Surfactant Aggregation by J.H. ClintSurfactant Aggregation by J.H. Clint

Surfactant Aggregation

byJ.H. Clint

Paperback | November 5, 2012

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Surface Active Agents (surfactants) are vital components in biological systems, form key ingredients in consumer products and play an important role in many industrial processes. For example, cell membranes owe their structure to the aggregation of surfactants known as lipids which form a major component of the membrane. Other natural surfactants occur in the digestive system, in the lungs, and even in such substances as crude oil. Man-made surfactants are used in a wide range of domestic and industrial products and processes. In addition to detergents and personal care products, surfactants have found uses in almost every branch of the chemical industry as well as in several other industries. These include dyestuffs, fibres, mineral process­ ing, oil field chemicals, paints, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and plastics. Surfactants are versatile materials which are manufactured in a huge variety of forms to suit all of these applications. As a result of their importance, the technical literature on all aspects of surfactant behaviour is now very extensive. Surprisingly, however, the treatment in textbooks has been somewhat fragmented, often in the form of conference proceedings or edited, multi-authored works, both lacking in continuity.
Title:Surfactant AggregationFormat:PaperbackDimensions:283 pagesPublished:November 5, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401050082

ISBN - 13:9789401050081

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Table of Contents

1 Nature of Surfactants.- 1.1 Introduction to surfactants.- 1.2 Natural surfactants.- 1.3 Synthetic surfactants.- 1.4 Types of surfactant.- 1.4.1 Hydrophilic groups.- 1.4.2 Hydrophobic groups.- 1.5 Surface activity.- 1.5.1 Self-association.- 1.5.2 The hydrophobic effect.- References.- 2 Adsorption at liquid interfaces.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Direct measurement of amount adsorbed.- 2.3 Adsorption studied via surface and interfacial tension measurement.- 2.4 Adsorption of ionic surfactants.- 2.4.1 No added electrolyte.- 2.4.2 Ionic surfactant with excess electrolyte.- 2.5 Equations of state for adsorbed surfactants.- 2.6 Adsorption at the liquid/liquid interface.- 2.7 Ultra-low interfacial tensions.- 2.7.1 Prediction of emulsion type from packing geometry.- 2.7.2 Phase inversion.- 2.7.3 Tensions at curved and planar interfaces.- 2.7.4 Interactions between adsorbed monolayers.- 2.7.5 Practical applications of ultra-low tension systems.- 2.8 Physical properties of adsorbed monolayers.- 2.9 Dynamic aspects of adsorbed surfactants.- 2.9.1 The Marangoni effect.- References.- 3 Insoluble monolayers.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Historical background.- 3.2.1 The Langmuir trough and its origin.- 3.2.2 Use of the Langmuir trough.- 3.3 Phase changes and types of film.- 3.3.1 Gaseous films.- 3.3.2 The LE + G region.- 3.3.3 The liquid-expanded region.- 3.3.4 The transition region.- 3.3.5 The liquid-condensed region.- 3.3.6 The solid region.- 3.4 Ionised monolayers.- 3.4.1 Effect of polyvalent counterions.- 3.5 X-ray and neutron scattering.- 3.5.1 Horizontal scattering.- 3.5.2 Vertical scattering.- 3.5.3 Neutron scattering.- 3.6 Dynamic effects.- 3.6.1 Interfacial shear rheology.- 3.6.2 Interfacial dilatational rheology.- 3.6.3 Measurement of surface shear viscosity for insoluble monolayers.- 3.6.4 Measurement of surface dilatational rheological properties.- 3.7 Practical applications of insoluble monolayers.- References.- 4 Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Historical background.- 4.3 Types of monolayer deposition.- 4.3.1 X-, Y- and Z-films.- 4.3.2 Incomplete deposition.- 4.3.3 Asymmetrical films.