Storm Watchers: The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin's Kite to El Niño by John D. CoxStorm Watchers: The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin's Kite to El Niño by John D. Cox

Storm Watchers: The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin's Kite to El Niño

byJohn D. Cox

Hardcover | August 19, 2002

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A lively, inspiring account of the pioneers who sought to accurately predict the weather

Benjamin Franklin . . . James P. Espy . . . Cleveland Abbe . . . Carl-Gustaf Rossby . . . Jule G. Charney . . . just a few of the remarkable individuals who struggled against formidable odds to understand the atmosphere and predict the weather. Where they saw patterns and processes, others saw randomness and tumult-and yet they strove to make their voices heard, often saving lives in the process.

Storm Watchers takes you on a fascinating journey through time that captures the evolution of weather forecasting. From the age when meteorology was considered one step removed from sorcery to the modern-day wizardry of supercomputers, John Cox introduces you to the pioneering scientists whose work fulfilled an ancient dream and made it possible to foretell the future. He tells the little-known stories of these weathermen, such as Ptolemy's weather predictions based on astrology, John Finley's breakthrough research in identifying tornadoes, and Tor Bergeron's new techniques of weather forecasting, which contributed to its final worldwide acceptance.

Filled with extraordinary tales of bravery and sacrifice, Storm Watchers will make you think twice the next time you turn on the local news to catch the weather report.
JOHN D. COX, a veteran science writer, is also the author of Weather for Dummies, which the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society called "extraordinary." His journalism experience includes work at the Sacramento Bee, Reuter Ltd., and United Press International. In 1995, Cox was awarded a Knight Science Journalism Fellowship a...
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Title:Storm Watchers: The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin's Kite to El NiñoFormat:HardcoverDimensions:252 pages, 9.63 × 6.34 × 0.95 inPublished:August 19, 2002Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:047138108X

