Swift For Programmers

Paperback | January 22, 2015

byPaul Deitel, Harvey Deitel

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The professional programmer’s Deitel® guide to Apple’s new Swift programming language for the iOS® and OS X® platforms


Written for programmers with a background in object-oriented programming in a C-based language like Objective-C, Java, C# or C++, this book applies the Deitel signature live-code approach with scores of complete, working, real-world programs to explore the new Swift language in depth. The code examples feature syntax shading, code highlighting, rich commenting, line-by-line code walkthroughs and live program outputs. The book features thousands of lines of proven Swift code, and tips that will help you build robust applications.


Start with an introduction to Swift using an early classes and objects approach, then rapidly move on to more advanced topics. When you master the material, you’ll be ready to build industrial-strength object-oriented Swift applications.

About This Book


The Swift programming language was arguably the most significant announcement at Apple’s 2014 Worldwide Developers Conference. Although apps can still be developed in Objective-C®, Apple says that Swift is its applications programming and systems programming language of the future.


Swift is a contemporary language with simpler syntax than Objective-C. Because Swift is new, its designers were able to include popular programming language features from languages such as Objective-C, Java, C#, Ruby, Python® and many others. These features include automatic reference counting (ARC), type inference, optionals, String interpolation, tuples, closures (lambdas), extensions, generics, operator overloading, functions with multiple return values, switch statement enhancements and more. We’ve been able to develop apps more quickly in Swift than with Objective-C and the code is shorter, clearer and runs faster on today’s multi-core architectures.


Swift also eliminates the possibility of many errors common in other languages, making your code more robust and secure. Some of these error-prevention features include no implicit conversions, ARC, no pointers, required braces around every control statement’s body, assignment operators that do not return values, requiring initialization of all variables and constants before they’re used, array bounds checking, automatic checking for overflow of integer calculations, and more. You can combine Swift and Objective-C in the same app to enhance existing Objective-C apps without having to rewrite all the code. Your apps will easily be able to interact with the Cocoa®/Cocoa Touch® frameworks, which are largely written in Objective-C.


You can also use the new Xcode playgrounds with Swift. A playground is an Xcode window in which you can enter Swift code that compiles and executes as you type it. This allows you to see and hear your code’s results as you write it, quickly find and fix errors, and conveniently experiment with features of Swift and the Cocoa/Cocoa Touch frameworks.


Practical, Example-Rich Coverage of:

  • Classes, Objects, Methods, Properties
  • Initializers, Deinitializers, Bridging
  • Tuples, Array and Dictionary Collections
  • Structures, Enumerations, Closures, ARC
  • Inheritance, Polymorphism, Protocols
  • Type Methods, Type Properties
  • Generics; Strings and Characters
  • Operator Overloading, Operator Functions, Custom Operators, Subscripts
  • Access Control; Type Casting and Checking
  • Nested Types, Nested Methods
  • Optionals, Optional Chaining, Extensions
  • Xcode, Playgrounds, Intro to Cocoa Touch® with a Fully Coded iOS® 8 Tip Calculator App
  • Overflow Operators, Attributes, Patterns
  • More topics online


IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT XCODE AND SWIFT: With Xcode 6.3 and Swift 1.2, Apple introduced several changes in Swift that affect the book's source code. Please visit www.deitel.com/books/iOS8FP1 for updated source code. The changes do not affect Xcode 6.2 users. You can download Xcode 6.2 from developer.apple.com/downloads/index.action (you’ll have to log in with your Apple developer account to see the list of downloads).


Visit www.deitel.com

  • Download code examples
  • For information on Deitel’s Dive Into® Series programming training courses delivered at organizations worldwide visit www.deitel.com/training or to deitel@deitel.com
  • Join the Deitel social networking communities on Facebook® at facebook.com/DeitelFan, Twitter® at @deitel, Google+ at google.com/+DeitelFan, LinkedIn® at bit.ly/DeitelLinkedIn, YouTube™ at youtube.com/user/DeitelTV and subscribe to the Deitel® Buzz Online e-mail newsletter at www.deitel.com/newsletter/ subscribe.html


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From the Publisher

The professional programmer’s Deitel® guide to Apple’s new Swift programming language for the iOS® and OS X® platforms ¿ Written for programmers with a background in object-oriented programming in a C-based language like Objective-C, Java, C# or C++, this book applies the Deitel signature live-code approach with scores of complete, w...

