Speech Analysis Synthesis and Perception by James L. FlanaganSpeech Analysis Synthesis and Perception by James L. Flanagan

Speech Analysis Synthesis and Perception

byJames L. Flanagan

Paperback | October 11, 2012

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The first edition of this book has enjoyed a gratifying existence. 1s­ sued in 1965, it found its intended place as a research reference and as a graduate-Ievel text. Research laboratories and universities reported broad use. Published reviews-some twenty-five in number-were universally kind. Subsequently the book was translated and published in Russian (Svyaz; Moscow, 1968) and Spanish (Gredos, S.A.; Madrid, 1972). Copies of the first edition have been exhausted for several years, but demand for the material continues. At the behest of the publisher, and with the encouragement of numerous colleagues, a second edition was begun in 1970. The aim was to retain the original format, but to expand the content, especially in the areas of digital communications and com­ puter techniques for speech signal processing. As before, the intended audience is the graduate-Ievel engineer and physicist, but the psycho­ physicist, phonetician, speech scientist and linguist should find material of interest.
Title:Speech Analysis Synthesis and PerceptionFormat:PaperbackDimensions:446 pages, 23.5 × 15.5 × 0.02 inPublished:October 11, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3662015641

ISBN - 13:9783662015643

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Table of Contents

I. Voice Communication.- 1.1. The Advent of Telephony.- 1.2. Efficient Transmission of Speech.- 1.3. Capacity of the Human Channel.- 1.4. Analysis-Synthesis Telephony: An Approach to Improved Efficiency.- II. The Mechanism of Speech Production.- 2.1. Physiology of the Vocal Apparatus.- 2.2. The Sounds of Speech.- 2.21. Vowels.- 2.22. Consonants.- 2.221. Fricative Consonants.- 2.222. Stop Consonants.- 2.223. Nasal Consonants.- 2.224. Glides and Semivowels.- 2.225. Combination Sounds: Diphthongs and Affricates.- 2.3. Quantitative Description of Speech.- III. Acoustical Properties of the Vocal System.- 3.1. The Vocal Tract as an Acoustic System.- 3.2. Equivalent Circuit for the Lossy Cylindrical Pipe.- 3.21. The Acoustic "L".- 3.22. The Acoustic "R".- 3.23. The Acoustic "C".- 3.24. The Acoustic "G".- 3 25 Summary of the Analogous Acoustic Elements.- 3.3. The Radiation Load at the Mouth and Nostrils.- 3.4. Spreading of Sound About the Head.- 3.5. The Source for Voiced Sounds.- 3.51. Glottal Excitation.- 3.52. Glottal Impedance.- 3.53. Small-Signal Equivalent Source for the Glottis.- 3.6. The Source for Noise and Transient Excitation of the Tract.- 3.7. Some Characteristics of Vocal Tract Transmission.- 3.71. Effect of Radiation Load upon Mode Pattern.- 3.72. Effect of Glottal Impedance upon Mode Pattern.- 3.73. Effect of Cavity Wall Vibration.- 3.74. Two-Tube Approximation of the Vocal Tract.- 3.75. Excitation by Source Forward in Tract.- 3.76. Effects of the Nasal Tract.- 3.77. Four-Tube, Three-Parameter Approximation of Vowel Production.- 3.78. Multitube Approximations and Electrical Analogs of the Vocal Tract.- 3.8. Fundamentals of Speech and Hearing in Analysis-Synthesis Telephony.- IV. The Ear and Hearing.- 4.1. Mechanism of the Ear.- 4.11. The Outer Ear.- 4.12. The Middle Ear.- 4.13. The Inner Ear.- 4.14. Mechanical-to-Neural Transduction.- 4.15. Neural Pathways in the Auditory System.- 4.2. Computational Models for Ear Function.- 4.21. Basilar Membrane Model.- 4.22. Middle Ear Transmission.- 4.23. Combined Response of Middle Ear and Basilar Membrane.- 4.24. An Electrical Circuit for Simulating Basilar Membrane Displacement.- 4.25. Computer Simulation of Membrane Motion.- 4.26. Transmission Line Analogs of the Cochlea.- 4.3. Illustrative Relations between Subjective and Physiological Behavior.- 4.31. Pitch Perception.- 4.32. Binaural Lateralization.- 4.33. Threshold Sensitivity.- 4.34. Auditory Processing of Complex Signals.- V. Techniques for Speech Analysis.- 5.1. Spectral Analysis of Speech.- 5.11. Short-Time Frequency Analysis.- 5.12. Measurement of Short-Time Spectra.- 5.13. Choice of the Weighting Function, h(t).