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# Stats: Data And Models

## byRichard D. De Veaux, Paul F. Velleman, David E. Bock

### Hardcover | December 24, 2014

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Richard De Veaux, Paul Velleman, and David Bock wrote ** Stats: Data and Models ** with the goal that students and instructors have as much fun reading it as they did writing it. Maintaining a conversational, humorous, and informal writing style, this new edition engages students from the first page. The authors focus on statistical thinking throughout the text and rely on technology for calculations. As a result, students can focus on developing their conceptual understanding. Innovative Think/Show/Tell examples give students a problem-solving framework and, more importantly, a way to think through any statistics problem and present their results. The

**Fourth Edition**is updated with instructor podcasts, video lectures, and new examples to keep material fresh, current, and relevant to today’s students.

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ISBN - 13:9780321986498

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Table of Contents

Preface

**Part I: Exploring and Understanding Data**

**1. Stats Starts Here**

1.1 What Is Statistics?

1.2 Data

1.3 Variables

**2. Displaying and Describing Categorical Data**

2.1 Summarizing and Displaying a Single Categorical variable

2.2 Exploring the Relationship Between Two Categorical variables

**3. Displaying and Summarizing Quantitative Data **

3.1 Displaying quantitative variables

3.2 Shape

3.3 Center

3.4 Spread

3.5 Boxplots and 5-Number Summaries

3.6 The Center of Symmetric Distributions: The Mean

3.7 The Spread of Symmetric Distributions: The Standard Deviation

3.8 Summary—What to Tell About a quantitative variable

**4. Understanding and Comparing Distributions**

4.1 Comparing Groups with Histograms

4.2 Comparing Groups with Boxplots

4.3 Outliers

4.4 Timeplots: Order, Please!

4.5 Re-Expressing Data: A First Look

**5. The Standard Deviation as a Ruler and the Normal Model**

5.1 Standardizing with z-Scores

5.2 Shifting and Scaling

5.3 Normal Models

5.4 Finding Normal Percentiles

5.5 Normal Probability Plots

**Part II: Exploring Relationships Between Variables**

**6. Scatterplots, Association, and Correlation **

6.1 Scatterplots

6.2 Correlation

6.3 Warning: Correlation ≠ Causation

6.4 Straightening Scatterplots

**7. Linear Regression**

7.1 Least Squares: The Line of “Best Fit”

7.2 The Linear Model

7.3 Finding the Least Squares Line

7.4 Regression to the Mean

7.5 Examining the Residuals

7.6 R2—The variation Accounted For by the Model

7.7 Regression Assumptions and Conditions

**8. Regression Wisdom**

8.1 Examining Residuals

8.2 Extrapolation: Reaching Beyond the Data

8.3 Outliers, Leverage, and Influence

8.4 Lurking variables and Causation

8.5 Working with Summary values

**9. Re-expressing Data: Get It Straight!**

9.1 Straightening Scatterplots – The Four Goals

9.2 Finding a Good Re-Expression

**Part III: Gathering Data**

**10. Understanding Randomness**

10.1 What Is Randomness?

10.2 Simulating by Hand

**11. Sample Surveys**

11.1 The Three Big Ideas of Sampling

11.2 Populations and Parameters

11.3 Simple Random Samples

11.4 Other Sampling Designs

11.5 From the Population to the Sample: You Can’t Always Get What You Want

11.6 The valid Survey

11.7 Common Sampling Mistakes, or How to Sample Badly

**12. Experiments and Observational Studies**

12.1 Observational Studies

12.2 Randomized, Comparative Experiments

12.3 The Four Principles of Experimental Design

12.4 Control Treatments

12.5 Blocking

12.6 Confounding

**Part IV: Randomness and Probability**

**13. From Randomness to Probability**

13.1 Random Phenomena

13.2 Modeling Probability

13.3 Formal Probability

**14. Probability Rules!**

14.1 The General Addition Rule