- 4.3.4 Polymeric systems.- 4.4 Structure of multilayers.- 4.4.1 Characterisation by simple techniques.- 4.4.2 Low-angle X-ray diffraction.- 4.4.3 Spectroscopic methods.- 4.4.4 Long-range order and homogeneity.- 4.5 Applications of LB films.- 4.5.1 Devices exploiting the insulating properties of the film.- 4.5.2 Applications combining ultra-thin property with useful chemistry.- 4.5.3 Multilayers requiring non-centrosymmetrical structures.- 4.5.4 Supermolecular assemblies and molecular electronics.- 4.5.5 Sensors.- 4.6 Self-assembly systems.- 4.6.1 Self-assembly monolayers.- 4.6.2 Self-assembly multilayers.- References.- 5 Micelle formation.- 5.1 Evidence for micelle formation.- 5.2 Structure of micelles.- 5.2.1 Hartley's model for spherical micelles.- 5.2.2 Simple geometric factors.- 5.2.3 Spherical micelles.- 5.2.4 Cylindrical micelles.- 5.2.5 Counterion binding.- 5.3 Dynamics of micellar aggregation.- 5.3.1 The multiple equilibrium model.- 5.4 The critical micelle concentration (CMC).- 5.4.1 Ionic surfactants.- 5.4.2 Non-ionic surfactants.- 5.4.3 Factors affecting the CMC.- 5.4.4 Methods for measuring the CMC.- 5.5 Thermodynamics of micelle formation.- 5.5.1 Simple thermodynamic theory.- 5.5.2 Experimental data for the thermodynamic parameters of micellisation.- 5.5.3 Mechanism of micelle formation.- 5.6 Solubilisation.- 5.6.1 Polar solubilisates.- 5.6.2 Effect of temperature and electrolyte addition.- 5.7 Applications of micellar solutions.- 5.7.1 Detergency.- 5.7.2 Application of cylindrical micelles.- 5.7.3 Solubilisation.- 5.7.4 Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration.- 5.7.5 Micellar catalysis.- References.- 6 Mixed-micelle formation.- 6.1 Qualitative observations.- 6.2 Thermodynamics of mixed-micelle formation.- 6.2.1 Surface tensions of surfactant solutions.- 6.3 Thermodynamics of non-ideal mixed-micelle formation.- 6.3.1 Mixtures where one component does not form micelles.- 6.3.2 Non-ideality in the interface.- 6.4 Some major findings-surfactant synergisms.- 6.5 Further examples of mixed-micelle formation.- 6.6 Positive deviations from ideality-mixtures of perfluoro and hydrocarbon surfactants.- References.- 7 General phase behaviour of surfactants.- 7.1 General features of surfactant phase behaviour.- 7.2 The Krafft boundary.- 7.2.1 Design of surfactants for use in hard water.- 7.2.2 Products making use of Krafft boundary effects.- 7.2.3 Dependence of Krafft temperature on surfactant structure.- 7.3 The cloud point.- 7.3.1 Mechanism of phase separation.- 7.3.2 Nature of the separated phases.- 7.3.3 Practical importance of cloud point phenomena.- 7.4 Mesomorphic phases.- 7.4.1 Quantitative phase diagram 'cuts'.- 7.4.2 Quantitative phase cuts-'diffusive interfacial transport'.- 7.4.3 General disposition of mesomorphic phases.- 7.4.4 Hexagonal phases H1 and H2.- 7.4.5 Lamellar phase L?.- 7.4.6 Cubic phases.- 7.4.7 Fluctuations close to phase boundaries.- 7.4.8 Physical state of molecules in liquid-crystal phases.- 7.4.9 The surfactant molecules.- 7.4.10 The state of water molecules.- 7.4.11 Other lyotropic liquid-crystalline phases.- 7.4.12 Applications of surfactant phase information.- References.- 8 Dispersions of surfactant aggregates.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Vesicles and liposomes.- 8.2.1 Biological membranes.- 8.2.2 Synthetic membrane-forming surfactants.- 8.2.3 Preparation of liposomes and vesicles.- 8.2.4 Stability of vesicles and liposomes.- 8.2.5 Properties of liposomes.- 8.3 Applications of liposomes.- 8.3.1 Drug carriers.- 8.3.2 Reaction microenvironments.- 8.3.3 Freeze-dried liposomes.- 8.3.4 Fabric and hair conditioners.- 8.3.5 Stability of liposome dispersions.- 8.4 Dispersions of crystals.- 8.4.1 Surfactant gels.- 8.4.2 Use in detergent products.- 8.4.3 Hard-surface cleaners.- References.- 9 Adsorption on solids.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.1.1 Experimental determination of amount adsorbed.