Sociology of North American Sport by George H. SageSociology of North American Sport by George H. Sage

Sociology of North American Sport

byGeorge H. Sage, D. Stanley Eitzen

Paperback | August 3, 2015

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This text offers a compact yet comprehensive treatment of sport in North American society. Exploring a wide range of topics, the authors analyze and, in turn, demythologize sport. This method promotes an understanding of how a sociological perspective differs from common-sense perceptionsabout sport and society, helping students understand sport in a new way.
George H. Sage is Professor Emeritus of Sociology and Kinesiology at the University of Northern Colorado. D. Stanley Eitzen is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at Colorado State University.
Title:Sociology of North American SportFormat:PaperbackDimensions:464 pages, 9.21 × 7.4 × 0.91 inPublished:August 3, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0190250437

ISBN - 13:9780190250430


Table of Contents

PrefacePart I TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF SPORT1. The Sociological Analysis of Sport in North American SocietyAn Overview of Sociology of Sport as a Field of StudyThe Pervasiveness of SportThe Discipline of SociologyAssumptions of the Sociological PerspectiveThinking as a Sociologist: Sociological ImaginationUnits of Sociological AnalysisMicro and Macro Levels and This BookSociological Theories: Contrasting Ways to See and Understand Social LifeFunctionalismConflict TheoryConflict/Cultural Social TheoriesInteractionist TheorySociological Theories and Sociology of Sport: Our PositionSport as a Microcosm of SocietyCommon Characteristics of Sport and SocietyLevels of SportInformal SportOrganized SportCorporate SportSummaryWeb ResourcesNotes2. Social and Cultural Transformations and the Rise of Sport in North AmericaPre-Columbian and Colonial Traditions in North AmericaThe Colonists Restrict Physical ActivitiesEarly Nineteenth Century: Takeoff of Industrialization, Technology, and Organized SportBuilding a Framework for Organized SportThe Technological Revolution and SportLatter Nineteenth Century: The Beginnings of Modern SportUrbanization and the Rise of Modern Sport FormsTechnological Innovation and Sport: TransportationTechnological Innovation and Sport: CommunicationTechnological Innovation and Equipment to Play Modern SportsOther Technological Breakthroughs and SportThe Cult of Manliness and SportMuscular Christianity and IntellectualSocial Philosophy and Organized SportTwentieth and Twenty-First Centuries: The Modern World and SportThe Maturing of Modern SportTwentieth-Century Technology and Sport: TransportationThe Technological Revolution and Sport: CommunicationOther Technological Innovations and SportSport in EducationSummaryWeb ResourcesNotes3. Sport and North American Culture and ValuesCulture, Values, and Social TheoriesThe North American Value SystemIndividual Striving for SuccessCompetition: The Fundamental Social ProcessThe Socially Valued Means to AchieveProgress Overcomes the Status QuoMaterialism: Acquisitions and ConsumptionSocial ConformityNorth American Social Values and SportCompetition and Success in SportThe Valued Means to Achievement in SportProgress in SportMaterialism in SportExternal Conformity in SportSummaryWeb ResourcesNotes4. Social Problems and North American Sport: Violence, Substance Abuse, Eating Disorders, and GamblingOverview of Social Problems in SportSocial Theories and Social ProblemsExamples of Recent Social Problems in SportViolence in North American SocietyViolence in Historical ContextContemporary Violence in North AmericaViolence in Sport: Terminology, TheoriesIs It Violence or Aggression? Confusion in the LiteratureTheories About the Connection Between Aggressive Behavior and SportAggression Theories and Research on SportsViolence in North American SportViolence as Part of North American SportsFostering and Supporting Player ViolenceViolent Behavior of Athletes in Their Personal LivesSources for Violence by Male Athletes in Their Private LivesAthletes' Violence Against Teammates: HazingSports Fans: Violent and Abusive ActionsSubstance Abuse and SportSubstance Abuse Not New to SportsThe Scope of Current Substance Abuse in SportAnabolic Steroids: Promises Big and StrongSports Anti-Doping Programs in North AmericaSocial/Cultural Influences and Substance Abuse Among AthletesCan Substance Abuse in Sports Be Reduced, Even Prevented?Eating Disorders in SportGambling and SportsSummaryWeb ResourcesNotesPart II SPORT AND STRUCTURED INEQUALITY5. Sport, Social Stratification, and Social MobilityTerminology and Theory in Social Stratification and MobilityBasic Terminology in Social StratificationFunctional Theory and Social StratificationConflict/Cultural Theories and Social StratificationDimensions of InequalitySocial Class and SportAdult Participation Preferences for Sports by Socioeconomic StatusYouth Sport Participation by Socioeconomic StatusSpectator Preferences for Sports by Socioeconomic StatusSegregation