Paul Deitel and Harvey Deitel are the founders of Deitel & Associates, Inc., the internationally recognized programming languages authoring and corporate-training organization. Millions of people worldwide have used Deitel books, LiveLessons video training and online resource centers to master iOS® app development in Swift and Object...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:400 pages, 9 × 6.9 × 1.1 inPublished:January 22, 2015Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0134021363

ISBN - 13:9780134021362

Extra Content

Table of Contents

Preface         xix

Before You Begin         xxvii


Chapter 1: Introduction to Swift and Xcode         6 1

1.1 Introduction   2

1.2 Apple’s OS X® and iOS® Operating Systems: A Brief History   3

1.3 Objective-C   3

1.4 Swift: Apple’s Programming Language of the Future   4

1.5 Can I Use Swift Exclusively?   9

1.6 Xcode 6 Integrated Development Environment   10

1.7 Creating Swift Apps with Xcode 6   13

1.8 Web Resources   18


Chapter 2: Introduction to Swift Programming         20

2.1 Introduction   21

2.2 A First Swift Program: Printing a Line of Text   21

2.3 Modifying Your First Program   23

2.4 Composing Larger Strings with String Interpolation   25

2.5 Another Application: Adding Integers   27

2.6 Arithmetic   28

2.7 Decision Making: The if Conditional Statement and the Comparative Operators   29

2.8 Wrap-Up   32


Chapter 3: Introduction to Classes, Objects, Methods and Functions          33

3.1 Introduction   34

3.2 Account Class   35

3.3 Creating and Using Account Objects   40

3.4 Value Types vs. Reference Types   45

3.5 Software Engineering with Access Modifiers   46

3.6 Wrap-Up   47


Chapter 4: Control Statements; Assignment, Increment and Logical Operators           48