- 9.1.2 Adsorption isotherms.- 9.1.3 Thermodynamics of adsorption onto solids.- 9.2 Adsorption at very low concentration.- 9.3 Lateral interactions between adsorbed surfactant molecules.- 9.3.1 Nature of the adsorbed layer.- 9.3.2 Adsorption at higher concentrations.- 9.4 Effect of surfactant structure on adsorption.- 9.4.1 Non-ionic surfactants on hydrophobic surfaces.- 9.4.2 Non-ionic surfactants on hydrophilic surfaces.- 9.4.3 Zwitterionic surfactants on hydrophilic surfaces.- 9.4.4 Ionic surfactants on hydrophobic surfaces.- 9.4.5 Ionic surfactants on hydrophilic surfaces.- 9.5 Stabilisation of dispersions.- 9.5.1 Forces between particles.- 9.5.2 Combined dispersion and electrostatic forces.- 9.5.3 Combined dispersion and steric forces.- 9.6 Other applications.- 9.6.1 Froth flotation.- 9.6.2 Detergency.- 9.6.3 Corrosion inhibition.- 9.6.4 Water purification.- 9.6.5 Admicellar chromatography.- 9.6.6 Enhanced oil recovery.- References.- 10 Microemulsions.- 10.1 Definition of microemulsions.- 10.2 Use of co-surfactants.- 10.3 Interfacial tension in microemulsions.- 10.4 Properties of microemulsions.- 10.4.1 Characterisation of microemulsions.- 10.4.2 Simple geometric considerations.- 10.4.3 Electron microscopic observations.- 10.4.4 Scattering techniques.- 10.4.5 Self-diffusion measurements.- 10.5 Applications of microemulsions.- 10.5.1 Microemulsions as products.- 10.5.2 Microemulsions as physical process aids.- 10.5.3 Microemulsions as chemical reaction media.- 10.5.4 Surfactant-enhanced oil recovery.- References.- 11 Surfactant bilayers, foams and emulsions.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Soap films.- 11.2.1 Film drainage.- 11.2.2 Factors affecting drainage rate.- 11.2.3 Structure of drained films.- 11.3 Measurement of film thickness.- 11.3.1 Factors affecting film thickness.- 11.3.2 Thin-film tensions.- 11.3.3 Film stability.- 11.4 Foams and foam stability.- 11.4.1 Bulk viscosity.- 11.4.2 Surface viscosity.- 11.4.3 Antifoams.- 11.4.4 Non-aqueous foams.- 11.5 Lipid bilayers.- 11.5.1 Permeability of bilayer lipid membranes.- 11.6 Formation and stability of emulsions.- 11.6.1 Coalescence.- 11.6.2 Emulsion type.- 11.6.3 Mixed emulsifiers.- 11.6.4 High internal phase ratio (HIPR) emulsions.- 11.6.5 Demulsification.- References.

Editorial Reviews

Aims to teach the important principles behind surfactant aggregation and how these can be applied to the various systems which result from such aggregation. - British Book News; In summary, Surfactant Aggregation is a valuable new book. It could serve as a reference or textbook in advanced chemistry courses and it will provide a firm foundation for dealing with application problems - Polymer News; Mathematics has been kept to a minimum, the book is compact, easy to read, has adequate references and is well illustrated with clear diagrams and data... This book is the best reference book available on surfactant theory and should be essential reading for those involved in the manufacture or use of surfactants. - Chemistry in Britain; ...a broad ranging and concise account of surfactants generally. Although the approach is basically one of the fundamental science underlying the behaviour of surfactants, connections are made throughout with industrial applications and living systems. Readers in academia will value this connection. Those in industry will use the book to improve their understanding of the basic principles and as a handy reference for unfamiliar surfactant topics. It will give an ideal overview with both breadth and depth for students and others new to surfactants. Attention to detail is impressive yet the writing style is straightforward and easy to read. References are plentiful and illustrations are helpful...strongly recommended for anyone with an interest of involvement in surfactants - Journal of the Oil and Colour Chemists Association