Solid Earth Geomagnetism by Tsuneji RikitakeSolid Earth Geomagnetism by Tsuneji Rikitake

Solid Earth Geomagnetism

byTsuneji Rikitake, Yoshimori Honkura

Paperback | October 13, 2011

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Title:Solid Earth GeomagnetismFormat:PaperbackPublished:October 13, 2011Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401085226

ISBN - 13:9789401085229

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Table of Contents

1 Main Magnetic Field of the Earth.- 1.1 Early History of Geomagnetism.- 1.1.1 South-Pointing Cart and Magnetic Compass.- 1.1.2 Inclination of a Magnet.- 1.1.3 Gilbert and His Experiment.- 1.1.4 Gauss and His General Theory of Geomagnetism.- 1.2 Distribution of the Geomagnetic Field.- 1.2.1 Elements of the Geomagnetic Field.- 1.2.2 Measurement of the Geomagnetic Field.- 1.2.3 Magnetic Survey.- 1.2.4 Magnetic Observatory.- 1.2.5 Magnetic Chart.- 1.2.6 Magnetic Pole.- 1.3 Spherical Harmonic Analysis of the Geomagnetic Field.- 1.3.1 Spherical Harmonic Function.- 1.3.2 Spherical Harmonic Analysis.- 1.3.3 Separation of the External Field from the Internal One.- 1.3.4 Gauss Coefficient.- 1.4 Dipole and Non-Dipole Fields.- 1.5 International Geomagnetic Reference Field.- 1.6 Satellite Magnetic Survey.- 2 Secular Variation of the Geomagnetic Field.- 2.1 Secular Variation in Historical Times.- 2.2 World Distribution of Secular Variation.- 2.3 Decrease in the Earth's Dipole Moment.- 2.4 Westward Drift of the Non-Dipole Field.- 2.5 Northward Shift of the Dipole.- 2.6 Drifting and Standing Non-Dipole Fields.- 2.7 Change in the Rate of the Earth's Rotation and Geomagnetic Secular Variation.- 3 Paleomagnetism.- 3.1 Natural Remanent Magnetization.- 3.1.1 Thermoremanent Magnetization.- 3.1.2 Chemical Remanent Magnetization.- 3.1.3 Detrital Remanent Magnetization.- 3.1.4 Stability of NRM and Magnetic Cleaning.- 3.2 Paleosecular Variation.- 3.3 Reversal of the Geomagnetic Field.- 3.4 Geomagnetic Polarity Stratigraphy.- 3.5 Morphology of Transitional Field.- 3.6 Polar Wandering and Continental Drift.- 3.6.1 Virtual Geomagnetic Pole.- 3.6.2 Polar Wandering and Continental Drift.- 4 Theories of Origin of the Geomagnetic Field.- 4.1 Basic Concept of the Dynamo.- 4.2 Hydromagnetic Equations for the Dynamo.- 4.3 Physical Conditions Necessary for a Dynamo Process.- 4.4 Kinematic Dynamo Models.- 4.4.1 Bullard Process.- 4.4.2 Bullard-Gellman Dynamo Model.- 4.4.3 Braginskii's Dynamo and Constraints on Fluid Motion.- 4.4.4 Bullard-Gellman-Lilley Dynamo Model.- 4.4.5 Gubbins Dynamo Model.- 4.4.6 Turbulent Dynamo.- 4.4.7 Herzenberg and Backus Dynamo Models.- 4.5 Hydromagnetic Dynamo Models.- 4.6 Non-Steady Behavior of Some Dynamo Models and Mechanism of Magnetic Field Reversal.- 4.7 Energy for the Geomagnetic Dynamo.- 4.8 Non-Dipole Field and Its Westward Drift.- 4.8.1 Electromagnetic Core-Mantle Coupling.- 4.8.2 Oscillation of Quadrupole Field.- 4.8.3 Near-Surface Motion in the Core.- 5 Magnetic Fields of the Moon and Planets.- 5.1 History of Measurement of the Lunar Magnetic Field.- 5.2 Magnetic Moment of the Moon.- 5.3 Magnetic Field Measurement on the Lunar Surface.- 5.4 Subsatellite Measurement of the Lunar Magnetic Field.- 5.5 Magnetic Permeability of the Moon as a Whole.- 5.6 General Magnetic Properties of the Appolo Rock Samples.- 5.7 Natural Remanent Magnetism of the Appolo Rock Samples.- 5.7.1 Results of Measurement and Test.- 5.7.2 Origin of Magnetization of Lunar Rocks.- 5.7.3 Paleointensity of the Lunar Magnetic Field.- 5.8 Origin of the Lunar Magnetic Field.- 5.8.1 Magnetization by an External Magnetic Field.- 5.8.2 Magnetization by an Internal Magnetic Field.- 5.8.3 Fossil Magnetization.- 5.8.4 Transient Local Field.- 5.8.5 Zero Field Magnetization.- 5.9 Magnetic Field of Planets.- 5.9.1 Summary of Space Probe Observations.- 5.9.2 Physical Significance of Planetary Magnetic Field in Relation to the Internal Structure of Planets.- 5.9.3 Magnetic Bode's Law.- 6 Local Geomagnetic Anomalies.- 6.1 Magnetic Anomalies on Land.- 6.1.1 Aeromagnetic Survey and Magnetic Anomalies.