TEACHING BY PRINCIPLES 3/E

Paperback | April 11, 2007

EditorPEARSON LONGMAN

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Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, Third Edition, by H. Douglas Brown, is a widely acclaimed methodology text used in teacher education programs around the world. This user-friendly textbook offers a comprehensive survey of practical language teaching options, all firmly anchored in accepted principles of language learning and teaching. End-of-chapter exercises give readers opportunities to process material interactively. Suggested readings direct readers to important books and articles in the field.

 

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Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, Third Edition, by H. Douglas Brown, is a widely acclaimed methodology text used in teacher education programs around the world. This user-friendly textbook offers a comprehensive survey of practical language teaching options, all firmly anchored in accepted princ...

Dr. H. Douglas Brown, a professor in the MA-TESOL program at San Francisco State University, has written many articles, teacher training books, and textbooks on language pedagogy. A past president of TESOL and recipient of the James A. Alatis Award for Distinguished Service, Dr. Brown has lectured to English language teaching audiences...
Format:PaperbackDimensions:572 pages, 8.75 × 6.35 × 0.68 inPublished:April 11, 2007Publisher:PEARSON LONGMANLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0136127118

ISBN - 13:9780136127116

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Table of Contents

PART I.  FOUNDATIONS FOR CLASSROOM PRACTICE

 

Chapter 1  Getting Started

 

A Classroom Observation

Beneath the Lesson

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 2  A "Methodical" History of Language Teaching

 

Approach, Method, and Technique

Changing Winds and Shifting Sands

The Grammar Translation Method

Gouin and the Series Method

The Direct Method

The Audiolingual Method

Cognitive Code Learning

“Designer” Methods of the Spirited 1970s

     Community Language Learning

     Suggestopedia

     The Silent Way

     Total Physical Response

     The Natural Approach

Functional Syllabuses

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 3  The Post-Method Era: Toward Informed Approaches

 

The Dysfunction of the Theory-Practice Dichotomy

An Enlightened, Eclectic Approach

Communicative Language Teaching

Task-Based Language Teaching

     Learner-Centered Instruction

     Cooperative Learning

     Interactive Learning

     Whole Language Education

     Content-Based Instruction

     Other Candidates for CLT Approaches

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 4  Teaching by Principles

 

Cognitive Principles

     Automaticity

     Meaningful Learning

     The Anticipation of Reward

     Intrinsic Motivation

     Strategic Investment

     Autonomy

Socioaffective Principles

     Language Ego

     Willingness to Communicate

     The Language-Culture Connection

Linguistic Principles

     The Native Language Effect

     Interlanguage

     Communicative Competence

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 5  Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom

 

Defining Motivation

     A Behavioral Definition

     Cognitive Definitions

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic Motivation in Education

Intrinsic Motivation in the Second Language Classroom

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

PART II.  CONTEXTS OF LEARNING AND TEACHING

 

Chapter 6  Teaching Across Age Levels

 

Teaching Children

     Intellectual Development

     Attention Span

     Sensory Input

     Affective Factors

     Authentic, Meaningful Language

Teaching Adults

Teaching Teens

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 7  Teaching Across Proficiency Levels

 

Defining Proficiency Levels

Teaching Beginning Levels

Teaching Intermediate Levels

Teaching Advanced Levels

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 8  Sociocultural, Political, and Institutional Contexts

 

Cultural Contexts

Second and Foreign Language Contexts

English as an International Language

Non-native English-speaking Teachers

Language Policy Issues

Institutional Contexts

     Elementary and Secondary Schools

     Post-Secondary and Adult Education

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

PART III.  DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING CLASSROOM LESSONS

 

Chapter 9  Curriculum Design

 

An Overview of the Curriculum Design Process

Situation Analysis

Needs Analysis

Problematizing

Specifying Goals

Conceptualizing a Course Syllabus

Selecting Textbooks, Materials, and Resources

Assessment

Program Evaluation

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 10 Lesson Planning    

 

Format of a Lesson Plan

Guidelines for Lesson Planning

Sample Lesson Plan

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 11 Techniques and Materials

 

Techniques Redefined

Categorizing Techniques: A Bit of History

A Taxonomy of Techniques

Textbooks

Other Texts and Visual Aids

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 12 Technology in the Classroom

 

Non-Computer-Based Technology

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

CALL, CMC, TMLL, or What?