in Sports by Social ClassSocial Mobility and SportSport as a Mobility EscalatorDemythologizing the Social Mobility-Through-Sport HypothesisSummaryWeb ResourcesNotes6. Racial-Ethnic Minorities and SportRacial-Ethnic Minorities: Social Theories and Relevant ConceptsSocial Theories and Race and MinoritiesRelevant Concepts About RaceSports Participation Among Racial-Ethnic MinoritiesThe History of African American Involvement in U.S. SportLatino Involvement in North American SportAsian American Involvement in North American SportNative North American Involvement in SportThe Effects of Globalization on Ethnic Diversity in North American SportAfrican American Dominance in SportRace-Linked Physical DifferencesRace-Linked Cultural DifferencesSocial Structure ConstraintsRacial Discrimination in SportStackingLeadership, Administration, and AuthoritySummaryWeb ResourcesNotes7. Gender in North American Sport: Continuity and ChangeSocial Theories and Gender RelationsConstructing and Reproducing Gender Relations Through SportThe Heritage of Gender Inequality in SportSocial Sources of Gender Inequality in SportParental Child-Rearing Practices and Gender ConstructionThe School and Gender ConstructionThe Mass Media and Gender ConstructionNicknames, Mascots, and HeroinesFemales Surmount Social Barriers to Participation in SportNegative MythsWomen's Struggle for Opportunity and Equality in SportFrom Boys-Only Youth Sports to Opportunities for Both SexesTitle IX: Federal Government Support for Gender EquityToward Gender Equity in High School SportsGender Equity in Intercollegiate SportsMen Rule in the Coaching and Administration of Women's SportsHigh School and College Women's Coaching PositionsHigh School and College Administrative/Management PositionsOwnership, Management, and Coaching in Professional and Olympic SportsCoaching and Administration/Management in U.S. and Canadian Olympic OrganizationsReasons for the Persistence of Men in Coaching and Administering Women's SportsWomen Athletes' Careers at the Professional and Olympic Levels of SportFemale Olympic AthletesSport, Gender Identity, and Sexual OrientationSummaryWeb ResourcesNotesPart III FROM ORGANIZED SPORT TO CORPORATE SPORT: YOUTH THRUGH COLLEGE8. Youth and SportYouth Sports Programs: Something for EveryoneSocial Theories and Youth SportsThe Rise of Youth Sports Programs: The Takeoff and Expansion of a New Form of SportObjectives of Youth Sports ProgramsWhat Do Young Athletes, Their Parents, and Coaches Want from Sports?Socialization and Sport: Involvement in Sport and Its ConsequencesSocialization into Sport: Why Do ChildrenParentsSiblingsPeersCoachesSchoolsMass MediaParticipants: Youth AthletesSocialization via Sport: Process and OutcomesTwo Forms of Play: Peer Group and Adult-OrganizedDevelopment of Personal-Social Attributes Through SportYouth Orientation Toward SportSportsmanship in Youth SportsCharacter Development in Youth SportsPotential Psychosocial Problems in Youth SportsAdult Intrusion in Youth SportsRisk of InjuryThe "Winning Is the Only Thing" Ethic and Youth SportsSports Alternatives for the Young AthleteEmphasizing Personal Growth and Self-ActualizationAlternative SportsCooperative GamesYouth Sports CoachesBill of Rights for Young AthletesSummaryWeb ResourcesNotes9. Interscholastic SportThe Role of High Schools: Differing InterpretationsThe Status of Sport in Secondary SchoolsThe Consequences of Sport for Schools, Communities, and IndividualsThe Consequences of Sport for the High SchoolThe Consequences of Sport for the CommunityThe Consequences of Sport for ParticipantsProblems, Dilemmas, and ControversiesThe Subversion of Educational GoalsThe Reinforcement of Gender RolesCheatingUnsportsmanlike Behavior of FansAutocratic CoachesExcessive Pressures to WinElitismSport SpecializationBudget ShortfallsCorporate High School Sport ProgramsEfforts to Reform High School SportsSummaryWeb ResourcesNotes10. Intercollegiate SportBeginning and Development of College SportsStudent-Centered College Sport RemainsCollege Sport as Big BusinessSocial Theories and Their Role in Colleges/UniversitiesFunctionalism and Big-Time College SportsConflict/Culturalism and Big-Time College SportsBeliefs and Reality About Big-Time Sport FunctionsFurther Consequences of the Commercial Orientation of Big-Time College SportsA Contradiction: Athletes as Amateurs in a Big-Business EnvironmentThe NCAA and Student-AthletesThe Enforcement of "Amateurism"Appeals for Paying Athletes' a SalaryThe Restriction of Athletes' RightsEducational Performance and Student-AthletesAcademic Predictions for Student-Athletes at CollegeAcademic Achievement and College AthletesGraduation Rates and Student-AthletesThe Impediments to Scholarly Achievement by College AthletesReform Initiatives and Intercollegiate SportsThe Administration of Intercollegiate SportsEmphasizing the Education of Student-AthletesCommitment to Athletes' RightsSummaryWeb ResourcesNotesPart IV SPORT AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS11. Sport and the EconomyProfessional Sport as a BusinessSocial