ISBN - 13:9780471381082

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Franklin wrote: ?Of these I)]TJ T* 0.1048 Tw (have had a very singular opinion for some years, viz: that, though the)Tj T* 0.0381 Tw [(course of the wind is from northeast to southwest, yet the course of the)]TJ T* 0.0159 Tw [(storm is from southwest to northeast; the air is in violent motion in V)36.7(i)0.2(r-)]TJ T* -0.0053 Tw (ginia before it moves in Connecticut, and in Connecticut before it moves)Tj T* 0.1271 Tw [(at Cape Sable, etc.? More than 150 years later)110.7(, in 1899, the Harvard)]TJ T* -0.0687 Tw [(scholar W)17.7(illiam Morris Davis, writing in the )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 18.7758 0 TD -0.0688 Tw (Journal of the Franklin Insti-)Tj -18.7758 -1.2381 TD 0 Tw (tute,)Tj /F3 1 Tf 2.2297 0 TD 0.0387 Tw (would look back on this suggestion as a defining moment, observ-)Tj -2.2297 -1.2381 TD -0.0482 Tw [(ing that ?with this began the science of weather prediction.? 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Future weather)]TJ T* -0.0161 Tw [(was treated like the future of anything else, part of the occult prognosti-)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 90 648.3574 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (6)Tj 12 0 0 12 105 647.5004 Tm (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 119.6553 648.3574 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0102 Tw [(S)24.1(torm W)87.8(atchers)]TJ ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 204 -12 re 181.501 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0067 Tc 0.0666 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 6)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 22 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 24 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 100 616.3629 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0.0213 Tw [(cations of astrologers, especially in Europe, where their profitably pub-)]TJ 0 -1.2381 TD 0.2258 Tw (lished almanacs offered artfully worded weather predictions for the)Tj T* -0.0471 Tw [(entire year)110.7(. In the colonies, Franklin himself enjoyed a handsome income)]TJ T* -0.0722 Tw (for 25 years as publisher of )Tj /F4 1 Tf 11.6237 0 TD [(Poor Richard?)73.9(s Almanack,)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11.4317 0 TD (although his prog-)Tj -23.0554 -1.2381 TD -0.0151 Tw (nostications of weather always came with characteristic humor and wit.)Tj T* 0.0115 Tw [(Praising Franklin?)73.9(s contributions to meteorology)91.7(, the pioneering Ameri-)]TJ T* 0.0428 Tw (can weather scientist Cleveland Abbe took a close look at the Franklin)Tj T* 0.0251 Tw (almanacs in 1906 and found no astrology in them. In a presentation to)Tj T* 0.1005 Tw (the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, Abbe said, ?Now)Tj T* 0.0492 Tw (while it is true that in these he published conjectures as to the weather)Tj T* -0.0379 Tw (during the respective years, yet we are not to think of Franklin as a plan-)Tj T* -0.0493 Tw (etary meteorologist, for the fact is that in every one of these issues he dis-)Tj T* 0.0715 Tw (claims all knowledge of the weather or astrology and pokes fun at his)Tj T* 0 Tw (own predictions as utterly absurd and useless.?)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0533 Tw (Explanations for the causes of weather remained a traditional part)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0763 Tw (of church doctrine, as it had through the Middle Ages. Since its redis-)Tj T* -0.0002 Tc 0.3788 Tw [(covery in the twelfth century)91.6(,)0( Aristotle?)73.8(s )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 19.7121 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (Meteorologica)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.8771 0 TD 0.3788 Tw (had been)Tj -26.5892 -1.2381 TD 0.0461 Tw (installed as Christian dogma, and his conjectures about the organismic)Tj T* 0.034 Tw (exhalations of Earth satisfied nearly 700 years of theological meteorol-)Tj T* 0.0619 Tw [(ogy)91.7(. \(As a meteorologist, Aristotle was a pretty good philosopher)110.7(. Not)]TJ T* 0.0212 Tw [(even the loyal pupil Theophrastus could accept his mentor?)74(s)0( bald asser-)]TJ T* 0.0905 Tw [(tion that the wind was not moving air)110.7(.\) In the American colonies, the)]TJ T* 0.0357 Tw (Puritan clergy yielded to no ?secondary natural causes? the power and)Tj T* -0.0002 Tc -0.089 Tw [(word of the Almighty in the fierce tempests of the New W)85.7(orld, even under)]TJ T* 0 Tw (the most terrible circumstances.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0811 Tw (On August 31, 1735, in New London, Connecticut, a great storm)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0583 Tw (rose overhead just as the Reverend Eliphalet Adams was beginning his)Tj T* -0.0629 Tw (afternoon service. A bolt of lightning, ?the fire of God,? shot down upon)Tj T* 0.0009 Tw [(his church. T)36.8(imbers crashed down among the congregation. Smoke and)]TJ T* -0.0534 Tw [(dust filled the air)110.7(.)0.1( So fierce was the thunderclap that it left their ears ring-)]TJ T* -0.0583 Tw (ing. Everywhere in the wrecked room were wounded of his flock, burned)Tj T* 0.036 Tw (and broken. Pitiful shrieks of shock and agony rang out. At his feet, at)Tj T* 0 Tw [(the very horn of his altar)110.7(, a young man, Edwin Burch, lay dying.)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0134 Tw (The following Sabbath, those of the congregation who were not too)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0212 Tw (seriously injured came back to the temporarily patched meetinghouse to)Tj T* 0.1223 Tw [(hear about the god who strikes down the faithful at prayer)110.7(. A proud)]TJ T* -0.0293 Tw [(Adams, with a view to posterity)91.7(, saw to the printing of his sermon ?God)]TJ T* 0.05 Tw [(Sometimes Answers His People by T)85.8(e)0.1(rrible Things in Righteousness. A)]TJ T* 0.228 Tw [(Discourse Occasioned by that A)73.8(w)0(ful Thunderclap which Struck the)]TJ T* 0.1096 Tw [(Meeting-house in N. London, August 31st, 1735.? Adams saw God?)73.8(s)]TJ T* 0.0062 Tw (righteous hand in the sheer power of the event and his merciful hand in)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 321.4116 648.3574 Tm 0.025 Tw [(B)5.8(enjamin F)35.8(ranklin)]TJ 12 0 0 12 404.3448 647.5004 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 419 648.3574 Tm (7)Tj ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 204 -12 re 424 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0067 Tc 0.0666 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 7)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 25 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 27 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 90 616.3629 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.0218 Tw [(the fact that the calamity was not worse: ?W)73.9(e might have died by scores)]TJ 0 -1.2381 TD 0.1802 Tw (and by hundreds, yea, the whole congregation might have been dis-)Tj T* 0 Tw [(patched at once into eternity)91.7(.?)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0344 Tw [(For the disaster)110.7(, and for the death of Edwin Burch, the Puritan faith-)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0 Tw (ful had only their unworthy selves to blame. Adams sermonized:)Tj 9.5 0 0 9.5 108 538.3629 Tm -0.0013 Tw (There is no blemish or defect in any thing which God doth, nothing of)Tj 0 -1.3684 TD -0.054 Tw [(which we should dare to say)91.7(, that it ought to have been otherwise; there)]TJ T* -0.0567 Tw (are faults enough and enough in us to justify the Lord in his most severe)Tj T* 0.084 Tw (dispensations towards us; we must hold our peace and not open our)Tj T* -0.0477 Tw (mouths to complain, nor suffer an unease or grudging thought to stir in)Tj T* 0.0068 Tw (our hearts, how heavy so ever the strokes be, or how much so ever we)Tj T* 0.0731 Tw [(are made to smart thereby)91.7(, we must still ascribe righteousness to our)]TJ T* 0 Tw (maker and our judge.)Tj 10.5 0 0 10.5 108 421.3629 Tm -0.034 Tw [(Just 10 years later)110.7(, in nearby Philadelphia, Benjamin Franklin would)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0715 Tw [(begin a series of investigations into the nature of electricity)91.7(, work that)]TJ T* 0.0393 Tw [(made him famous. Before long, in 1749, he was entering into his note-)]TJ T* -0.009 Tw (book certain conjectures about its similarities to lightning: ?The electric)Tj T* 0.0188 Tw (fluid is attracted by points; we do not know whether this property is in)Tj T* 0.1842 Tw (lightning; but since they agree in all the particulars wherein we can)Tj T* -0.0391 Tw (already compare them, is it not probable that they agree likewise in this?)Tj T* 0.0534 Tw (Let the experiment be made.? In June, 1752, he performed his famous)Tj T* -0.0026 Tw (kite experiment, causing an electrostatic spark between a knuckle and a)Tj T* 0.0833 Tw (key hanging from the twine. This and other experiments of his design)Tj T* 0.1388 Tw (soon established lightning as an electrical phenomenon in the atmos-)Tj T* 0.1746 Tw (phere. The discovery would lead to the installation of insulated and)Tj T* 0.0574 Tw (grounded iron ?points,? or lightning rods, that carried the fire of God)Tj T* -0.0084 Tw (harmlessly down the sides of vulnerable church steeples across the land. )Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0388 Tw [(Benjamin Franklin?)73.9(s seven years of research into the nature of elec-)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0395 Tw [(tricity)91.7(, his most intensely focused period of scientific activity)91.7(, earned him)]TJ T* -0.0328 Tw (an international reputation as a scientist. In later years, he stopped prac-)Tj T* 0.1341 Tw (ticing science only in the sense that in leading the American colonies)Tj T* -0.049 Tw (through revolution and into nationhood, he lost his time to pursue it. All)Tj T* -0.0438 Tw (his life, he remained one of the most observant students of nature. Noth-)Tj T* -0.0277 Tw [(ing interesting about the weather)110.7(, or about much of anything else, seems)]TJ T* -0.0044 Tw [(ever to have escaped his curiosity)91.7(. He thought and wrote about weather)]TJ T* -0.0028 Tw (for 60 years. In 1726, on a return voyage from London to Philadelphia,)Tj T* 0.1939 Tw (entries in his journal included routine weather observations and the)Tj T* 0.1223 Tw [(appearance of an unusual ?lunar rainbow)91.7(.? In 1786, he was offering)]TJ T* 0 Tw [(long-range forecasts to members of his family)91.7(.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 90 648.3574 Tm 0 Tc (8)Tj 12 0 0 12 105 647.5004 Tm (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 119.6553 648.3574 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0102 Tw [(S)24.1(torm W)87.8(atchers)]TJ ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 204 -12 re 181.501 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0067 Tc 0.0666 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 8)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 28 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 30 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 118 616.3629 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0101 Tc 0.0372 Tw (In the spring of 1755, he and a group of friends who were riding on)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0518 Tw [(the Maryland country estate of Colonel Benjamin T)86(asker watched a whirl-)]TJ T* 0.1032 Tw (wind approaching, growing as it came toward them up a hill. Franklin)Tj T* 0 Tw (described this adventure in a letter in August to a friend, Peter Collinson.)Tj 9.5 0 0 9.5 118 551.3629 Tm -0.0051 Tc 0.0003 Tw (The rest of the company stood looking after it; but my curiousity being)Tj 0 -1.3684 TD 0.0526 Tw [(stronger)110.7(, I followed it, riding close by its side, and observed its licking)]TJ T* 0.0326 Tw (up in its progress all the dust that was under its smaller part. As it is a)Tj T* 0.0146 Tw [(common opinion that a shot, fired through a water)54.8(-spout will break it,)]TJ T* 0.1609 Tw (I tried to break this little whirlwind by striking my whip frequently)Tj T* 0.088 Tw [(through it, but without any effect. Soon after)110.7(, it quitted the road and)]TJ T* -0.0394 Tw [(took into the woods, growing every moment larger and stronger)110.7(, raising)]TJ T* -0.0086 Tw (instead of dust the old dry leaves with which the ground was thick cov-)Tj T* -0.0124 Tw (ered, and making a great noise with them and the branches of the trees,)Tj T* 0.0694 Tw [(bending some tall trees round in a circle swiftly and very surprisingly)91.7(,)]TJ T* 0.0296 Tw (though the progressive motion of the whirl was not so swift but that a)Tj T* 0.021 Tw (man on foot might have kept pace with it; but the circular motion was)Tj T* -0.0414 Tw (amazingly rapid. By the leaves it was now filled with I could plainly per-)Tj T* -0.0506 Tw (ceive that the current of air they were driven by moved upwards in a spi-)Tj T* 0.0214 Tw (ral line; and when I saw the trunks and bodies of large trees enveloped)Tj T* 0.0267 Tw (in the passing whirl, which continued entire after it had left them, I no)Tj T* 0 Tw (longer wondered that my whip had no effect on it in its smaller state.)Tj 10.5 0 0 10.5 118 317.3629 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.1511 Tw [(Franklin rejoined the company)91.7(, and as the group traveled on for)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0439 Tw (nearly three miles, he watched the leaves taken up by the whirlwind con-)Tj T* -0.0551 Tw [(tinue to fall from the sky)91.7(. He wrote Collinson: ?Upon my asking Colonel)]TJ T* 0.2038 Tw [(T)86.1(asker if such whirlwinds were common in Maryland, he answered)]TJ T* 0.0192 Tw (pleasantly: ?No, not at all common; but we got this on purpose to treat)Tj T* 0 Tw [(Mr)110.7(. Franklin.? And a very high treat it was too.?)