Principles and Benefits of CALL

Uses of CALL in the Language Classroom

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

Some Useful Web Resources

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 13 Initiating Interaction in the Classroom

 

What is Interaction?

Interactive Principles

Roles of the Interactive Teacher

Foreign Language Interaction Analysis

Questioning Strategies for Interactive Learning

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 14 Sustaining Interaction through Group Work

 

Advantages of Group Work

Excuses for Avoiding Group Work

Implementing Group Work in Your Classroom

     Classroom Language

     Selecting Appropriate Group Techniques

     Planning Group Work

     Monitoring the Task

     Debriefing

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 15 Classroom Management

 

The Physical Environment of the Classroom

Your Voice and Body Language

Unplanned Teaching: Midstream Lesson Changes

Teaching Under Adverse Circumstances

Teachers’ Roles and Styles

Creating a Positive Classroom Climate

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 16 Strategies-Based Instruction

 

Strategic Investment

Good Language Learners

Styles of Successful Language Learning    

Awareness and Action

Developing Student Self-awareness of Styles    

How to Teach Strategies in the Classroom  

“Packaged” Models of SBI  

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

PART IV.   TEACHING LANGUAGE SKILLS

 

Chapter 17 Integrating the Four Skills

 

Why Integrated Skills?

Models of Skills Integration

     Content-Based Instruction

     Task-Based Language Teaching

Theme-Based Instruction

Experiential Learning

The Episode Hypothesis

An Integrated Lesson

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 18 Teaching Listening

 

Listening Comprehension in Pedagogical Research

An Interactive Model of Listening Comprehension

Types of Spoken Language

What Makes Listening Difficult?

Microskills and Macroskills of Listening

Types of Classroom Listening Performance

Principles for Teaching Listening Skills

Listening Techniques from Beginning to Advanced

Assessing Listening in the Classroom

     On Understanding the terms Assessment and Test

     Assessing Types of Listening and Micro- and Macroskills

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 19 Teaching Speaking

 

Oral Communication Skills in Pedagogical Research

Types of Spoken Language

What Makes Speaking Difficult?

Micro- and Macroskills of Oral Communication

Types of Classroom Speaking Performance

Principles for Teaching Speaking Skills

Teaching Conversation

Teaching Pronunciation

Focus on Form and Error Treatment

Assessing Speaking in the Classroom

     Item Types and Tasks for Assessing Speaking

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 20  Teaching Reading

 

Research on Reading a Second Language

Genres of Written Language

Characteristics of Written Language

Micro- and Macroskills for Reading Comprehension

Strategies for Reading Comprehension

Types of Classroom Reading Performance

Principles for Teaching Reading Skills

Two Reading Lessons

Assessing Reading

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 21 Teaching Writing

 

Research on Second Language Writing

Types of Written Language

Characteristics of Written Language: A Writer’s View

Micro- and Macroskills for Writing

Types of Classroom Writing Performance

Principles for Teaching Writing Skills

Assessing Writing

     Evaluation Checklists

     Writing Assessment Tasks

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

 

Chapter 22 Form-Focused Instruction

 

The Place of Grammar

To Teach or Not to Teach Grammar

Issues About How to Teach Grammar

Grammar Techniques

Grammar Sequencing in Textbooks and Curricula

Current Issues in Vocabulary Teaching

Principles for Teaching Vocabulary

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

PART V.  ASSESSING LANGUAGE SKILLS

 

Chapter 23 Language Assessment: Principles and Issues    

 

Testing, Assessing, and Teaching

Principles of Language Assessment

     Practicality

     Reliability

     Validity

           Content Validity

           Face Validity

           Construct Validity

     Authenticity

     Washback

Kinds of Tests

Historical Developments in Language Assessment

Current Issues in Language Assessment

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 24 Classroom-Based Assessment

 

Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests

Some Practical Steps to Test Construction

Turning Existing Tests into more Effective Procedures

Alternatives in Assessment

Scrutinizing the Alternatives

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

PART VI.  LIFELONG LEARNING

 

Chapter 25 Teacher Development

 

Peak Performers

The “Good” Language Teacher

Classroom Observation

Classroom-Based “Action” Research

Teacher Collaboration: Learning from each other

Journals, Teaching Portfolios, Reading, and Writing

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Chapter 26 Teachers for Social Responsibility

 

Critical Pedagogy

Hot Topics in the Language Classroom

Moral Dilemmas and Moral Imperatives

Agents for Change

Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research

For Your Further Reading

 

 

Bibliography

Name Index

Subject Index