Somaclonal Variation in Crop Improvement I by Professor Dr. Y. P. BajajSomaclonal Variation in Crop Improvement I by Professor Dr. Y. P. Bajaj

Somaclonal Variation in Crop Improvement I

byProfessor Dr. Y. P. Bajaj

Paperback | December 15, 2010

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Genetic erosions in plant cell cultures, especially in chromosome number and ploidy level, have now been known for over 25 years. Until the mid -1970ssuch changes were consideredundesirable and thereforediscarded because the main emphasis wason clonal propagation and genetic stability of cultures. However, since the publication on somaclonal variation by Larkin and Scowcroft (1981) there has been a renewed interest to utilize these in vitro obtained variations for crop improvement. Studies conduc­ ted during the last decade have shown that callus cultures, especially on peridical subculturing over an extended period of time, undergo morpho­ logical and genetic changes, i. e. polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome breakage, deletions, translocations, gene amplification, inversions, muta­ tions, etc. In addition, there are changes at the molecular and biochemical levelsincluding changes in the DNA, enzymes,proteins, etc. Suchchanges are now intentionally induced, and useful variants are selected. For instance in agricultural crops such as potato, tomato, tobacco, maize, rice and sugarcane, plants showing tolerance to a number of diseases, viruses, herbicides and salinity, have been isolated in cell cultures. Likewise induction of male sterility in rice, and wheat showing various levels of fer­ tility and gliadin, have been developed in vitro. These academic excercises open new avenues for plant breeders and pathologists. Another area of tremendous commercial importance in the pharmaceuti­ cal industry is the selection of cell lines showing high levels of medicinal and industrial compounds. Already high shikonin containing somaclones in Lithospermum are being used commercially.
Title:Somaclonal Variation in Crop Improvement IFormat:PaperbackProduct dimensions:685 pages, 24.2 × 17 × 0.01 inShipping dimensions:24.2 × 17 × 0.01 inPublished:December 15, 2010Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3642080774

ISBN - 13:9783642080777


Table of Contents

I.1 Somaclonal Variation - Origin, Induction, Cryopreservation, and Implications in Plant Breeding.- I. 2 Chromosome Variation in Plant Tissue Culture.- I. 3 Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras: Implications in Biotechnology.- I. 4 Genetic Bases of Variation from in Vitro Tissue Culture.- I. 5 Molecular Basis of Somaclonal Variation.- I. 6 Gene Amplification and Related Events.- I. 7 Optical Techniques to Measure Genetic Instability in Cell and Tissue Cultures.- I. 8 Environmentally Induced Variation in Plant DNA and Associated Phenotypic Consequences.- I. 9 Somaclonal Variation for Salt Resistance.- I.10 Somaclonal Variation for Nematode Resistance.- II. 1 Somaclonal Variation in Cereals.- II. 2 Somaclonal Variation in Rice.- II. 3 Somaclonal Variation in Maize.- II. 4 Somaclonal Variation in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).- III. 1 Somaclonal Variation in Potato.- III. 2 Somaclonal Variation in Tomato.- III. 3 Somaclonal Variation in Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).- III. 4 Somaclonal Variation in Cucurbits.- III. 5 Somaclonal Variation in Sugarbeet.- III. 6 Somaclonal Variation in Chicory.- III. 7 Somaclonal Variation in Strawberry.- III. 8 Somaclonal Variation in Peach.- IV. 1 Somaclonal Variation in Pelargonium.- IV. 2 Somaclonal Variation in Fuchsia.- IV. 3 Somaclonal Variation in Carnations.- IV. 4 Somaclonal Variation in Haworthia.- IV. 5 In Vitro Variation in Weigela.- IV. 6 Somaclonal Variation in Nicotiana sylvestris.- VI. 7 Somaclonal Variation in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).