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0525 Tw (Accounts of whirlwinds, tornadoes, and waterspouts appear in the)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0527 Tw (chronicles of the ancient world, although nowhere were they as common)Tj T* -0.0346 Tw (as in North America, where, since the founding of the colonies, they had)Tj T* 0.1401 Tw [(been subjects of speculation. In the middle of the eighteenth century)91.7(,)]TJ T* 0.1453 Tw (Franklin was in the thick of it, providing an early description of the)Tj T* 0.0208 Tw (process of convection. In a letter written in 1753, he proposed two sets)Tj T* 0 Tw (of conditions for such winds:)Tj 9.5 0 0 9.5 118 135.3629 Tm 0.007 Tw [(1. That the lower region of air is often more heated, and so more rari-)]TJ 0 -1.3684 TD 0.0272 Tw [(fied, than the upper; consequently)91.7(, specifically lighter)110.7(. The coldness of)]TJ T* 0.0093 Tw (the upper region is manifested by the hail, which sometimes falls from)Tj T* -0.0053 Tw [(it in a hot day)91.7(. 2. That heated air may be very moist, and yet the mois-)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 321.4116 648.3574 Tm 0.025 Tw [(B)5.8(enjamin F)35.8(ranklin)]TJ 12 0 0 12 404.3448 647.5004 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 419 648.3574 Tm (9)Tj ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 204 -12 re 424 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0067 Tc 0.0666 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 9)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 31 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 33 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 9.5 0 0 9.5 108 617.1268 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0.0372 Tw (ture so equally diffused and rarified, as not to be visible till colder air)Tj 0 -1.3684 TD -0.0316 Tw (mixes with it, when it condenses and becomes visible. Thus our breath,)Tj T* 0 Tw [(invisible in summer)110.7(, becomes visible in winter)110.7(.)]TJ 10.5 0 0 10.5 108 565.1268 Tm -0.0478 Tw [(Although he was always a close observer)110.7(, Franklin was still a natural)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0477 Tw (philosopher at heart, and he was not inclined to clutter his conjectures)Tj T* 0.0321 Tw (with a lot of data or mathematics. He knew good science when he saw)Tj T* 0.1244 Tw (it, and he knew when his own theorizing wandered beyond observed)Tj T* 0.0887 Tw [(facts into ?the wilds of fancy)91.7(.? But the man who completed only two)]TJ T* -0.0376 Tw (years of formal education never lost his disdain for mathematics, the)Tj /F4 1 Tf 29.4128 0 TD 0 Tw (lin-)Tj -29.4128 -1.2381 TD 0.0454 Tw (gua franca)Tj /F3 1 Tf 4.9238 0 TD 0.0453 Tw [(of modern meteorology)91.7(. In his letter describing his thinking)]TJ -4.9238 -1.2381 TD -0.0228 Tw (about whirlwinds, he concluded, ?If my hypothesis is not the truth itself)Tj T* 0.0495 Tw (it is least as naked: For I have not, with some of our learned moderns,)Tj T* -0.0397 Tw (disguised my nonsense in Greek, clothed it in algebra, or adorned it with)Tj T* 0 Tw [(fluxions. Y)85.8(ou have it in )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 10.3599 0 TD (puris naturalibus)Tj /F3 1 Tf 7.3352 0 TD -0.0003 Tc (.?)Tj -15.9808 -1.2381 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.1336 Tw (Franklin also found himself attracted to questions of climate, the)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0304 Tw [(longer)54.8(-term state of weather)110.7(, a subject which had bedeviled the colonists)]TJ T* -0.0228 Tw (and their European sponsors since the founding of the settlements in the)Tj T* 0.2193 Tw [(sixteenth century)91.7(.)0.1( W)17.7(ithout a grasp of the general circulation of the)]TJ T* 0.0652 Tw [(atmosphere, the west-to-east flow in the middle latitudes, nothing was)]TJ T* -0.0734 Tw [(known of the more extreme continental character of the New W)85.8(o)0(rld?)73.9(s)0.1( cli-)]TJ T* 0.1422 Tw (mate. Basking in their moderate oceanic climes, warmed by the Gulf)Tj T* -0.0524 Tw [(Stream, Europeans were confounded by the patterns of seasonal weather)]TJ T* -0.0434 Tw [(in the colonies. By Franklin?)73.9(s day)91.7(, however)110.7(, a general warming trend was)]TJ T* -0.0196 Tw (noticeable, and in 1763, he met with a group of colonial scholars to dis-)Tj T* -0.0586 Tw [(cuss the changing climate. Franklin agreed with others that deforestation)]TJ T* 0.1238 Tw (was likely the cause, that ?cleared land absorbs more heat and melts)Tj T* -0.0808 Tw [(snow quicker)110.7(,? although he argued that many more years of observations)]TJ T* 0 Tw (would be necessary to make the case.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0051 Tc 0.136 Tw (Other investigations by Franklin at this time led to important ad-)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0833 Tw (vances in the understanding of the Gulf Stream, the ?river? of warm water)Tj T* -0.0869 Tw (that travels from the tropics far north along the American coast and across)Tj T* -0.0828 Tw (the North Atlantic. As deputy postmaster general of the colonies, Franklin)Tj T* 0.0296 Tw [(heard complaints that English postal vessels traveling from Falmouth to)]TJ T* -0.0145 Tw [(New Y)85.8(ork consistently took several more days crossing the Atlantic than)]TJ T* -0.0848 Tw (merchant vessels making the longer voyage from London to Rhode Island.)Tj T* 0.0785 Tw [(A Franklin acquaintance, T)36.7(im Folger)110.7(, a Nantucket whaler)110.7(, had a ready)]TJ T* 0.251 Tw (explanation. He sketched out the Gulf Stream, and Franklin had it)Tj T* -0.0246 Tw [(engraved and published on a map that drew wide attention to the impor-)]TJ T* 0.1466 Tw (tant navigational feature from everyone except the captains of British)Tj T* -0.0667 Tw (packets, who were not about to take any advice from American fishermen)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 90 648.3574 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (10)Tj 12 0 0 12 110 647.5004 Tm (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 124.6553 648.3574 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0102 Tw [(S)24.1(torm W)87.8(atchers)]TJ ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 209 -12 re 186.501 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0068 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 10)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 34 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 36 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 100 616.3629 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0051 Tc 0.0584 Tw (in that day and age. This work led Franklin to take regular readings of)Tj 0 -1.2381 TD 0 Tw (sea-surface temperatures on his voyages across the Atlantic, marking the)Tj T* (first use of the thermometer as a navigational device. )Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0622 Tw (In his late 70s, while serving as ambassador to France and living near)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0158 Tw (Paris, Franklin noticed a peculiar lack of intensity to the sunlight in the)Tj T* 0.058 Tw (summer of 1783 and drew a connection between it and the severity of)Tj T* -0.038 Tw (the following winter across Europe. He described his thinking in a mem-)Tj T* -0.0304 Tw (oir published by the Manchester Society: ?During several of the summer)Tj T* 0.0078 Tw [(months of the year 1783,? he wrote, ?when the effects of the sun?)73.9(s rays)]TJ T* -0.0393 Tw [(to heat the earth in these northern regions should have been the greatest,)]TJ T* 0.1133 Tw (there existed a constant fog over all Europe, and great part of North)Tj T* -0.031 Tw [(America. This fog was of a permanent nature; it was dry)91.7(,)0( and the rays of)]TJ T* 0.0258 Tw [(the sun seemed to have little effect towards dissipating it, as they easily)]TJ T* 0.0717 Tw [(do a moist fog, arising from water)110.7(.? This coolness caused the earth to)]TJ T* 0.1972 Tw (absorb less heat, he reasoned. ?Hence the surface was early frozen.)Tj T* 0.0474 Tw (Hence the first snows remained on it unmelted, and received continual)Tj T* 0.0692 Tw (additions. Hence perhaps the winter of 1783?4, was more severe than)Tj T* 0 Tw (any that happened for many years.?)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0849 Tw (?The cause of this universal fog is not yet ascertained,? he wrote. Per-)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0437 Tw (haps it was the burned-out debris of a comet or asteroid, he supposed,)Tj T* 0.1173 Tw [(or more particularly)91.7(, ?the vast quantity of smoke, long continuing to)]TJ T* 0 Tw (issue during the summer? from volcanoes near Iceland.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0883 Tw [(?It seems however worth the inquiry)91.7(,)0( whether other hard winters,)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.1799 Tw [(recorded in history)91.7(,)0.1( were preceded by similar permanent and widely)]TJ T* -0.0833 Tw (extended summer fogs,? Franklin wrote. ?Because, if found to be so, men)Tj T* 0.1195 Tw (might from such fogs conjecture the probability of a succeeding hard)Tj T* 0.0875 Tw [(winter)-365.5(.)-365.3(.)-365.3(.)0( and take such measures as are possible and practicable, to)]TJ T* 0 Tw (secure themselves and effects from the mischiefs that attend the last.?)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0132 Tw [(Following Franklin?)73.9(s line of thought, modern earth and weather sci-)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.1148 Tw (entists, searching climate evidence and historical records, have indeed)Tj T* -0.0023 Tw (found a pattern of atmospheric cooling lasting up to two years after the)Tj T* 0 Tw (eruptions of large volcanoes.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0228 Tw (Benjamin Franklin died on April 17, 1790, at his home in Philadel-)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0165 Tw (phia at the age of 84. In 1906, in Philadelphia, the American Philosoph-)Tj T* -0.0443 Tw [(ical Society)91.7(, a learned group which Franklin founded in 1743, celebrated)]TJ T* -0.0002 Tc 0.0499 Tw [(the bicentennial of his birth. One of the nation?)73.8(s most astute scientists,)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0889 Tw (Cleveland Abbe, himself a pioneer of American weather forecasting, took)Tj T* -0.0234 Tw [(the occasion to describe Franklin?)73.9(s contribution to meteorology)91.7(. ?T)97.8(o the)]TJ T* -0.044 Tw (laurel that crowns him,? Abbe added another leaf: ?as the pioneer of the)Tj T* 0.0312 Tw (rational long-range forecasters, and of the physical meteorologists who)Tj T* 0 Tw [(will, undoubtedly)91.7(, in the future develop this difficult subject.?)