distribution/rate of deviant acts within society, and how theory can and cannot account for these known variations. Tittle and Paternoster interweave conceptual and empirical material together, giving students an opportunity to understand the impact of theory on research. Every chapter features Deviance in Everyday Life boxes. Here, the authors provide vivid, real-world examples of deviance, devianceorganization, and attempts by society to "do something about" deviance.

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Social Deviance and Crime unites two topics that are usually separated: the study of social deviance and the study of criminal behavior. Traditionally, the study of deviance introduces students to various types of deviance, giving the impression that these are distinct acts requiring equallydistinct and unique explanations. The study o...

Charles R. Tittle is at Washington State University. Raymond Paternoster is at the University of Maryland.

other books by Charles R. Tittle

Format:HardcoverDimensions:728 pages, 7.2 × 10.12 × 1.81 inPublished:April 18, 2000Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195329953

ISBN - 13:9780195329957

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Table of Contents

1. What Is Deviance?Conceptualizations of DevianceAbsolutist ApproachLegalistic ApproachReactive ApproachGroup Evaluation ApproachA Synthetic ApproachLegality and DevianceApplications Examples2. Types Of DevianceClassification AMiddle-ClassNorm-BasedTypologyThe Organization of Crime and DevianceThe Organizational Continuum3. Individualized DevianceIntroductionSuicideWhat Is Suicide?How Much Suicide Is There?Characteristics of SuicideSerial MurderWhat Is Serial Murder?A Brief History of Serial MurderThe Prevalence of Serial KillingCharacteristics of Serial Killing4. Subcultural DevianceDeviant Drug UseWhat Is Deviant Drug Use?A Common Conceptualization of DrugsClassification of Deviantly Used DrugsVariations in Drug UseHow Organized Is Drug Use?Street GangsWhat Is Gang Delinquency?The Criminal Activity of GangsExtent of Street Gangs: The 'Gang Problem'Composition of GangsHow Organized Is the Gang?5. Fully Organized DeviancePerfectionismWhat Was Perfectionism?Organized DevianceHow Organized Was Perfectionism?Organized CrimeWhat Is Organized Crime?How Organized Is Organized Crime?Does Organized Crime Even Exist?Multinational and International Organized Crime6. Deviance/Crime and SocietyThe Inevitability of DeviancePossible Usefulness of DevianceThe Elasticity of EvilGeneral Theories About NormsAnomalies to Be ExplainedExplanations for the AnomaliesConsensus TheoryConflict TheorySocial Psychological TheoryLimited PerspectivesProcesses of Deviance Creation7. Deviance/Crime and Social ChangeDeviance and Social ProcessesTypes of Social ChangeHow Deviance Gets StartedSources of New BehaviorTransforming Behavior Into DevianceHow Deviance SucceedsRecruitment IntensifiedOppositionProblems of Growth and ExpansionThe Fruits of Success Examples8. Extent of Deviance and ConformityHow Much Conformity Is There?How Much Deviance Is There?Sources of InformationGenerational Variations9. Who Does Deviance and Crime?Demographic VariationsGenderAgeMinority StatusSocial AttachmentPlace of ResidenceSocioeconomic StatusGeographic LocationRegional VariationsPersonal VariationsIntelligencePersonalityReligiosityFamily Structure and ProcessPeer Involvement10. Ad Hoc ExplanationsGenderAgeSocio-Economic StatusMinority StatusSocial AttachmentSize of SettlementGeographic LocationPersonalityFamily Structure and ProcessPeer AssociationPrior Deviance11. External Motivation TheoriesLearningStructural InducementsSituational InducementsInteraction Process12. Internal Motivation TheoriesSelf TheoriesReactance TheoryPsycho-Dynamic Theory13. Internal Constraint TheoriesSelf ControlMorality Theories14. External Constraint TheoriesDeterrenceSocial Control15. Integrated TheoryRequirements for Successful TheoryControl Balance TheoryThe Basic IdeaThe Theoretical ArgumentApplication to Societies and Other OrganizationsA Related ApplicationContingencies for the Control Balancing Process Integration16. Theories of Rate VariationsRate VariationsTheories of Societal Rate VariationsGeneralizing Micro Level PrinciplesTheories Specific to Ecological UnitsTheories That Apply to Ecological Units and to Individuals17. The Relevance of Practitioner Organization for Theories of DeviancePractitioner Organization and External Motivation TheoriesPractitioner Organization and Internal Motivation TheoriesPractitioner Organization and Internal Constraint TheoriesPractitioner Organization and External Constraint TheoriesPractitioner Organization and Integrated TheoriesPractitioner Organization and Theories of Rate VariationAggregated Micro TheoriesEcological TheoriesTheories That Apply to Ecological Units and to Individuals