- 5.14. The Sound Spectrograph.- 5.15. Short-Time Correlation Functions and Power Spectra.- 5.16. Average Power Spectra.- 5.17. Measurement of Average Power Spectra for Speech.- 5.2. Formant Analysis of Speech.- 5.21. Formant-Frequency Extraction.- 5.211. Axis-Crossing Measures of Formant Frequency.- 5.212. Spectral Moments.- 5.213. Spectrum Scanning and Peak-Picking Methods.- 5.214. Digital Computer Methods for Formant Extraction.- 5.22. Measurement of Formant Bandwidth.- 5.3. Analysis of Voice Pitch.- 5.4. Articulatory Analysis of the Vocal Mechanism.- 5.5. Automatic Recognition of Speech.- 5.6. Automatic Recognition and Verification of Speakers.- VI. Speech Synthesis.- 6.1. Mechanical Speaking Machines; Historical Efforts.- 6.2. Electrical Methods for Speech Synthesis.- 6.21. Spectrum Reconstruction Techniques.- 6.22. "Terminal Analog" Synthesizers.- 6.221. Terminal Properties of the Vocal Tract.- 6.222. Cascade Type Synthesizers.- 6.223. Parallel Synthesizers.- 6.23. Transmission-Line Analogs of the Vocal System.- 6.24. Excitation of Electrical Synthesizers.- 6.241. Simulation of the Glottal Wave.- 6.242. Simulation of Unvoiced Excitation.- 6.243. Models for Sound Generation in the Vocal Tract.- 6.25. Vocal Radiation Factors.- 6.26. Speech Synthesis by Computer Simulation.- 6.261. Digital Techniques for Formant Synthesis.- 6.262. Digital Techniques for Vocal Tract Simulation.- VII. Perception of Speech and Speech-Like Sounds.- 7.1, Differential vs. Absolute Discrimination.- 7.2. Differential Discriminations Along Signal Dimensions Related to Speech.- 7.21. Limens for Vowel Formant Frequencies.- 7.22. Limens for Formant Amplitude.- 7.23. Limens for Formant Bandwidth.- 7.24. Limens for Fundamental Frequency.- 7.25. Limens for Excitation Intensity.- 7.26. Limens for Glottal Zeros.- 7.27. Discriminability of Maxima and Minima in a Noise Spectrum.- 7.28. Other Close-Comparison Measures Related to Speech.- 7.29. Differential Discriminations in the Articulatory Domain.- 7.3. Absolute Discrimination of Speech and Speech-Like Sounds.- 7.31. Absolute Identification of Phonemes.- 7.32. Absolute Identification of Syllables.- 7.33. Effects of Learning and Linguistic Association in Absolute Identification of Speech-Like Signals.- 7.34. Influence of Linguistic Association upon Differential Discriminability.- 7.4. Effects of Context and Vocabulary upon Speech Perception.- 7.5. The Perceptual Units of Speech.- 7.51. Models of Speech Perception.- 7.6. Subjective Evaluation of Transmission Systems.- 7.61. Articulation Tests.- 7.62. Quality Tests.- 7.7. Calculating Intelligibility Scores from System Response and Noise Level: The Articulation Index.- 7.8. Supplementary Sensory Channels for Speech Perception.- 7.81. Visible Speech Translator.- 7.82. Tactile Vocoder.- 7.83. Low Frequency Vocoder.- VIII. Systems for Analysis-Synthesis Telephony.- 8.1. Channel Vocoders.- 8.11. Design Variations in Channel Vocoders.- 8.12. Multiplexing Channel Vocoders.- 8.121. Frequency-Space Multiplexing.- 8.122. Time-Division Multiplexing.- 8.123. Digital Transmission of Vocoder Signals.- 8.13. Vocoder Performance.- 8.2. Reduced Redundancy Channel Vocoders.- 8.21. "Peak-Picker".- 8.22. Linear Transformation of Channel Signals.- 8.23. Pattern-Matching Vocoders.- 8.3. Voice-Excited Vocoders.- 8.31. Multiplexing and Digitalization.- 8.4. Correlation Vocoders.- 8.5. Formant Vocoders.- 8.51. Multiplexing and Digitalization of Formant Vocoders.- 8.52. Voice-Excited Formant Vocoders.- 8.6. Orthogonal Function Vocoders.- 8.61. Expansion of the Speech Waveform.- 8.62. Expansion of the Short-Time Amplitude Spectrum.- 8.63. Expansion of the Short-Time Autocorrelation Function.- 8.7. Homomorphic Vocoders.- 8.8. Maximum Likelihood Vocoders.- 8.9. Linear Prediction Vocoders.- 8.10. Articulatory Vocoders.- 8.11. Frequency-Dividing Vocoders.- 8.111. Vobanc.- 8.112. Analytic Rooter.- 8.113. Harmonic Compressor.- 8.114. Phase Vocoder.- 8.12. Time-Assignment Transmission of Speech.- 8.13. Predictive Coding of Speech.- 8.131. Predictive Quantizing; Differential Pulse Code Modulation.- 8.132. Adaptive Predictive Coding.- 8.14. Delta Modulation.- References.- Author Index.