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 316.4116 648.3574 Tm 0.025 Tw [(B)5.8(enjamin F)35.8(ranklin)]TJ 12 0 0 12 399.3448 647.5004 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 414 648.3574 Tm (11)Tj ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 209 -12 re 424 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0068 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 11)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 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[(N)29.9(aming the Clouds)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 18 0 0 18 257.7943 435.8806 Tm 0 Tc (?)Tj /F5 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 99.2858 395.8806 Tm 0.0599 Tc -0.0528 Tw [(Luke ho)44.8(w)49.9(ard al)44.8(w)49.9(a)36.9(y)23.9(s)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11.0625 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (lamented the fact that he had been taught ?too)Tj -11.0625 -1.2381 TD 0.2048 Tw (much Latin grammar and too little of anything else? at the private)Tj T* 0.0911 Tw [(Quaker school of his youth in Oxfordshire, England. His real interest)]TJ T* 0.0483 Tw (was science, although it would never be more than an avocation in his)Tj T* -0.0365 Tw [(life. In a letter to the great German dramatist and poet Johann W)85.8(olfgang)]TJ T* -0.0234 Tw (von Goethe, he wrote in 1822 that ?from the first my real penchant was)Tj T* -0.0156 Tw [(towards meteorology)91.7(.? Pursuing this lifelong avocation, Howard would)]TJ T* -0.077 Tw [(make observations that would bring order to the sky like nobody?)73.9(s before)]TJ T* 0.1077 Tw [(or since. Howard would transform the clouds from amorphous, ever)54.8(-)]TJ T* 0.0403 Tw (changing masses of vapor into objects of coherent particularity formed)Tj T* 0.0306 Tw (by knowable physical processes. It was a signal achievement, crucial to)Tj T* -0.0614 Tw (the founding of the new science. And in the winter of 1802, when it came)Tj T* -0.0231 Tw (time to describe them, to give to the clouds the names that would distin-)Tj T* -0.009 Tw [(guish one type from another)110.7(, he would, ingeniously)91.7(, fall back on the old)]TJ T* 0.0469 Tw (language of his classical education. And for two centuries and beyond,)Tj T* 0.0176 Tw (every meteorologist in every country of the world would learn to speak)Tj T* -0.0002 Tc 0.0001 Tw [(Luke Howard?)73.8(s Latin: )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 9.7605 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (cirrus, cumulus, stratus, nimbus.)Tj /F3 1 Tf -8.0462 -1.2381 TD -0.0019 Tw (Goethe wrote that Luke Howard ?was the first to hold fast concep-)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0438 Tw [(tually the airy and always changing form of clouds, to limit and fasten)]TJ T* 0.2375 Tw (down the indefinite, the intangible and unattainable and give them)Tj T* 0.0416 Tw [(appropriate names.? Howard?)73.9(s taxonomy of clouds brought to the sky)]TJ T* -0.0536 Tw [(what Carl Linnaeus brought to biology and Charles L)54.8(yell to geology: not)]TJ T* -0.0577 Tw (just a list of names, but an orderly new way of looking at nature. His sys-)Tj T* 0.023 Tw [(tem of nomenclature and the insights it represented spread fast and far)110.7(,)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 256.286 74.7979 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (13)Tj ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 209 -12 re 266.286 74.798 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0068 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 13)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 43 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 47 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 90 616.3629 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0.0175 Tw (not only through the infant science of meteorology but beyond into the)Tj 0 -1.2381 TD -0.0517 Tw (rich culture of nineteenth-century Europe. Goethe composed four poems)Tj T* 0.0645 Tw [(about the clouds, dedicating them to Howard. W)17.7(ithin a few years, for)]TJ T* 0.2403 Tw (the first time, accurate and meticulously detailed representations of)Tj T* 0.0982 Tw (clouds began appearing in the skies of romantic era paintings of such)Tj T* -0.0709 Tw [(masters as Caspar David Friedrich in Germany)91.7(, and Joseph M. W)128.8(.)0.2( T)85.8(u)0.1(rner)]TJ T* 0.0848 Tw [(and John Constable in England. Across the Atlantic, Howard?)73.9(s clouds)]TJ T* -0.0166 Tw [(inspired the skies of the nineteenth-century American landscape masters)]TJ T* 0.2498 Tw (Thomas Cole, Frederick Church, and George Inness. ?The sky too)Tj T* 0.0273 Tw (belongs to the Landscape,? Howard wrote. ?The ocean of air in which)Tj T* 0.0218 Tw (we live and move, in which the bolt of heaven is forged, and the fructi-)Tj T* -0.0116 Tw (fying rain condensed, can never be to the zealous Naturalist a subject of)Tj T* 0 Tw (tame and unfeeling contemplation.?)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0533 Tw (Born in London in 1772, Luke was the first child of Elizabeth and)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0769 Tw (Robert Howard, a devout Quaker and a successful manufacturer who)Tj T* -0.0363 Tw (introduced to England an efficient new oil-burning lamp invented by the)Tj T* 0.0638 Tw (Swiss engineer Aim? Argand. While Luke would follow his father into)Tj T* -0.0582 Tw (business and become a successful manufacturer of pharmaceutical chem-)Tj T* -0.0441 Tw (icals, the study of meteorology would always be an important part of his)Tj T* -0.0417 Tw (life. In a book about the barometer late in his life, Howard wrote that he)Tj T* 0.0438 Tw (was ?addicted to this study from my boyhood.? And he recalled in his)Tj T* 0.133 Tw (letter to Goethe that as a boy of 11 he was ?much interested by the)Tj T* 0.1205 Tw (remarkable summer haze and aurora borealis of 1783.? As Benjamin)Tj T* -0.0533 Tw (Franklin had surmised, volcanic eruptions in Iceland and Japan that year)Tj T* 0.0354 Tw [(and the next cast a pall of ash over Europe. At the time the dense haze)]TJ T* 0 Tw (was known as the ?Great Fogg.?)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.2037 Tw [(After completion of his studies in the large Quaker school near)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0328 Tw (Oxford, Luke was apprenticed for seven years to a retail pharmacist in)Tj T* 0.0467 Tw [(Stockport, near Manchester)110.7(. He returned to London and in 1796 went)]TJ T* 0.0226 Tw [(into business with W)17.7(illiam Allen, who operated a pharmacy in the city)91.7(.)]TJ T* -0.0154 Tw (Howard took charge of the chemical manufacturing laboratory at Plais-)Tj T* -0.023 Tw [(tow)91.7(, an industrial area in Essex, east of London. Allen and Howard also)]TJ T* 0.0029 Tw (formed a small philosophical group called the Askesian Society to culti-)Tj T* 0.0656 Tw [(vate their mutual scientific interests among like-minded friends. It was)]TJ T* 0.2104 Tw [(before this group, meeting in Allen?)73.9(s home in December 1802, that)]TJ T* 0 Tw (Howard presented his famous ?Essay on the Modification of Clouds.?)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.064 Tw [(Howard?)73.9(s meteorological interests went beyond the clouds, although)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0085 Tw (his most important contributions did not extend far beyond the subject.)Tj T* -0.0079 Tw [(A methodical and uncommonly close observer)110.7(, he would not be remem-)]TJ T* 0.0024 Tw (bered as a great theorist. And he never pretended to be a great scientist,)Tj T* 0.0576 Tw (always adopting a tone of modesty in his presentation and pointing to)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 90 648.3574 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (14)Tj 12 0 0 12 110 647.5004 Tm (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 124.6553 648.3574 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0102 Tw [(S)24.1(torm W)87.8(atchers)]TJ ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 209 -12 re 186.501 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0068 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 14)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 48 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 50 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 100 616.3629 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.0074 Tw (areas of the infant science requiring more research. He was a well-to-do)Tj 0 -1.2381 TD 0.0579 Tw (and busy businessman, occupied daily with the affairs of property and)Tj T* 0.0783 Tw (commerce. He was a devout Quaker and a prolific writer on religious)Tj T* -0.0805 Tw (and social subjects of contemporary importance to the Society of Friends.)Tj T* 0.0148 Tw [(As he wrote Goethe in 1822, his ?claims to be a man of science)-292.7(.)-292.6(.)-292.6(.)0( are)]TJ T* -0.0479 Tw [(merely small, however)110.7(, since I was born with a capability of observation,)]TJ T* 0 Tw (I then began to make use of it.?)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.094 Tw (Earlier in 1802 he had presented to the Askesian Society an essay)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.2375 Tw [(titled ?Proximate Causes of Rain, and on Atmospheric Electricity)91.7(.?)]TJ T* -0.0213 Tw [(Howard?)73.9(s ideas about the causes of rain were not persuasive. Like many)]TJ T* 0.0432 Tw (scientists of the era, Howard was very much impressed with the recent)Tj T* 0.0361 Tw [(discovery of electricity in the atmosphere. Long after Franklin?)73.9(s experi-)]TJ T* 0.0589 Tw [(ments, researchers were pursuing the proposition that electricity in the)]TJ T* -0.058 Tw (air was a cause rather than a by-product of important weather processes,)Tj T* -0.008 Tw (including the production of rain and the motions of storms. So Howard)Tj T* 0.0859 Tw (found that ?rain is in almost every instance the result of the electrical)Tj T* -0.0028 Tw [(action of clouds upon each other)110.7(,? although he would emphasize that it)]TJ T* 0.0214 Tw (is secondary to the ?two grand predisposing causes?a falling tempera-)Tj T* 0 Tw [(ture and the influx of vapour)110.7(.? )]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0418 Tw (In 1818 and 1819 he would publish the two-volume book )Tj /F4 1 Tf 25.7559 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (Climate)Tj -27.4702 -1.2381 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.039 Tw (of London,)Tj /F3 1 Tf 5.2468 0 TD (the first study of its kind. In this extensive report, Howard)Tj -5.2468 -1.2381 TD 0.0206 Tw (would break new ground in the investigation of the effects of urban air)Tj T* -0.0126 Tw [(pollution on weather)110.7(. He would become the first to identify a phenome-)]TJ T* -0.0476 Tw (non that later atmospheric scientists would call the )Tj /F4 1 Tf 21.8373 0 TD (heat island effect,)Tj /F3 1 Tf 7.6874 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (the)Tj -29.5246 -1.2381 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0117 Tw (ability of industrial and urban materials to radiate heat to such a degree)Tj T* 0 Tw [(as to cause changes in local weather)110.7(.)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0203 Tw (Howard was a pioneer among the many weather scientists over the)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0837 Tw [(years who ardently searched for)110.7(, and almost invariably found, discernible)]TJ T* -0.0108 Tw (cycles in weather and climate. In 1842 he published a theory based on a)Tj T* 0.0139 Tw (series of personal weather observations that claimed to establish an 18-)Tj T* 0.0362 Tw [(year cycle in the seasons of Britain. It was not a convincing paper)110.7(. Nor)]TJ T* 0.0477 Tw (was his research published 2 years earlier that purported to establish a)Tj T* 0.0302 Tw (9-year cycle. Before this kind of statistical chase had run its course, cli-)Tj T* -0.0529 Tw (mate and weather cycles of almost every period would be discovered and)Tj T* 0 Tw (triumphantly described.