Steroid-Protein Interactions by Ulrich WestphalSteroid-Protein Interactions by Ulrich Westphal

Steroid-Protein Interactions

byUlrich Westphal

Paperback | March 14, 2012

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This is the story of steroid-protein interactions as one investigator sees it. Following the general concept of this monograph series, it emphasizes the results and interpretations obtained in the author's laboratory, and is therefore a subjective account. Recognizing, how­ ever, that the discussion of the subject would be incomplete if the material were limited to one scientist's work, the essential achieve­ ments of other investigators have been incorporated. An effort has thus been made to give a balanced presentation and to enable the reader to see in perspective the varied facets of the interactions between steroids and proteins. Since this is the first comprehensive treatment of the topic, it seems appropriate to go to the roots, and try to find out how it all started. The first chapters, therefore, take the reader to the laboratories of those who very early conceived the significance of the attachment of dyes, drugs, and other conspicuous molecules to those colloids called proteins. The discovery of the steroid hormones set the stage for meaningful investigation of their interaction with proteins of various origins and functions - a process which is continuing today with increasing vigor.
Title:Steroid-Protein InteractionsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:568 pagesPublished:March 14, 2012Publisher:Springer NatureLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3642462642

ISBN - 13:9783642462641

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Table of Contents

I. Introduction.- II. Early Studies on Interactions between Proteins and Small Molecules or Ions.- III. First Observations on Reversible Binding of Steroids to Proteins.- IV. Basic Methods for Determination of Steroid-Protein Interactions.- 1. General Principles.- 2. Measurement of Biological Activity.- 3. Ultrafiltration.- 4. Electrophoresis.- 5. Equilibrium Dialysis.- 6. Solvent Extraction.- 7. Measurement of Solubility.- 8. Turbidimetry.- 9. Solvent Partition.- 10. Ultracentrifugation.- 11. Paper Chromatography.- 12. Equilibrium Fractionation.- 13. Spectrophotometry.- 14. Gel Filtration.- 15. Gel Equilibration.- 16. Use of Radiolabeled Steroids and the Problem of Decomposition.- V. Characteristics of Steroid-Protein Interactions.- 1. Molecular Characteristics of Steroids.- 2. Molecular Aspects of the Interaction.- 3. Some Pertinent Questions.- 4. Presentation of Binding Data.- a) General Considerations.- b) The Logarithmic Plot.- c) The Reciprocal Plot.- d) The Scatchard Plot.- e) Approximate Free Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy.- f) Competition between Different Steroids for the Same Binding Site.- g) Calculation of Distribution of a Steroid between Two Binding Proteins.- VI. Steroid Interactions with Serum Proteins Other than Specific Glycoproteins.- 1. Interactions of Bile Acids.- 2. Interactions of Steroid Conjugates.- 3. Interaction of Monopolar Neutral Steroids; Lipoproteins.- 4. Interactions of Duo- and Polypolar Neutral Steroids Qualitative Observations with Steroid Hormones.- 5. Steroid Interaction with Serum Albumin.- a) Experimental Data.- b) Quality of Albumin.- c) Binding Parameters.- d) Influence of Albumin Concentration.- e) Influence of Temperature.- f) Influence of pH and Ionic Strength.- g) Competition between Steroids in HSA Interaction.- VII. Influence of Molecular Structure on Steroid Interaction with HSA and Other Proteins.- 1. Steroid Structure and Binding to Serum Albumin; Polarity Rule.- 2. Steric Considerations.- 3. Protein Structure in Relation to Steroid Interaction.- 4. Spectral Observations on Steroid Interaction with Compounds Other than Proteins.- VIII. Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin (CBG) of Man and Other Species.- 1. Fundamental Observations.- 2. Methods of Measurement.- a) Equilibrium Dialysis and Related Techniques.- b) CBG in Competitive Binding Analysis: Quantification of Binding Sites and of Steroids.- c) Gel Filtration.- 3. Removal of Endogenous Steroid from Serum.- 4. General Properties of CBG in Serum.- a) Influence of Temperature on Binding Affinity.- b) Influence of pH on Binding Affinity.- c) Electrophoretic Characteristics.- 5. CBG Activity in Human Plasma or Serum.- a) Concentration of Binding Sites and Association Constants of Human CBG.- b) CBG Concentration in Humans Under Conditions Other than Normal.- ?) Hereditary Familial Decrease of CBG Level.- ?) CBG Level in Pregnancy and after Estrogen Administration.- ?) CBG Level in Pathological States.- 6. CBG Activity in Species Other than Human.- IX. Influence of Various Endogenous Factors on CBG Activity in the Rat.- 1. Initial Observations; Effect of Adrenalectomy.- 2. General Procedures Used in the Endocrine-Related Studies.- 3. Influence of Age and Sex on CBG Activity and Corticosterone Level.- 4. Influence of Gonadal Hormones.- a) Effects of Gonadectomy.- b) Injection of Steroid Sex Hormones.- 5. CBG Activity during Estrous Cycle, Pregnancy, Lactation and Weaning.- 6. Significance of the Pituitary Gland for CBG Activity.- 7. Recognition of the Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone as the CBG-Controlling Factor.- 8. Further Interrelation of Endocrine Effects on CBG Activity in the Rat.- 9. Summary and Conclusions.- X. CBG Activity in Mouse, Rabbit and Guinea Pig during Pregnancy and Lactation; PBG in the Guinea Pig.- 1. Observations on the Steroid Binding Activities.- 2. Identification of PBG in the Guinea Pig.- 3. Interpretation of the Possible Role of CBG.- XI. Isolation and Properties of CBG from Mammalian Sera.- 1. Isolation of Human CBG.- 2. Isolation of Rabbit and Rat CBG.- 3. Physicochemical Characterization.- 4. Steroid Binding Parameters.- 5. Observations on Polymerization of Rat CBG.- XII. High-Affinity Binding of Estradiol and Testosterone to Serum Proteins.- 1. Binding of Estrogens.- 2. Binding of Testosterone.- 3. Steroid-Binding ?-Globulin.- XIII. Interaction of Progesterone and Other Steroids with ?1-Acid Glycoprotein (AAG).- 1. General Properties of the Progesterone-AAG Complex; Relation to CBG Binding.- 2. Reversible Inhibition by Lipid of the Binding Affinity between AAG and Progesterone.- 3. Reversible Inhibition by Heavy Metal Ions of the Binding Affinity between AAG and Progesterone.- 4. Interaction of Other Steroids with AAG.- 5. Influence of Perturbants on Steroid-AAG Interactions.- 6. Chemical Modification of AAG in Relation to Steroid Binding.- XIV. Effect of Protein Binding on Hormonal Activity of Steroids.- 1. Corticosteroid Hormones.- 2. Progesterone.- XV. Steroid-Binding Immunoglobulins: Preparation, Properties, and Application for Radioiinmunoassay of Steroid Hormones.- XVI. Notes on Steroid Interactions with Enzymes.- XVII. Synopsis.- A. List of Abbreviations and Symbols.- B. Calculation of Average Hydrophobicities and of Non-polar Side Chain Frequencies.