Structure of Enteric Neurons by Axel BrehmerStructure of Enteric Neurons by Axel Brehmer

Structure of Enteric Neurons

byAxel Brehmer

Paperback | July 5, 2006

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1 Introduction The plexuses of Auerbach and Meissner are peculiar to the gut; they extend from the beginning of the unstriated portion of the oesophagus to the end of the rectum. They have usually been considered to belong to the sympathetic system, but it appears to me preferable to place them in a class by themselves. We may speak of them as forming the enteric nervous system. (Langley 1900) In this context,itislessimportant that Langleyexcludedthe striated part of the oesophagus from his de?nition of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Much more remarkable seems to be that for Langley, a physiologist, structural reasons were the most decisive for taking the nervous system within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract as an entity unto itself. On the one hand, he argued that enteric nerve cells differ in their histological character from those in para- and prevertebral ganglia. On the other hand, there were few connections of enteric nerve plexuses with the central nervous system (CNS) through sympathetic or other autonomic nerves (which had already been described, however; Auerbach 1862). In his later, more famous monograph, he divided the autonomic nerves into three groups: sympathetic, parasympathetic and intestinal nerves (Langley 1921). This division seems to be all the more modern considering that, during the following decades, many authors and textbooks moved away from this division. The signi?cance of enteric neurons was reduced to that of postganglionic relay stations of vegetative nerves (Müller 1921; Lawrentjew 1929; Botár et al. 1942).
Title:Structure of Enteric NeuronsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:94 pages, 23.5 × 15.5 × 0.02 inPublished:July 5, 2006Publisher:Springer NatureLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3540328718

ISBN - 13:9783540328711

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Table of Contents

Introduction.- The enteric nervous system (ENS).- Ganglionated enteric plexuses.- Non-ganglionated enteric plexuses.- Morphological classifications of enteric neurons.- Material and Methods.- Immunohistochemistry.- Immunocytochemistry.- Double labelling post mortem tracing.-Image aquisition of immunofluorescent specimens, counts, morphometry.- Three-dimensional(D-) reconstructions.- Chemical coding of Stach's neuron types in the pig.- Preliminary note: Cholinergic and nitrergic neurons.- Type I neurons .- Type II neurons.- Type III neurons .- Type IV neurons .- Type V neurons .- Type VI neurons.- Type VII neurons.- Dendritic type II neurons, mini neurons, giant neurons.- Morphological neuron types and their chemical coding in the human.- Nomenclature used for human enteric neurons.- Type II neurons.- Stubby (type I) neurons.- Spiny (type I) neurons.- Type V neurons.- Type III neurons.- Dendritic type II neurons.- Spiny neurons with main dendrites or human type VII neurons?.- Discussion.- What does NF-immunohistochemistry achieve?.- General remarks on equivalent neurons of different species.- Putative functional categories of human enteric neurons.- Plasticity.- Summary.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Subject Index