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.1256 Tw [(For all of that, few contributions to meteorology have lasted like)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.1039 Tw [(Howard?)73.9(s classification of clouds. This system is constructed with the)]TJ T* 0.0398 Tw (care of someone who seemed to be conscious of its permanence. In the)Tj T* 0.0711 Tw (eighteenth century achievements of Linnaeus, Howard was aware of a)Tj T* 0.1642 Tw [(perfect model for his scheme. The great Swedish naturalist Carl von)]TJ T* 0.036 Tw (Linn? had brought a classic, methodical nomenclature to the plant and)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 335.7012 648.3574 Tm 0.0251 Tw [(L)5.8(uke H)17.7(o)12(war)13.8(d)]TJ 12 0 0 12 399.3448 647.5004 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 414 648.3574 Tm (15)Tj ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 209 -12 re 424 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0068 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 15)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 51 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 53 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 90 616.3629 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.0281 Tw (animal kingdoms, and his Latin-based taxonomy had swept through the)Tj 0 -1.2381 TD -0.0107 Tw [(scientific world. In 1800, before his cloud study)91.7(, Howard had presented)]TJ T* -0.0208 Tw [(his first scientific paper)110.7(, on the subject of pollens, to the Linnean Society)]TJ T* 0 Tw (in London.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.1191 Tw [(At the time that Howard was working on clouds in England, the)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0357 Tw (same idea was being developed by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, the great evo-)Tj T* 0.0352 Tw (lutionary biologist in France, although the work of each was unknown)Tj T* 0.0552 Tw [(to the other)110.7(. While the two systems were not very different, Lamarck?)73.9(s)]TJ T* -0.0429 Tw (work failed to make an impression with fellow scientists, even in France.)Tj T* -0.0192 Tw [(Like Howard, Larmarck observed that different cloud types form at dif-)]TJ T* -0.0277 Tw (ferent heights of the atmosphere, which he divided into three layers, and)Tj T* -0.0194 Tw [(several of his cloud types are quite similar to Luke Howard?)73.9(s. But where)]TJ T* 0.1353 Tw (Howard had selected common words in universally acceptable Latin,)Tj T* 0.147 Tw (Larmarck had chosen unusual French names for the types of clouds.)Tj T* -0.0887 Tw (While Howard was clear that knowledge of clouds was an important part)Tj T* -0.0104 Tw [(of meteorological research and theory)91.7(,)0( Lamarck, in an 1802 paper)110.7(, ?On)]TJ T* 0.0118 Tw [(Cloud Forms,? seemed almost defensive on the subject. ?It is not in the)]TJ T* -0.0327 Tw (least amiss for those who are involved in meteorological research to give)Tj T* -0.0002 Tc -0.0122 Tw [(some attention to the form of clouds,? Lamarck wrote, ?for)110.6(, besides the)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0487 Tw (individual and accidental forms of each cloud, it is clear that clouds have)Tj T* 0.0809 Tw (certain general forms which are not all dependent on chance but on a)Tj T* -0.0808 Tw [(state of affairs which it would be useful to recognize and determine.? Per-)]TJ T* -0.0211 Tw (haps Lamarck had good reason to be defensive. He would suffer a repu-)Tj T* 0.1699 Tw (tation in France for ?spending much time in fruitless meteorological)Tj T* 0.0444 Tw [(prediction.? Finally)91.7(, a rude public rebuke by Napol?on, that he should)]TJ T* 0.26 Tw [(stick to natural history)91.7(,)0( caused him to abandon his meteorological)]TJ T* 0.0116 Tw [(researches. Howard?)73.9(s essay was heard by fellow Askesian Society mem-)]TJ T* -0.0002 Tc -0.0487 Tw [(ber Alexander T)36.7(illoch, editor of )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 13.7167 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (Philosophical Magazine,)Tj /F3 1 Tf 10.7356 0 TD (who soon pub-)Tj -24.4523 -1.2381 TD 0.2708 Tw [(lished the paper in his respected journal. Acceptance of Lamarck?)73.9(s)]TJ T* 0.1039 Tw [(research, in contrast, certainly suffered from the fact that it was pub-)]TJ T* -0.0307 Tw (lished in a journal that also contained treatises on astrological meteorol-)Tj T* 0.0063 Tw [(ogy)91.7(. Later)110.7(, other systems of cloud classifications were proposed by such)]TJ T* 0.0426 Tw (researchers as Heinrich Dove in Germany in 1828 and Elias Loomis in)Tj T* -0.0098 Tw (the United States in 1841; but for the better part of the whole science of)Tj T* 0.0373 Tw [(meteorology)91.7(, Howard?)73.9(s would be the international standard. Howard?)73.9(s)]TJ T* 0.0973 Tw (Latin names and the layered scheme he developed, defining clouds by)Tj T* 0.0278 Tw (their height and shape, was the basis of the classification system finally)Tj T* 0 Tw (adopted in 1929 by the International Meteorological Commission.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0353 Tw [(?Since the increased attention which has been given to Meteorology)91.7(,)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.033 Tw (the study of the various appearances of water suspended in the Atmos-)Tj T* 0.0076 Tw (phere has become an interesting and even necessary branch of that pur-)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 90 648.3574 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (16)Tj 12 0 0 12 110 647.5004 Tm (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 124.6553 648.3574 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0102 Tw [(S)24.1(torm W)87.8(atchers)]TJ ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 209 -12 re 186.501 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0068 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 16)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 54 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 56 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 100 616.3629 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0.093 Tw [(suit,? Howard began in his seminal paper)110.8(. Long before the physics of)]TJ 0 -1.2381 TD -0.0466 Tw (cloud formation was well established, Howard recognized that clouds of)Tj T* -0.0782 Tw (different shapes occupy different regions of the sky and form through dif-)Tj T* 0.0897 Tw (ferent processes. That the classifications survive the enormous gaps in)Tj T* -0.0226 Tw (understanding of these processes is testimony to the care he always took)Tj T* -0.0531 Tw [(in his research. Howard wrote that clouds ?are subject to certain distinct)]TJ T* -0.0248 Tw (modifications, produced by the general causes which affect all the varia-)Tj T* 0.0029 Tw (tions of the Atmosphere: they are commonly as good visible indications)Tj T* 0.0236 Tw (the operation of these causes, as are facial expressions, of the state of a)Tj T* -0.0586 Tw [(person?)73.9(s mind or body)91.7(.? A meteorologist relying only on his instruments,)]TJ T* 0 Tw (he wrote, was taking only ?the pulse? of the atmosphere.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0051 Tc -0.0766 Tw (First among the types came )Tj /F4 1 Tf 11.534 0 TD 0 Tw (cirrus,)Tj /F3 1 Tf 2.8835 0 TD -0.0765 Tw [(meaning ?lock of hair)110.7(,? clouds that)]TJ -16.1318 -1.2381 TD -0.0675 Tw (Howard describes as ?parallel, flexuous, or diverging fibres, extensible by)Tj T* -0.0911 Tw (increase in any or in all directions.? Then came )Tj /F4 1 Tf 19.5991 0 TD 0 Tw (cumulus,)Tj /F3 1 Tf 4.0307 0 TD -0.0911 Tw (meaning ?heap,?)Tj -23.6298 -1.2381 TD -0.0025 Tw (that Howard called ?convex or conical heaps, increasing upward from a)Tj T* 0.1035 Tw (horizontal base.? And then followed )Tj /F4 1 Tf 16.3932 0 TD 0 Tw (stratus,)Tj /F3 1 Tf 3.5024 0 TD 0.1035 Tw [(or ?layer)110.7(,? ?a widely ex-)]TJ -19.8957 -1.2381 TD 0.1306 Tw (tended, continuous, horizontal sheet, increasing from below upward.?)Tj /F4 1 Tf T* 0 Tw (Nimbus,)Tj /F3 1 Tf 3.874 0 TD -0.0858 Tw (or ?rain,? was ?the rain cloud. A cloud, or system of clouds from)Tj -3.874 -1.2381 TD 0.1609 Tw (which rain is falling. It is a horizontal sheet, above which the Cirrus)Tj T* 0 Tw (spreads, while the Cumulus enters it laterally and from beneath.?)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0481 Tw (?While any of the clouds, except the nimbus, retain their primitive)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.113 Tw (forms, no rain can take place,? he wrote, ?and it is by observing the)Tj T* 0.0306 Tw (changes and transitions of cloud form that weather may be predicted.?)Tj T* -0.0194 Tw (Howard explained that the names ?were intended as arbitrary terms for)Tj T* 0.0301 Tw (the structure of clouds, and the meaning of each was carefully fixed by)Tj T* 0.1133 Tw (a definition.? He hoped they would become part of a ?universal lan-)Tj T* -0.0299 Tw (guage, by means of which the intelligent of every country may convey to)Tj T* -0.0275 Tw (each other their ideas without the necessity of translation. And the more)Tj T* -0.0733 Tw (this facility of communications can be increased, by our adopting by con-)Tj T* 0.2255 Tw [(sent uniform modes, terms, and measures for our observations, the)]TJ T* 0.044 Tw (sooner we shall arrive at a knowledge of the phenomena of the atmos-)Tj T* 0.0536 Tw (phere in all parts of the globe, and carry the science to some degree of)Tj T* -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (perfection.?)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 335.7012 648.3574 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0251 Tw [(L)5.8(uke H)17.7(o)12(war)13.8(d)]TJ 12 0 0 12 399.3448 647.5004 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 414 648.3574 Tm (17)Tj ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 209 -12 re 424 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0068 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 17)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 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W n BT /F1 1 Tf 18 0 0 18 256.7858 579.3081 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0 Tc 0 Tw (3)Tj 28 0 0 28 181.6403 507.3081 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(J)29.7(ames G)5.8(laisher)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 20 0 0 20 197.0554 477.3081 Tm [(T)130(aking to the Air)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 18 0 0 18 257.7943 437.3081 Tm 0 Tc (?)Tj /F5 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 99.2858 395.3081 Tm 0.0599 Tc 0.0849 Tw [(On the )-23.9(afternoon)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.3738 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.1087 Tw (of September 5, 1862, in the gloriously bright)Tj -10.3738 -1.2381 TD 0.0015 Tw (light and brilliantly blue sky high above a sea of clouds over England, a)Tj T* 0.0412 Tw (dark and deadly curtain was beginning to descend. Suddenly the scien-)Tj T* -0.039 Tw (tist was struggling to make his observations. The images of the fine mea-)Tj T* 0.0642 Tw (suring scales of the barometer and the thermometer were blurring and)Tj T* -0.0416 Tw (fading in his eyes. James Glaisher was more than five miles in the air and)Tj T* 0.0487 Tw (still the balloon was rising. Panting for breath, he called to his pilot to)Tj T* -0.0534 Tw (help with the instruments, but through his failing eyes he saw that Henry)Tj T* 0.0617 Tw (Coxwell had climbed up onto the ring above the car to work with the)Tj T* -0.0413 Tw [(rigging. Glaisher?)74(s)0( arms went limp. Then his legs splayed out from under)]TJ T* -0.0391 Tw [(him and he fell against the edge of the car)110.7(. He couldn?)36.8(t speak. Resting on)]TJ T* 0 Tw [(his shoulder)110.7(, his head drooped out over the abyss.)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0611 Tw [(In putting himself in this predicament, Glaisher?)74(s)0( goal was to observe)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0274 Tw [(the critical features of the upper air)110.7(, the temperatures, the pressures, and)]TJ T* -0.0069 Tw (the dew points up through the realm of the atmosphere that always had)Tj T* 0.0395 Tw (been out of the reach of meteorologists. Until a scientist was willing to)Tj T* 0.0866 Tw (assume this risk, the closest researchers could come were the observa-)Tj T* 0.0692 Tw (tions made occasionally from the tops of high mountains. Finally they)Tj T* 0.0192 Tw (had a mode of flight and a mission dedicated to reaching the heights of)Tj T* -0.0405 Tw [(the free air and making the observations that would give them a real pic-)]TJ T* -0.0689 Tw [(ture of the structure of the atmosphere. Scientific expectations were high.)