The possibility of treating patients with organ replacement therapy has created a new frontier in medical care. Hospitals have to deal with such vital issues as selecting potential recipients of transplants, ensuring equity in allocating organs, pre- and peri-transplantation care of patients, and post-transplantation follow-up of organ recipients. The decisions pertaining to these issues often fall to social workers, who, with their bifocal concern for individuals and society, have significant contributions to make. Here, Dhooper reviews the contributions of the few social workers in this field and suggests ways of improving their work, consolidating their professional gains, and maximizing their impact. Dhooper discusses all aspects of organ transplantation, and explores and proposes new social work roles and appropriate skills for involvement at the individual, organizational, and community levels. He deals with the larger moral, societal, economic, and technical issues, as well as the here-and-now concerns of the social worker. Recommended for social workers trained for practice in the 1990s and beyond, and particularly those specializing in health and mental health social work.