4.1 Introduction   49

4.2 Control Statements   49

4.3 if Conditional Statement   50

4.4 if…else Conditional Statement   50

4.5 Compound Assignment Operators   52

4.6 Increment and Decrement Operators   53

4.7 switch Conditional Statement   55

4.8 while Loop Statement   57

4.9 do…while Loop Statement   58

4.10 for…in Loop Statement and the Range Operators   58

4.11 for Loop Statement   63

4.12 break and continue Statements   64

4.13 Logical Operators   66

4.14 Wrap-Up   69


Chapter 5: Functions and Methods: A Deeper Look; enums and Tuples         70

5.1 Introduction   71

5.2 Modules in Swift   72

5.3 Darwin Module–Using Predefined C Functions   73

5.4 Multiple-Parameter Function Definition   74

5.5 Random-Number Generation   76

5.6 Introducing Enumerations and Tuples   77

5.7 Scope of Declarations   84

5.8 Function and Method Overloading   86

5.9 External Parameter Names   88

5.10 Default Parameter Values   89

5.11 Passing Arguments by Value or by Reference   90

5.12 Recursion   92

5.13 Nested Functions   93

5.14 Wrap-Up   95


Chapter 6: Arrays and an Introduction to Closures         96

6.1 Introduction   97

6.2 Arrays   98

6.3 Creating and Initializing Arrays   99

6.4 Iterating through Arrays   101

6.5 Adding and Removing Array Elements   104

6.6 Subscript Expressions with Ranges   107

6.7 Sorting Arrays; Introduction to Closures   108

6.8 Array Methods filter, map and reduce   112

6.9 Card Shuffling and Dealing Simulation; Computed Properties; Optionals   116

6.10 Passing Arrays to Functions   121

6.11 Notes on Pass-By-Value and Pass-By-Reference   124

6.12 Multidimensional Arrays   124

6.13 Variadic Parameters   128

6.14 Wrap-Up   129


Chapter 7: Dictionary         131

7.1 Introduction   132

7.2 Declaring a Dictionary: Key—Value Pairs and Dictionary Literals   134

7.3 Declaring and Printing Empty Dictionary Objects   136

7.4 Iterating through a Dictionary with for…in   137

7.5 General-Purpose Generic Dictionary Printing Function   139

7.6 Dictionary Equality Operators == and !=   140

7.7 Dictionary count and isEmpty Properties   141

7.8 Dictionary Whose Values Are Arrays   142

7.9 Dictionary’s keys and values Properties   143

7.10 Inserting, Modifying and Removing Key—Value Pairs with Subscripting   145

7.11 Inserting, Removing and Modifying Key—Value Pairs   148

7.12 Building a Dictionary Dynamically: Word Counts in a String   151

7.13 Bridging Between Dictionary and Foundation Classes   153

7.14 Hash Tables and Hashing   154

7.15 Wrap-Up   155


Chapter 8: Classes: A Deeper Look and Extensions         157

8.1 Introduction   158

8.2 Time Class: Default Initializers and Property Observers   160

8.3 Designated and Convenience Initializers in Class Time   166

8.4 Failable Initializers in Class Time   170

8.5 Extensions to Class Time   174

8.6 Read-Write Computed Properties   178

8.7 Composition   181

8.8 Automatic Reference Counting, Strong References and Weak References   184

8.9 Deinitializers   185

8.10 Using NSDecimalNumber for Precise Monetary Calculations   185

8.11 Type Properties and Type Methods   187

8.12 Lazy Stored Properties and Delayed Initialization   191

8.13 Wrap-Up   192


Chapter 9: Structures, Enumerations and Nested Types         194

9.1 Introduction   195

9.2 Structure Definitions   196

9.3 Enumerations and Nested Types   202

9.4 Choosing Among Structures, Enumerations and Classes in Your Apps   209

9.5 Associated Values for enums  210

9.6 Wrap-Up   212


Chapter 10: Inheritance, Polymorphism and Protocols   214

10.1 Introduction 215

10.2 Superclasses and Subclasses   217

10.3 An Inheritance Hierarchy: CommunityMembers   218

10.4 Case Study: Using Inheritance to Create Related Employee Types   218

10.5 Access Modifiers in Inheritance Hierarchies 226

10.6 Introduction to Polymorphism: A Polymorphic Video Game Discussion   227

10.7 Case Study: Payroll System Class Hierarchy Using Polymorphism   228

10.8 Case Study: Creating and Using Custom Protocols   238

10.9 Additional Protocol Features   246

10.10 Using final to Prevent Method Overriding and Inheritance   248

10.11 Initialization and Deinitialization in Class Hierarchies   248

10.12 Wrap-Up   251


Chapter 11: Generics         253

11.1 Introduction   254

11.2 Motivation for Generic Functions   254

11.3 Generic Functions: Implementation and Specialization   255

11.4 Type Parameters with Type Constraints   258

11.5 Overloading Generic Functions   259

11.6 Generic Types   259

11.7 Note About Associated Types for Protocols   263

11.8 Wrap-Up   263


Chapter 12: Operator Overloading and Subscripts          264

12.1 Introduction   265

12.2 String Operators and Methods   266

12.3 Custom Complex Numeric Type with Overloaded Arithmetic Operators   271

12.4 Overloading Arithmetic Operators for Class NSDecimalNumber   274

12.5 Overloading Unary Operators: ++ and --   276

12.6 Overloading Subscripts   279

12.7 Custom Operators   283

12.8 Custom Generic Operators   286

12.9 Wrap-Up   287


Chapter 13: iOS 8 App Development: Welcome App         288

13.1 Introduction   289

13.2 Technologies Overview   290

13.3 Creating a Universal App Project with Xcode   291

13.4 Xcode Workspace Window   293

13.5 Storyboarding the Welcome App’s UI   296

13.6 Running the Welcome App   308

13.7 Making Your App Accessible   311

13.8 Internationalizing Your App   313

13.9 Wrap-Up   318


Chapter 14: iOS 8 App Development: Tip Calculator App         319

14.1 Introduction   320

14.2 Test-Driving the Tip Calculator App in the iPhone and iPad Simulators   321

14.3 Technologies Overview   322

14.4 Building the App’s UI   325

14.5 Creating Outlets with Interface Builder   337

14.6 Creating Actions with Interface Builder   340

14.7 Class ViewController   341

14.8 Wrap-Up   349


Appendix A: Keywords         351


Appendix B: Operator Precedence Chart         352


Appendix C: Labeled break and continue Statements         354

C.1 Introduction   354

C.2 Labeled break Statement   354

C.3 Labeled continue Statement   355


Index         357


Editorial Reviews