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.1948 Tw (Although manned balloon flight had been invented in France in)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0 Tw [(1783, its employment in the service of science had come slowly)91.7(.)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0665 Tw [(Benjamin Franklin, the 77-year)54.8(-old American ambassador to France,)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 256 74.7979 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (19)Tj ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 209 -12 re 266 74.798 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0068 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 19)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 63 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 65 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 90 616.3638 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.053 Tw [(was present to witness the spectacle that afternoon in August 1783 when)]TJ 0 -1.2381 TD 0 Tw (the first unmanned hydrogen gas balloon was released over Paris.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD (?Of what use is such a device?? a skeptic asked.)Tj T* (?Of what use is a newborn babe?? Franklin replied.)Tj T* -0.0126 Tc 0.0521 Tw (The value of such a device to the purposes of meteorology was soon)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0524 Tw (recognized by the few scientists pursuing the subject at the time. The physi-)Tj T* 0.078 Tw (cist Jacques Charles, who invented the gas balloon, took a thermometer)Tj T* -0.0117 Tw (and a barometer on his first ascent in 1783. The American physician John)Tj T* -0.0307 Tw (Jeffries took temperature readings and air samples during a 1784 ascent in)Tj T* 0.014 Tw (France. And the chemist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and the physicist Jean-)Tj T* 0.0576 Tw (Baptiste Biot made a few scientific flights in 1804. Still, most balloonists)Tj T* -0.0096 Tw (were interested in temperature and wind variables of the upper air only to)Tj T* 0.0455 Tw [(the extent that they affected the progress of their ascents. However valu-)]TJ T* 0.12 Tw (able the scientific observations might be, most balloons and balloonists)Tj T* 0.1198 Tw (were hired for their spectacle value, to entertain crowds at large public)Tj T* 0.0407 Tw (events. It was several decades before the newborn babe reached maturity)Tj T* -0.0438 Tw (as a scientific tool. Manned balloon ascents were costly and unpredictable,)Tj T* -0.0855 Tw (and few philosophers were willing to stake their lives on such a contrivance.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0495 Tw [(Only in the middle of the nineteenth century was the device put to)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.2583 Tw [(work for science in a serious way)91.7(. The British Association for the)]TJ T* 0.0177 Tw (Advancement of Science had financed a few flights in 1852, when John)Tj T* -0.0916 Tw [(W)73.9(elsh, superintendent of its observatory at Kew)91.7(, obtained records of tem-)]TJ T* 0.2136 Tw (perature and humidity up to 20,000 feet. Now the association was)Tj T* 0.1191 Tw (financing Glaisher and Coxwell to investigate a long list of questions)Tj T* 0.0805 Tw (about the upper atmosphere. On the afternoon of September 5, 1862,)Tj T* -0.0173 Tw [(however)110.7(, at 1:57 )]TJ 7.87 0 0 7.87 167.6292 291.3637 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (P)Tj 10.5 0 0 10.5 170.9918 291.3637 Tm (.)Tj 7.87 0 0 7.87 173.909 291.3637 Tm (M)Tj 10.5 0 0 10.5 181.784 291.3637 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0173 Tw [(., one of the first balloon ascents dedicated to mete-)]TJ -8.7413 -1.2381 TD 0 Tw (orology was looking like a terrible mistake. )Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0026 Tc -0.0637 Tw (?In an instant intense darkness overcame me,? Glaisher would recall,)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0721 Tw [(but still, for a few seconds longer)110.7(, he was conscious. ?I thought I had been)]TJ T* 0.0034 Tw (seized with asphyxia, and believed I should experience nothing more, as)Tj T* 0.0093 Tw (death would come unless we speedily descended.? Nine and three-quar-)Tj T* -0.0053 Tw (ters inches of mercury was the last air pressure reading he had been able)Tj T* -0.064 Tw [(to see. By Glaisher?)74(s)0( estimation they were above 29,000 feet, higher in the)]TJ T* -0.0755 Tw (sky than anyone had ever been before. Sightless, unable to move or speak,)Tj T* 0.011 Tw [(the 53-year)54.8(-old meteorologist lost consciousness. His body was starving)]TJ T* 0.0236 Tw (of oxygen, just as he suspected, but the most perilous circumstance was)Tj T* -0.0441 Tw [(the fact that at that very moment the pilot of the balloon was completely)]TJ T* 0 Tw [(unaware of the desperate condition of his passenger)110.7(.)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0534 Tw (Henry Coxwell was up in the rigging of the balloon, sitting on the)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0084 Tw (ring, working on a serious mechanical problem. From the very moment)Tj T* 0.0389 Tw [(that Glaisher and Coxwell had left the ground near W)85.8(olverhampton at)]TJ T* -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (1:03 )Tj 7.87 0 0 7.87 112.9143 83.3637 Tm 0 Tc (P)Tj 10.5 0 0 10.5 116.2769 83.3637 Tm (.)Tj 7.87 0 0 7.87 119.1942 83.3637 Tm (M)Tj 10.5 0 0 10.5 127.0692 83.3637 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0411 Tw [(., the balloon had been rotating, almost spinning like a top. This)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 90 648.3574 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (20)Tj 12 0 0 12 110 647.5004 Tm (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 124.6553 648.3574 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0102 Tw [(S)24.1(torm W)87.8(atchers)]TJ ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 209 -12 re 186.501 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0068 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 20)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 66 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 68 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 100 616.3629 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0.0363 Tw (constant motion had caused the rip cord, the line to the shutters of the)Tj 0 -1.2381 TD -0.0683 Tw (gas valve, to become entangled in the rigging. Unless Coxwell could open)Tj T* -0.0228 Tw [(the gas valve, the balloon would remain completely out of control, spin-)]TJ T* 0.0445 Tw (ning and rising ever higher in the silence and the growing cold and the)Tj T* 0 Tw [(increasingly rarefied air)110.7(.)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0196 Tw (Coxwell had taken off a pair of thick gloves in order to better han-)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0346 Tw (dle the sand bags, ?and the moment my unprotected hands rested on the)Tj T* 0.0674 Tw [(ring, which retained the temperature of the air)110.7(, I found that they were)]TJ T* 0.0484 Tw (frostbitten.? The neck of the balloon was ringed with frost and the air)Tj T* -0.0234 Tw (was piercingly cold. By the time the valve line finally hung free, the pilot)Tj T* 0.065 Tw (had lost all use of his hands. Coxwell placed his arms on the ring and)Tj T* -0.0072 Tw [(allowed himself to fall down into the wicker car)110.7(, bringing the line down)]TJ T* 0.078 Tw [(with him. His breath coming in desperate gulps, he spoke to Glaisher)110.7(,)]TJ T* 0 Tw (and only then realized the perilous condition of the scientist.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.2194 Tw (Now Coxwell felt himself losing consciousness. His hands were)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0718 Tw (numb and black with frostbite, and his arms and legs were becoming use-)Tj T* 0.0153 Tw [(less. W)17.7(ith the last of his faculties he seized the valve cord with his teeth)]TJ T* 0.0372 Tw (and jerked his head down once, twice, and again. Finally the hydrogen)Tj T* 0 Tw (began escaping, and the balloon began to descend.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0487 Tw (?I then looked round, although it seemed advisable to let off more)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0713 Tw [(gas, to see if I could in any way assist Mr)110.7(. Glaisher)110.7(, but the table of instru-)]TJ T* 0.2125 Tw [(ments blocked the way)91.7(, and I could not, with disabled hands, pass)]TJ T* 0.1525 Tw (beneath,? Coxwell recalled. ?My last hope, then, was in seeking the)Tj T* -0.0465 Tw [(restorative effects of a warmer stratum of atmosphere.? He tugged again)]TJ T* -0.0076 Tw (on the valve line. He felt himself strengthening as the balloon continued)Tj T* 0 Tw (falling with a swoosh, and he called out to the scientist.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0259 Tw (?Never shall I forget those painful moments of doubt and suspense)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0501 Tw [(as to Mr)110.7(. Glaisher?)74(s)0( fate, when no response came to my questions,? he)]TJ T* 0 Tw [(wrote later)110.7(. Finally Glaisher ?gasped with a sigh.?)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0013 Tw [(?Do try)91.7(,)0( now do!? Glaisher remembered hearing as his pilot roused)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.0903 Tw [(him from the deep, unrefreshing sleep. The instruments became dimly)]TJ T* 0 Tw (visible, and then Coxwell, and suddenly he was awake.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD [(Coxwell remembered his confused look, but it passed quickly)91.7(.)]TJ T* (?I have been insensible,? Glaisher said.)Tj T* [(?Y)85.8(ou have,? replied Coxwell, ?and I too, very nearly)91.7(.?)]TJ T* -0.0289 Tw [(Glaisher poured brandy on Coxwell?)73.9(s black hands, took up a pencil,)]TJ -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.1906 Tw (and resumed his observations, reporting that ?no inconvenience fol-)Tj T* -0.0876 Tw [(lowed my insensibility)91.7(.? The scientist calculated later that during the time)]TJ T* -0.0232 Tw (he was unconscious the balloon had reached about 37,000 feet, a height)Tj T* 0 Tw (of roughly 7 miles, higher than anyone had gone before them. )Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.042 Tw (The balloonists landed in a grassy field, and Glaisher walked more)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0 Tw (than seven miles to the nearest railway station to get assistance. )Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 332.2051 648.3574 Tm 0.025 Tw [(J)29.7(ames G)5.8(laisher)]TJ 12 0 0 12 399.3448 647.5004 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 414 648.3574 Tm (21)Tj ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 209 -12 re 424 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0068 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 21)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 69 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 71 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 108 616.3629 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (The )Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.9848 0 TD [(T)36.7(imes)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 2.8928 0 TD -0.0021 Tc 0.0414 Tw [(of London exulted over the story)89.7(.)-1.8( ?W)76.9(e have just had an)]TJ -6.5918 -1.2381 TD -0.0051 Tc 0.0885 Tw (ascent such as the world has never heard of or dreamed of,? its corre-)Tj T* 0.0345 Tw [(spondent wrote on September 11. ?T)85.8(wo men have been nearer by some)]TJ T* 0.0349 Tw (miles to the moon and stars than all the race of man before them.? The)Tj T* 0.0439 Tw [(flight ranked among ?the critical and striking moments of war)110.6(, politics,)]TJ T* 0.0175 Tw [(or discovery)91.7(,? the newspaper stated. ?But the feat was almost too auda-)]TJ T* 0 Tw (cious, and was carried on to the very verge of fate.?)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0034 Tw (Glaisher would make 28 free-flight ascents in all between 1862 and)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.224 Tw (1866, although never again would he go so high. His observations)Tj T* 0.0335 Tw (proved valuable, most notably in testing rules proposed by Gay-Lussac)Tj T* 0.105 Tw [(in 1804?that temperature fell at the rate of 1 degree per 300 feet of)]TJ T* -0.0298 Tw (ascent, and that the composition of the atmosphere is constant at all ele-)Tj T* 0.0066 Tw [(vations. More generally)91.7(, however)110.7(, the findings of his daring expeditions)]TJ T* -0.0097 Tw (were bound to disappoint the high expectations of scientific ballooning.