14.2 Conditional Probability and the General Multiplication Rule

14.3 Independence

14.4 Picturing Probability: Tables, Venn Diagrams, and Trees

14.5 Reversing the Conditioning and Bayes’ Rule

**15. Random Variables**

15.1 Center: The Expected value

15.2 Spread: The Standard Deviation

15.3 Shifting and Combining Random variables

15.4 Continuous Random variables

**16. Probability Models**

16.1 Bernoulli Trials

16.2 The Geometric Model

16.3 The Binomial Model

16.4 Approximating the Binomial with a Normal Model

16.5 The Continuity Correction

16.6 The Poisson Model

16.7 Other Continuous Random Variables: The Uniform and the Exponential

**Part V: From the Data at Hand to the World at Large**

**17. Sampling Distribution Models**

17.1 Sampling Distribution of a Proportion

17.2 When Does the Normal Model Work? Assumptions and Conditions

17.3 The Sampling Distribution of Other Statistics

17.4 The Central Limit Theorem: The Fundamental Theorem of Statistics

17.5 Sampling Distributions: A Summary

**18. Confidence Intervals for Proportions**

18.1 A Confidence Interval

18.2 Interpreting Confidence Intervals: What Does 95% Confidence Really Mean?

18.3 Margin of Error: Certainty vs. Precision

18.4 Assumptions and Conditions

**19. Testing Hypotheses About Proportions**

19.1 Hypotheses

19.2 P-values

19.3 The Reasoning of Hypothesis Testing

19.4 Alternative Alternatives

19.5 P-values and Decisions: What to Tell About a Hypothesis Test

**20. Inferences About Means**

20.1 Getting Started: The Central Limit Theorem (Again)

20.2 Gosset’s t

20.3 Interpreting Confidence Intervals

20.4 A Hypothesis Test for the Mean

20.5 Choosing the Sample Size

**21. More About Tests and Intervals**

21.1 Choosing Hypotheses

21.2 How to Think About P-values

21.3 Alpha Levels

21.4 Critical values for Hypothesis Tests

21.5 Errors

**Part VI: Accessing Associations Between Variables**

**22. Comparing Groups**

22.1 The Standard Deviation of a Difference

22.2 Assumptions and Conditions for Comparing Proportions

22.3 A Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Two Proportions

22.4 The Two Sample z-Test: Testing for the Difference Between Proportions

22.5 A Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Two Means

22.6 The Two-Sample t-Test: Testing for the Difference Between Two Means

22.7 The Pooled t-Test: Everyone into the Pool?

**23. Paired Samples and Blocks**

23.1 Paired Data

23.2 Assumptions and Conditions

23.3 Confidence Intervals for Matched Pairs

23.4 Blocking

**24. Comparing Counts**

24.1 Goodness-of-Fit Tests

24.2 Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity

24.3 Examining the Residuals

24.4 Chi-Square Test of Independence

**25. Inferences for Regression**

25.1 The Population and the Sample

25.2 Assumptions and Conditions

25.3 Intuition About Regression Inference

25.4 Regression Inference

25.5 Standard Errors for Predicted values

25.6 Confidence Intervals for Predicted values

25.7 Logistic Regression

**Part VII: Inference When Variables Are Related**

**26. Analysis of Variance**

26.1 Testing Whether the Means of Several Groups Are Equal

26.2 The ANOVA Table

26.3 Assumptions and Conditions

26.4 Comparing Means

26.5 ANOVA on Observational Data

**27. Multifactor Analysis of Variance**

27.1 A Two Factor ANOVA Model

27.2 Assumptions and Conditions

27.3 Interactions

**28. Multiple Regression**

28.1 What Is Multiple Regression?

28.2 Interpreting Multiple Regression Coefficients

28.3 The Multiple Regression Model—Assumptions and Conditions

28.4 Multiple Regression Inference

28.5 Comparing Multiple Regression Models

**29. Multiple Regression Wisdom**

29.1 Indicators

29.2 Diagnosing Regression Models: Looking at the Cases

29.3 Building Multiple Regression Models

29.4 Building Multiple Regression Models Sequentially

**Appendixes**

A: Answers

B: Photo Acknowledgments

C: Index

D: Tables and Selected Formulas