“Apple took everyone by surprise when they announced a new programming language for developing Mac and iOS applications. Taking lessons from Objective-C and many other languages, Apple built a new language from the ground up. There is a lot to learn–new syntax, new idioms and more. It all seems daunting, but the Deitels have written a book that thoroughly explores Swift and Xcode 6 and guides you through what you need to know, regardless of which language you came from.” –Robert McGovern, Independent Developer   “An excellent introduction to Apple’s new programming language. Line-by-line code explanations. Practical real-world abstractions throughout the code. Full of links to great resources. Features are introduced by comparison to established programming concepts making Swift easy to learn for developers new to Apple’s platforms. A must-read.” –René Cacheaux, iOS Architect, Mutual Mobile   “It’s surprising that a book of this quality, depth and breadth has appeared so soon after Swift was announced. The ideal accompaniment to Apple’s reference documentation. This developers’ book takes an in-depth look at Swift. Whether you’re moving to the Apple ecosystem from a C++, C# or Java background or you’re an Objective-C programmer looking to update your skills to this newest and most exciting of Apple’s languages, this book is for you. Complements the Deitels’ excellent book iOS 8 for Programmers: An App-Driven Approach with Swift and maintains their trademark high-quality approach, containing many interactive, nontrivial code examples with in-depth code walkthroughs and best practices. Uses the power of Swift with Cocoa’s Foundation classes. A must-have for any serious Apple developer.” –Rik Watson, Technical Team Lead for HP Enterprise Services (Applications Services)   “Perfect for the Objective-C developer looking to quickly learn Apple’s newest language. You’ll learn how to incorporate new Swift features such as tuples, closures and generics into your existing Objective-C projects. You’ll appreciate Swift’s built-in error handling while working through real-world examples in Xcode playgrounds.” –Scott Bossack, Lead iOS Developer, Thrillist Media Group   “The chapters are comprehensive, covering simple use cases to complex challenges Swift is distinctly suited for. The code examples often represent day-to-day programming challenges. A wonderful learning tool and a handy reference for experienced developers.” –Ash Furrow, iOS Developer, Artsy   “With Swift-based IOS 8 and OS X development the Deitel magic continues. They guide you through Swift with increasingly complex projects. They also offer valuable software engineering tips, performance improvements and techniques for preventing common errors. Whether your programming background is Java, C#, C++ or Objective-C, you will benefit from this valuable book. There is no question that Swift is Apple’s programming language of the future. This book by Paul and Harvey Deitel will be your guide to that future.” –Charles Brown, Independent Contractor affiliated with Apple and Adobe   “Fantastic, especially for those involved in iOS and OS X development. Complete examples help explain concepts clearly. Great combination of Swift topics and helpful real-world tips on working with Cocoa’s Foundation classes, software engineering, performance, and error prevention. Highly recommended.” –Jack Watson-Hamblin, Programming Writer and Teacher, MotionInMotion   “The explanation of hash tables in the Dictionaries chapter is a plus; includes important tips, helping you avoid common roadblocks; every code sample is provided as a playground, letting you try out and modify the samples–cool! Great example on when to use an implicitly unwrapped failable initializer; liked how Chapter 8 kept building upon the Time class; validating property values via property observers is a nice practical tip. The Structs chapter includes great tips such as defining struct custom initializers in extensions so that you continue to get access to the autogenerated memberwise initializer, saving developers time. Great nested type example. Includes the all-important advice about when to use reference types vs. value types. Chapter 10 has a nice introduction to polymorphism; great real-world examples, including a practical illustration on how to use protocols. Perfect introduction to generics. Love the NSDecimalNumber arithmetic operator overload example in Chapter 12–it illustrates Swift’s expressiveness while working with Objective-C code; this treatment of operator overloading and associated topics is very complete and includes great tips.” –René Cacheaux, iOS Architect, Mutual Mobile   “I loved how the Dictionary examples represent problems programmers actually face. The Classes chapter is very good; I love the breadth and helpful caveats. Chapter 9, Structures and Enumerations, is fantastic–gives readers a sense of how the different data types work and when each is appropriate; a thorough description of some of Swift’s most awesome features. The Inheritance, Polymorphism and Protocols chapter includes the only explanation of polymorphism I’ve ever read in a textbook that makes sense; great use of case studies to solidify new concepts. I liked the discussion of how the Swift standard library uses generics and that the reader has been using them throughout this book. I appreciated the operator overloading examples using both custom types and Swift/Foundation ones–a really great chapter covering a super-cool feature of Swift whilst urging the appropriate level of caution.” –Ash Furrow, iOS Developer, Artsy   “A quick and enjoyable introduction to the Swift programming language. Covers Swift’s strong typing, integration with Objective-C, use of the number and string primitives as well as the array and dictionary collections. I liked the way that mutability and immutability were explained, and where optionals were returned from subscripted access; the playgrounds were easy to experiment in. It was good that you created the array [Payable]–showing that protocols are also types. Good generics examples, particularly the safer Stack.” –Abizer Nasir, Freelance iOS and OS X Developer, Jungle Candy Software Ltd.   “The syntax shading really helps set the code apart. The introductory tour of Xcode was great. I liked the callouts for engineering tips and best programming practices. I thought the discussion about Hashing was particularly invaluable and informative. A good job of showing how to use structs and enums and their increased power compared to say Objective-C–I like that you returned to earlier examples and re-implemented them using structs to compare the different approaches. The Operator Overloading chapter felt like it was constantly teaching me something–it was thorough and all the tips felt appropriate.” –Robert McGovern, Independent Developer   “I’m happy with the pace, especially if I consider the target audience to be an existing Objective-C programmer. The Functions, Methods, enums and Tuples chapter is excellent. Loved the Arrays chapter–the book is worth it just for the performance tips alone; I really like the creating and initializing arrays example; sorting an Array with the method sorted and closures is a good example; the variadic parameters example is lovely. The Classes chapter is full of sound software engineering principles applied in a very understandable way to the new idioms exposed by Swift. Great enum examples. The Inheritance, Polymorphism and Protocols chapter is excellent. An excellent introduction to generics. Chapter 12 is a great intro to the more complicated aspects of String manipulation whilst showing some great, real-world operator overloading examples.” –Rik Watson, Technical Team Lead for HP Enterprise Services (Applications Services)