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0822 Tw (For the Frenchman Camille Flammarion, a veteran of several ascents,)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.2305 Tw (the first sight of manned balloon flight had evoked a ?magnificent)Tj T* -0.0831 Tw (dream? about how the mysteries of the air would be laid bare. ?Its secrets)Tj T* 0.0195 Tw (would be disclosed, the movements of the atmospheric world would be)Tj T* 0.0035 Tw (counted, measured, and determined as scrupulously as astronomers can)Tj T* 0.0306 Tw (determine those of celestial bodies; and man, once placed in possession)Tj T* -0.0175 Tw (of this terrestrial mechanism, would be able to predict rains and storms,)Tj T* 0.0205 Tw (drought and heat, luxuriant crops and famines, as surely as he can pre-)Tj T* -0.0529 Tw [(dict eclipses, and thus ensure an ever)54.8(-smiling and fertile soil!? Coming to)]TJ T* 0.0573 Tw [(meteorology from astronomy)91.7(, like Glaisher)110.7(, Flammarion blamed scien-)]TJ T* 0.0259 Tw [(tists for the failure of the dream. ?Is it not singular)110.7(,? he asked, that the)]TJ T* 0.2086 Tw (science of the stars could foretell eclipses two centuries in advance,)Tj T* -0.0279 Tw (?whilst we can scarcely assert with probability what kind of weather we)Tj T* -0.0425 Tw [(shall have tomorrow? The history of science tells us, however)110.8(, that mete-)]TJ T* -0.0696 Tw (orological investigations have never been carried on with that energy and)Tj T* 0.0042 Tw [(care which has long characterized the science of astronomy)91.7(.? Y)85.8(ears ear-)]TJ T* 0.0836 Tw [(lier)110.7(, Glaisher himself had written that he expected meteorology would)]TJ T* 0 Tw [(?in due time rival the first of all sciences, astronomy)91.7(.?)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.1524 Tw (Like many a new scientific instrument, the balloon illuminated a)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.2393 Tw [(world of detail that posed more questions than answers. Glaisher?)74(s)]TJ T* -0.0167 Tw [(upper)54.8(-air researches revealed an atmosphere that was more complicated)]TJ T* -0.058 Tw (and unpredictable than most researchers were prepared to imagine at the)Tj T* 0.1146 Tw (time. Rather than confirming old maxims, the new tool unexpectedly)Tj T* 0.1117 Tw [(exposed a new layer of complexity)91.7(, requiring new explanations. Gay-)]TJ T* -0.0393 Tw [(Lussac?)73.9(s estimation of the lapse rate of temperatures was confirmed only)]TJ T* 0.1616 Tw [(in the most general way)91.7(, for example, because balloonists frequently)]TJ T* -0.0333 Tw (encountered distinct layers of air of very different temperatures, humidi-)Tj T* 0.049 Tw [(ties, and wind directions. As little as 500 feet off the ground, the wind)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 90 648.3574 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (22)Tj 12 0 0 12 110 647.5004 Tm (?)Tj 10 0 0 10 124.6553 648.3574 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0102 Tw [(S)24.1(torm W)87.8(atchers)]TJ ET Q 0.2 i 37 739 209 -12 re 186.501 648.357 m f* BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 39 729 Tm 0 g 0.0068 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(01 cox part 1 6/20/02 11:16 AM Page 22)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 0 G 0.25 w 36 738 m 36 714 l 0 702 m 24 702 l 477 738 m 477 714 l 513 702 m 489 702 l 36 0 m 36 24 l 0 36 m 24 36 l 477 0 m 477 24 l 513 36 m 489 36 l S 1 G 0.5 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S 0 G 0.25 w 232.5 726 m 280.5 726 l 232.5 12 m 280.5 12 l 12 393 m 12 345 l 501 393 m 501 345 l 256.5 738 m 256.5 714 l 256.5 24 m 256.5 0 l 0 369 m 24 369 l 489 369 m 513 369 l 256.5 726 m 262.5 726 l 262.5 722.688 259.812 720 256.5 720 c 253.188 720 250.5 722.688 250.5 726 c 250.5 729.312 253.188 732 256.5 732 c 259.812 732 262.5 729.312 262.5 726 c 256.5 12 m 262.5 12 l 262.5 8.688 259.812 6 256.5 6 c 253.188 6 250.5 8.688 250.5 12 c 250.5 15.312 253.188 18 256.5 18 c 259.812 18 262.5 15.312 262.5 12 c 12 369 m 18 369 l 18 365.688 15.312 363 12 363 c 8.688 363 6 365.688 6 369 c 6 372.312 8.688 375 12 375 c 15.312 375 18 372.312 18 369 c 501 369 m 507 369 l 507 365.688 504.312 363 501 363 c 497.688 363 495 365.688 495 369 c 495 372.312 497.688 375 501 375 c 504.312 375 507 372.312 507 369 c S endstream endobj 72 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 74 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 738 m 0 738 l f q 0.2 i 21 717 471 -696 re 0 738 m W n 0 738.015 513 -738 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 100 616.3629 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.058 Tw (could be blowing in the opposite direction from the surface. And air near)Tj 0 -1.2381 TD 0 Tw (the surface often was overlaid with warmer air at varying heights aloft.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0126 Tc 0.0211 Tw (Scientific balloonists also encountered more practical difficulties with)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.1244 Tw [(their instruments than they expected. In the 1850s, W)74(elsh recognized a)]TJ T* -0.0596 Tw [(problem with temperature observations caused by the fact that a rising bal-)]TJ T* -0.0072 Tw (loon carries up with it a certain amount of air from lower levels of atmos-)Tj T* -0.0099 Tw [(phere. He rigged up an ?aspirator)110.8(,? a bellows that forced ambient air into)]TJ T* 0.0145 Tw [(the thermometer)110.7(, which seemed to work fine until especially cold temper-)]TJ T* -0.007 Tw (atures were encountered. Glaisher took meticulous care of 22 devices that)Tj T* 0.0577 Tw (were part of the instrument kit he arranged on the table before him, but)Tj T* 0.1315 Tw (often he encountered difficulties with his data. For one, later observers)Tj T* 0.1346 Tw (decided that Glaisher had not taken sufficient precautions to avoid the)Tj T* -0.0323 Tw [(effect of the sun?)73.9(s direct radiation on his thermometers. There were always)]TJ T* 0.0746 Tw [(surprises in the winds, a critical atmospheric feature that free-flying bal-)]TJ T* 0.0899 Tw (loons were inherently unable to measure because they moved as part of)Tj T* 0.0792 Tw (these currents. And always there were anomalies, unexpected and unex-)Tj T* -0.0025 Tw (plainable readings. Some were caused by the fact that the balloons moved)Tj T* 0.0252 Tw (up and down through the atmosphere more quickly than the instruments)Tj T* 0.0418 Tw (could effectively respond. A temperature reading taken at 10,000 feet on)Tj T* -0.0309 Tw (the way up could be much warmer than the temperature registering on the)Tj T* -0.0415 Tw (thermometer at 10,000 feet on the way down. Because free-flying balloons)Tj T* -0.076 Tw (almost always shot up swiftly through the lower reaches of the atmosphere,)Tj T* 0.0937 Tw (balloonists were unable to get readings in the layers where much of the)Tj T* 0.0447 Tw [(weather is formed. Glaisher and others sought to overcome this problem)]TJ T* -0.0435 Tw [(with a series of flights in captive balloons that were tethered to the ground.)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0176 Tc 0.0257 Tw (The flights attracted increasingly widespread public attention, and the)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0299 Tw [(celebrity of the brave ballooning English scientist continued to grow)91.7(. At the)]TJ T* -0.01 Tw (end of his aerial exploits, in 1869, Glaisher gave a series of lectures around)Tj T* 0.0273 Tw [(England. None of this popularity had pleased Glaisher?)74(s)0( boss at the Royal)]TJ T* -0.082 Tw [(Observatory in Greenwich, the properly V)36.7(ictorian George Airy)91.7(,)0.1( Astronomer)]TJ T* -0.0751 Tw (Royal. Airy disliked sensations of any kind, and meteorology was not a mat-)Tj T* 0.0294 Tw [(ter of great importance to him. Airy was among many astronomers of the)]TJ T* 0.0619 Tw [(age who distrusted meteorology?)73.9(s lack of theory)91.7(.)0( Glaisher had always felt)]TJ T* 0.0329 Tw (more strongly about the value of meteorological work and was not afraid)Tj T* 0.1122 Tw [(to pursue his own research agenda. In character)110.7(, both men were strong-)]TJ T* 0.0272 Tw [(willed, arrogant, and autocratic. W)17.7(ithin a few years of the balloon flights,)]TJ T* -0.0611 Tw [(during a disagreement with Airy over a small matter)110.7(, Glaisher resigned from)]TJ T* 0.1568 Tw (the observatory after 34 years as superintendent of the Magnetical and)Tj T* -0.0582 Tw [(Meteorological Department. As he had with Airy)91.7(,)0( Glaisher had parted ways)]TJ T* 0 Tw (with Coxwell over some disagreement in the summer of 1864.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0101 Tc 0.0002 Tw [(Recently Julian L. 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In the wan-)Tj 0 -1.2381 TD -0.0282 Tw (ing days of the reign of Louis-Napol?on, Glaisher was a staunch imperial-)Tj T* -0.0133 Tw [(ist who resented the republican leanings of his French colleagues. Himself)]TJ T* 0.1097 Tw (a man of humble origins and little formal education, he always looked)Tj T* 0.0264 Tw (down upon those of similar background in his professional and personal)Tj T* -0.0622 Tw (affairs. ?He was obsessive both at work and in his personal relationships,?)Tj T* 0.0335 Tw (Hunt wrote in 1996 in the )Tj /F4 1 Tf 11.61 0 TD (Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical)Tj -11.61 -1.2381 TD 0 Tw [(Society)91.7(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 3.4494 0 TD 0.0213 Tw (?One is forced to admit that Glaisher seems to have been a snob)Tj -3.4494 -1.2381 TD 0.0938 Tw (of the first order as far as his social and family life was concerned.? In)Tj T* 0.0874 Tw [(1868, Glaisher?)74(s daughter)110.8(, Cecilia, married a medical student, Frederick)]TJ T* 0.2664 Tw [(Hunt, from a family that Glaisher did not approve. ?Mrs. Glaisher)]TJ T* 0.0112 Tw (accepted the situation and her husband developed a coolness towards his)Tj T* 0 Tw (wife and daughter which was never to be overcome,? wrote Hunt.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0982 Tw (For all that, Glaisher was a deeply committed scientist who made)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.072 Tw [(pioneering contributions to meteorology)91.7(, including the organization in)]TJ T* -0.0579 Tw (the 1850s of a network of volunteer weather observers in the British Isles)Tj T* 0.2377 Tw (that was a forerunner to the storm-warning system inaugurated by)Tj T* 0.0359 Tw (Robert FitzRoy in the 1860s. Studying ways to calculate the formation)Tj T* 0.024 Tw [(of dew)91.7(, he would lay out on the cold grass during the night, an activity)]TJ T* -0.0125 Tw (that brought on rheumatism, which caused him trouble for years. In the)Tj T* -0.0525 Tw (era before bacteria were known, he investigated the meteorology of Lon-)Tj T* -0.0349 Tw [(don to determine if weather conditions played a role in the 1854 cholera)]TJ T* 0.0454 Tw (outbreak. He helped develop mathematical ?factor tables? which were)Tj T* 0 Tw (used by scientists for years.)Tj 1.7143 -1.2381 TD -0.0151 Tc 0.0869 Tw (It was always the remarkable balloon flights for which he was most)Tj -1.7143 -1.2381 TD 0.062 Tw (widely known, even though, for all their drama and daring, Glaisher did)Tj T* 0.2045 Tw (not achieve any real scientific breakthrough during those ascents. The)Tj T* -0.0567 Tw [(British Association?)73.9(s interest in manned ballooning came to an end in 1881,)]TJ T* -0.0107 Tw [(when W)85.8(alter Powell, a member of Parliament, was lost at sea in a balloon.)]TJ T* -0.0016 Tw (But ballooning of that era opened the way to development in the 1890s of)Tj T* 0.0432 Tw (unmanned ballooning, which has a long and especially rewarding history)Tj T* -0.0019 Tw [(in meteorology)91.6(. At the turn of the century)91.6(,)0( the French meteorologist L?on-)]TJ T* -0.0722 Tw [(Philippe T)85.8(eisserenc de Bort used unmanned balloons to discover the stratos-)]TJ T* 0.0279 Tw [(phere, a region of relatively uniform temperature that Glaisher must have)]TJ T* 0.0838 Tw [(nearly touched in 1862. 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Table of Contents

