Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Hardcover | November 16, 2011

byMichael Inzlicht, Toni Schmader

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The 21st century has brought with it unparalleled levels of diversity in the classroom and the workforce. It is now common to see in elementary school, high school, and university classrooms, not to mention boardrooms and factory floors, a mixture of ethnicities, races, genders, and religiousaffiliations. But these changes in academic and economic opportunities have not directly translated into an elimination of group disparities in academic performance, career opportunities, and levels of advancement. Standard explanations for these disparities, which are vehemently debated in thescientific community and popular press, range from the view that women and minorities are genetically endowed with inferior abilities to the view that members of these demographic groups are products of environments that frustrate the development of the skills needed for success. Although theseexplanations differ along a continuum of nature vs. nurture, they share in common a presumption that a large chunk of our population lacks the potential to achieve academic and career success. In contrast to intractable factors like biology or upbringing, the research summarized in this book suggests that factors in one's immediate situation play a critical yet underappreciated role in temporarily suppressing the intellectual performance of women and minorities, creating an illusion ofgroup differences in ability. Research conducted over the course of the last fifteen years suggests the mere existence of cultural stereotypes that assert the intellectual inferiority of these groups creates a threatening intellectual environment for stigmatized individuals - a climate whereanything they say or do is interpreted through the lens of low expectations. This stereotype threat can ultimately interfere with intellectual functioning and academic engagement, setting the stage for later differences in educational attainment, career choice, and job advancement.

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The 21st century has brought with it unparalleled levels of diversity in the classroom and the workforce. It is now common to see in elementary school, high school, and university classrooms, not to mention boardrooms and factory floors, a mixture of ethnicities, races, genders, and religiousaffiliations. But these changes in academic ...

Michael Inzlicht was born and raised in Montreal, Canada. He is proud to be the first in his extended family to obtain a college degree, a bachelor of science in Anatomical Sciences from McGill University. Michael credits McGill with shaping his current identity, values, and orientation. He received his MS and PhD from Brown University...

other books by Michael Inzlicht

Format:HardcoverDimensions:320 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.98 inPublished:November 16, 2011Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199732442

ISBN - 13:9780199732449

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Table of Contents

1. Michael Inzlicht and Toni Schmader: Introduction2. Mary C. Murphy and Valerie Jones Taylor: The Role of Situational Cues in Signaling and Maintaining Stereotype Threat3. Toni Schmader and Sian Beilock: An Integration of Processes that Underlie Stereotype Threat4. Wendy Berry Mendes and Jeremy Jamieson: Embodied Stereotype Threat: Exploring brain and body mechanisms underlying performance impairments5. Jenessa R. Shapiro: Types of threats: From stereotype threat to stereotype threats6. Gregory M. Walton and Priyanka B. Carr: Do I Belong? How Negative Intellectual Stereotypes Undermine People's Sense of Social Belonging in School and How to Fix It7. Michael Inzlicht, Alexa M. Tullett, and Jennifer N. Gutsell: Stereotype Threat Spillover: The short-term and long-term effects of coping with threats to social identity8. David M. Marx and Diederik A. Stapel: Differentiating Theories: A comparison of stereotype threat and stereotype priming effects9. Margaret J. Shih, Todd L. Pittinsky, and Geoffrey C. Ho: Stereotype Boost: Positive Outcomes from the Activation of Positive Stereotypes10. Christine Logel, Jennifer Peach, and Steven J. Spencer: Threatening Gender and Race: Different manifestations of stereotype threat11. Laura J. Kray and Aiwa Shirako: Stereotype Threat in Organizations: An examination of its scope, triggers, and possible interventions12. Jean-Claude Croizet and Mathias Millet: Social Class and Test Performance: From stereotype threat to symbolic violence13. Alison L. Chasteen, Sonia K. Kang, and Jessica D. Remedios: Aging and Stereotype Threat: Development, process, and interventions14. Jeff Stone, Aina Chalabaev, and C. Keith Harrison: The Impact of Stereotype Threat on Performance in Sports15. Jennifer A. Richeson and J. Nicole Shelton: Stereotype Threat in Interracial Interactions16. Paul R. Sackett and Ann Marie Ryan: Concerns About Generalizing Stereotype Threat Research Findings to Operational High Stakes Testing17. Joshua Aronson and Thomas Dee: Stereotype Threat in the Real World18. Geoffrey L. Cohen, Valerie Purdie-Vaughns, and Julio Garcia: An Identity Threat Perspective on Intervention19. Claude M. Steele: Extending and Applying Stereotype Threat Research: A brief essay