Theories and the EconomyProfessional Team Sports as MonopoliesPublic Subsidization of Professional Team FranchisesOwnership for ProfitA Radical Question: Are Owners Necessary?Who Benefits Economically from Sports?Professional Athletes' EarningsAuxiliary Professions and Occupations in SportSport-Related BusinessesCorporate Advertising in SportThe Relationship Between Owners and AthletesThe Draft and the Reserve ClauseProfessional Team Sport Athletes Fight for Free AgencyAmateur Sport as a BusinessThe Ambiguous Case: Intercollegiate Sports and AmateurismThe Economics of Collegiate SportSummaryWeb ResourcesNotes12. Sport and the Mass MediaSocial Roles of the Mass MediaProminent and Subtle Roles of the MediaMass Media and Social TheoriesThe Symbiosis of Mass Media and SportEnduring Linkages Between the Mass Media and SportTelevision: The Monster of the Sports WorldIncreasing TV Sports CoverageEconomic Aspects of Televised SportsTelevision's Influence on SportIncreases in Sport RevenueTelevision Drives Shifts in Popularity of SportsProfessional Sports Franchise Locations and the MediaTelevision: The Financial Foundation for Big-Time Intercollegiate SportTelevision Taps High School SportsModifying Sports to Accommodate TVTelevision's Own SportsTelevised Sport as a Mediated EventThe Impact of Sport on the Mass MediaIncreased Sport in the MediaSport's Privileged Treatment by the MediaSports Consumers and the Mass MediaThe Internet: The Newest Form of Mass Communications for SportsIntegration of the Internet, Television, Computers, and Video GamesSocial Media: Facebook, YouTube, and TwitterMedia Sport: Gender and Race IssuesReproduction of Hegemonic Masculinity in Media SportMedia Sport and Gender InequitiesMedia Sport and Racial and Ethnic InequitiesSports Journalism and the Mass MediaSportscasters: Narrators of Mediated SportMinority Sport Journalists and BroadcastersWomen Sport Journalists and BroadcastersSummaryWeb ResourcesNotes13. Sport and PoliticsPolitics as a Social InstitutionSocial Theories and PoliticsIntertwining of Politics and SportsThe Political Uses of SportSport as a Vehicle for PropagandaSport and NationalismSport as an Opiate of the MassesThe Exploitation of Sport by PoliticiansSport as a Vehicle of Change in SocietyInternationalization of Social Activism and SportGlobalization and SportThe Political Olympic GamesPolitical Problems and the Olympic MovementProposals for Reforming the Olympic GamesSummaryWeb ResourcesNotes14. Sport and ReligionThe Relationship Between Religion and SocietyPersonal and Social Roles of ReligionHistorical Affiliation Between Religion and SportAncient Greece: Creators of Organized Sports EventsThe Early Christian Church and Roman Sport SpectaclesPre-Columbian Societies: Sport in the AmericasReformation and Protestantism in the North American ColoniesReligious Objections to Sport Declined in the Nineteenth CenturyReligion and Sport ConciliationSport as ReligionSimilarities Between Sport and ReligionCritical Views About Sport-as-ReligionReligion Uses SportChurchesReligious Leaders Embrace SportChurch Colleges and UniversitiesReligious Organizations and SportsThe Fellowship of Christian AthletesReligion and Professional Sports OrganizationsSport and Religion PublicationsMissionary Work of Churches and SportReligious Evangelizing by Athletes and CoachesThe Promise Keepers: Patriarchy, Gender, and SexualitySportianity Confronting Social IssuesValue Orientations of Religion and SportSport Uses ReligionThe Use of Prayer and Divine InterventionThe Use of MagicMagic and Its Uses in SportsSummaryWeb ResourcesNotes15. Contemporary Trends and the Future of Sport in North AmericaDemographic Trends in North AmericaPopulation CompositionLocation of PopulationPopulation Trends and SportDominating Forces in Our Lives: Work, Technology, and Sporting ActivitiesAn Information/Service North American SocietyThe Information/Service Workplace and Sporting ActivitiesA Future Society and SportCerebral Sports of the FutureViolent Sports of the FutureTechnology and Future SportA Counterpoint to Technosports: EcosportsTrends in the Economy and Future SportsThe Future of Professional SportsThe Future of Televised SportsInternet Technology and Sports ViewingVideo Technology and Sports Video GamesIntercollegiate Athletics and the FutureSecondary School Sports and the FutureTrends in Social Values and Future SportThe Quest for Democracy and EqualityTrends in Sports ValuesPeople With Disabilities and SportSenior Populations and SportLGBT in SportNew Emphasis on Participation and CooperationA Troubling Trend: Sports IncivilitySummaryWeb ResourcesNotes

Editorial Reviews

"I have found this approach effective from a teaching standpoint...The material is very up-to-date...All of the chapters are valuable and worthwhile...The authors' writing style is very effective in that the material is easy to read and follow. I believe that this text could generate studentinterest and sustain it just as well if not better than any other sports texts that I have seen." --Cameron M. Geisert, Wayne State College