Sport and Gender in Canada

Paperback | September 19, 2006

EditorPhilip White, Kevin Young

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This contributed volume includes articles on sport and gender written by leading scholars in their areas of expertise. Part I demonstrates that 1) the relationship between sport and gender has not developed in a smooth, uncontested, or linear way that always privileges all males and always discriminates against all females, and 2) that the relationship between sport and gender can best be understood sociologicallyby tracing the intersections between sport, gender, and other ways that Canadian life has been -- and remains - stratified, such as social class, age, race, ethnicity, and sexuality. In Chapter 1, Melissa Parker and Philip White explore the chronological development of theoretical frameworksaddressing both the gendering of sport and what it means to be gendered in sport. Michael Atkinson argues in Chapter 2 that there is a strong link between types of research methods used and knowledge claims made by researchers. In 'Cultural Struggle and Resistance: Gender, History and CanadianSport', M. Ann Hall traces the early moments of organized women's sport in Canada to show that women's sport in Canada is built on far stronger foundations than is often assumed. In the following chapter, Kevin Wamsley argues that not all men were privileged by early Canadian sport practices. Forinstance, he outlines the process through which sport became an arena for the construction of particular types of masculinity, notably masculinities that helped reinforce the dominance of powerful groups of men. Beginning from the premise that Canadian society -- and thus Canadian sport -- is farfrom 'classless', Peter Donnelly and Jean Harvey provide numerous examples in Chapter 6 to show that there have been major social class and gender inequalities throughout the history of sport. Again, we are reminded that gender is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that can best be understoodif we trace power differences not only between different groups of men and women but also between different versions of 'masculinity' and 'femininity' associated with particular social groups, social classes, and social settings. Part II of this book focuses on the work currently being done by leading researchers in the area of sport and gender in Canada on a broad spectrum of sport-related topics. The chapters reflect a variety of theoretical standpoints and methodological procedures. These chapters emphasize the need tostudy gender in a way that is not only non-categorical but perhaps moves beyond the distributive level towards understanding how sport assumes particular forms at particular historical junctures and grows out of relations of power that are determined culturally and reinforced ideologically. In Chapter 6, Sally Shaw and Larena Hoeber show how the prevalence of gendered discourses hinders the achievement of gender equity in Canadian amateur sport organizations. The idea that there is no singular masculinity and femininity operating within Canadian sport is developed in Chapter 7 in whichPhilip White and Kevin Young review research findings on gender and rates and types of sport injury. In Chapter 8 Caroline Davis observes that some femininities are more closely associated with body image disorders than others and discusses the biological, sociological, and psychological factorsacting on the relationship between sport, physical activity, and eating disorders. Chapter 9 by Peter Donnelly ('Who's Fair Game? Sport, Sexual Harassment, and Abuse') identifies how power differences tend to exist at the heart of abusive and exploitive sport-based relationships. Notions of powerrelations are also central to Chapter 10 written by Patricia Vertinsky and Sandra O'Brien Cousins on the effects of gender on participation in sport among older Canadians. Specifically, their chapter demonstrates how older women are disadvantaged relative to men when it comes to involvement in sportand physical activity. Victoria Paraschak's chapter on sport and Canada's First Nations peoples (Chapter 11) provides vivid examples of how unequal gender relations are created and reproduced over time. Chapter 12 calls for a collapsing of the rigid binary categories of hetero/homosexuality on thegrounds that these are used to preclude full and equal gay and lesbian participation in sport. Identifying patterns of exclusion from participation in sport and physical activity is also the focus of Chapter 13 which is authored by Wendy Frisby, Colleen Reid and Pamela Ponic. This chapter demonstrates how a combination of poverty and prevailing municipal recreation department policiesseriously limit the opportunities of many women from active recreation. In Chapter 14, Brian Wilson explores how the media reinforces taken-for-granted understandings of gender-appropriate orientations toward the body and sport. In the following chapter, Jamie Bryshun and Kevin Young provide some ofthe first substantial evidence for the routine involvement of female athletes in initiation (hazing) rituals in Canada and conclude that power relations between neophyte and veteran female players may be just as aggressive, coercive, and high-risk as those occurring on male teams. Sport and Gender in Canada reflects a growing body of work highlighting the diversity that exists among Canadian sportswomen and sportsmen in terms of factors such as age, race, heritage, sexuality, and social class. To speak of a 'generic' sporting masculinity or femininity, or indeed of ageneric sporting experience, simply does not do justice to the complexity of Canadian sporting life.

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This contributed volume includes articles on sport and gender written by leading scholars in their areas of expertise. Part I demonstrates that 1) the relationship between sport and gender has not developed in a smooth, uncontested, or linear way that always privileges all males and always discriminates against all females, and 2) tha...

Philip White is a Professor of Kinesiology and Sociology at McMaster University. He has published in a broad range of academic journals including the Canadian Journal of Sociology, the Sociology of Sport Journal, the International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Sport History Review, and the Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. ...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:360 pages, 9 × 6 × 1 inPublished:September 19, 2006Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195419871

ISBN - 13:9780195419870

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Table of Contents

Part I Sport and Gender: Theoretical, Methodological, and Historical IssuesIntroduction to Part I1. Melissa Parker and Philip White: NEW! "S/He Plays Sport: Theorizing the Sport/Gender Process"2. Michael Atkinson: NEW! "Sport, Gender, and Research Method"3. M. Ann Hall: "Cultural Struggle and Resistance: Gender, History, and Canadian Sport"4. Kevin B. Wamsley: "The Public Importance of Men and the Importance of Public Men: Sport and Masculinities in Nineteenth Century Canada"Part II Sport and Gender: Recent Research, Ongoing ControversiesIntroduction to Part II5. Peter Donnelly and Jean Harvey: "Class and Gender: Intersections in Sport and Physical Activity"6. Victoria Paraschak: "Doing Race, Doing Gender: First Nations, 'Sport', and Gender Relations"7. Patricia Vertinsky and Sandra O'Brien Cousins: "Acting your Age? Gender, Aging, and Physical Activity"8. Sally Shaw and Larena Hoeber: NEW! "Gender Relations in Canadian Amateur Sport Organizations: An Organizational Culture Perspective"9. Kevin G. Davison and Blye W. Frank: NEW! "Sexualities, Genders and Bodies in Sport: Changing Practices of Inequity"10. Wendy Frisby, Colleen Reid and Pamela Ponic: NEW! "Leveling the Playing Field: Promoting Poor Women's Health through a Community Development Approach to Recreation"11. Brian Wilson: NEW! "Oppression is the Message: Media, Sport Spectacle, and Gender"Part III Sport and Gender: Problems and ControversiesIntroduction to Part III12. Philip White and Kevin Young: "Gender, Sport, and the Injury Process"13. Caroline Davis: "Eating Disorders, Physical Activity, and Sport: Biological, Psychological and Sociological Factors"14. Peter Donnelly: "Who's Fair Game?: Sport, Sexual Harassment, and Abuse"15. Jamie Bryshun and Kevin Young: "Hazing as a Form of Sport and Gender Socialization"AfterwordIndex