The book analyses the emergence of biocultural rights as a sub-set of third generation group rights in environmental law. It argues that these rights, which advocate people's duty of stewardship over nature, have arisen as a response to the world's ecological crisis. The book uses amultipronged approach, relying upon economic, anthropological, political, and legal theories, to deconstruct the current concepts of private property from the perspective of indigenous peoples and traditional communities. It further presents evidence that this discursive shift is gaining formallegal recognition by referring to negotiations of multilateral environmental agreements, judicial decisions of regional, and domestic courts and community initiatives. The book also gives a description of the new biocultural jurisprudence including its application through innovative, community-developed instruments such as biocultural community protocols.