Introduction.

PART I: A Newborn Babe.

1. Benjamin Franklin: Chasing the Wind.

2. Luke Howard: Naming the Clouds.

3. James Glaisher: Taking to the Air.

PART II: American Storms.

4. William C. Redfield: Walking the Path of Destruction.

5. James P. Espy: "The Storm Breeder".

6. Elias Loomis: Mapping the Storm.

7. Joseph Henry: Setting the Stage.

8. Matthew Fontaine Maury: A Storm of Controversy.

9. William Ferrel: A Shy Genius.

PART III: The Main Artery.

10. Robert FitzRoy: Prophet Without Honor.

11. Urbain J. J. Le Verrier: Clouds over Crimea.

12. Cleveland Abbe: "Ol' Probabilities".

13. John P. Finley: Down Tornado Alley.

14. Mark W. Harrington: Civilian Casualty.

15. Isaac Monroe Cline: Taking Galveston by Storm.

16. Gilbert Walker: The Southern Oscillation.

17. C. LeRoy Meisinger: Death by Daring.

PART IV: Together at the Front.

18. Vilhelm Bjerknes: The Bergen Schoolmaster.

19. Lewis Fry Richardson: The Forecasting Factory.

20. Jacob Bjerknes: From Polar Front to El Ni?o.

21. Tor Bergeron: A Gifted Vision.

22. Carl-Gustaf Rossby: Conquering the Weather Bureau.

23. Sverre Petterssen: Forecasting for D-Day.

PART V: Suddenly New Science.

24. Jule Gregory Charney: Mastering the Math.

25. Jerome Namias: The Long Ranger.

26. Edward N. Lorenz: Calculating Chaos.

27. Tetsuya Theodore Fujita: Divining the Downburst.

28. Ants Leetmaa: Out on a Limb.

Bibliography.

Index.

Editorial Reviews

"A fascinating volume in which John D. Cox looks at both the science and the personalities of the men who made modern meteorology." (The Associated Press) "… a fascinating volume in which John D. Cox looks both at the science and personality of the men who made modern meteorology… " (The Associated Press, 14 October 2002) “ … This lively, inspiring account reveals the courage and bravery of the early weather pioneers… ” (Firstscience.com, 15 May 2003)