The first edition of this book was published in 1966. It became a standard work as a survey of economic, social, and political origins of modern Spain leading up to the apparent defeat of the liberal tradition with General Franco's victory in the Civil War. Since 1966 there has been a revolution in Spanish historiography. The more modern history of Spain, a neglected, even dangerous field, virtually unexplored, has since come into its own. In this edition, Raymond Carr has added new chapters that examine Francoism, its political system, and the society it sustained. He brings the story up to the death of General Franco in 1975, and in an extensive bibliographical essay considers the recent contribution of Spanish scholars to the period 1808-1939.