- 6.1.2 Magnetic Anomalies over Volcanoes.- 6.2 Marine Magnetic Anomalies.- 6.2.1 Marine Magnetic Survey and Magnetic Lineation.- 6.2.2 Magnetic Anomalies over Sea-Mounts.- 6.3 Magnetized Bodies and Their Magnetic Fields.- 6.3.1 Magnetic Fields Produced by a Magnetic Body.- 6.3.2 Magnetic Field over a Circular Cone.- 6.3.3 Magnetic Field Produced by a Magnetic Body of Arbitrary Shape.- 6.3.4 Reduction of Aeromagnetic Data to Those at Different Altitude.- 6.4 Magnetic Anomalies and Plate Tectonics.- 6.5 Magnetic Anomaly of Long Wavelength.- 7 Tectonomagnetism.- 7.1 Local Geomagnetic Changes Associated with Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions.- 7.1.1 Geomagnetic Changes Associated with Earthquakes.- 7.1.2 Geomagnetic Changes Associated with Volcanic Eruptions.- 7.2 Rock Magnetization Change due to Stress.- 7.3 Theories of Seismomagnetic and Volcanomagnetic Effects.- 7.4 Magnetic Field Generation due to the Electrokinetic Effect.- 7.5 Methods of Detecting Tectonomagnetic Changes.- 8 Geomagnetic Variation of External Origin and Electromagnetic Induction.- 8.1 Solar Daily Variation.- 8.2 Lunar Daily Variation.- 8.3 Geomagnetic Storms.- 8.4 Substorm and Bay-Type Variation.- 8.5 Micropulsations.- 8.6 Geomagnetic Variations of Long Period.- 9 Electromagnetic Induction in a Spherical Conductor.- 9.1 Fundamental Equations.- 9.2 Conductor of Spherical Symmetry.- 9.2.1 Uniform Sphere.- 9.2.2 Non-Uniform Sphere.- 9.3 Nearly Spherical Conductor.- 9.4 Thin Spherical Shell.- 9.4.1 General Theory of Electromagnetic Induction in a Thin Sheet.- 9.4.2 Electromagnetic Induction in a Spherical Sheet.- 9.4.3 Shielding by a Uniform Spherical Sheet.- 9.4.4 Electromagnetic Induction in a Non-Uniform Spherical Sheet.- 9.4.5 Electromagnetic Induction in a Hemispherical Sheet.- 9.4.6 Hemispherical Sheet Overlying an Inner Spherical Conductor.- 9.5 Electromagnetic Induction by a Progressive Magnetic Field.- 10 Global Distribution of Electrical Conductivity in the Earth and Moon.- 10.1 Uniform Sphere Models.- 10.2 Non-Uniform Sphere Models.- 10.3 Inverse Problem.- 10.4 Geomagnetic Secular Variation and the Electrical Conductivity of the Lower Mantle.- 10.5 Electrical Conductivity of the Earth's Core.- 10.6 Overall Distribution of the Electrical Conductivity within the Earth.- 10.7 Electrical Conductivity of the Moon.- 10.7.1 Interest in the Electrical Conductivity of the Moon.- 10.7.2 Actual Response of the Moon.- 10.8 Electrical Conductivity of Lunar Rock Samples.- 10.9 Temperature and Electrical Conductivity.- 10.10 Phase Transformation and Electrical Conductivity.- 11 Electromagnetic Induction in a Plane Conductor.- 11.1 Price's Theory.- 11.1.1 Fundamental Equations and Their Solutions.- 11.1.2 Indeterminate Problem.- 11.2 Relation between External and Internal Fields.- 11.3 Non-Uniform Semi-Infinite Conductor.- 11.3.1 The Two-Dimentional Case.- 11.3.2 The Three-Dimentional Case.- 11.4. Thin Plane Sheet.- 11.4.1 The Uniform Case.- 11.4.2 The Non-Uniform Case.- 11.5 Thin Sheet Underlain by a Conductor.- 11.5.1 Uniform Sheet.- 11.5.2 Non-Uniform Sheet.- 11.6 Thin Circular Disk.- 11.7 Inverse Problem.- 12 Electrical Conductivity Anomalies.- 12.1 Anomalies of Short-Period Geomagnetic Variation.- 12.2 Effects of Sea-Water and Sediments.- 12.2.1 Coast Effect.- 12.2.2 Island Effect.- 12.2.3 Peninsula Effect.- 12.2.4 Channeling Effect.- 12.3 Magnetotellurics.- 12.4 Conductivity Anomalies in Continents.- 12.4.1 Anomalies at Plate Boundaries.- 12.4.2 Anomalies in Intraplate Regions.- 12.5 Conductivity Anomalies Beneath Oceans.- 12.5.1 Ocean Effects and the Mantle Conductivity Structure.- 12.5.2 Seafloor Observation of Geomagnetic and Telluric Variations.- 12.5.3 Relationship between the Plate Age and the Depth to the Conducting Layer.- 12.6 Geophysical Implication of Conductivity Anomaly.- 12.7 Time-Dependent Conductivity Anomaly.- 12.7.1 Experimental Studies of Pressure Dependence of the Conductivity.- 12.7.2 Crustal Conductivity Changes Associated with Earthquake Occurrences.- 12.7.3 Time-Dependence of Electromagnetic Induction Parameters.- References.