Temperature and Life by J. WieserTemperature and Life by J. Wieser

Temperature and Life

byJ. Wieser, Herbert Precht

Paperback | March 22, 2012

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The book by PRECHT, CHRISTOPHERSEN and HENSEL referred to in the text as the first edition was published in German in 1955 with the title Temperatur und Leben. The present volume is a revised version of this book, constructed along the same lines, but it cannot properly be called the second edition because it is in English. Yet another difference is in the number of contributors, who now include two microbiologists, seven botanists, three zoophysiologists, one biochemist, and three human physiologists. We have again endeavored to treat as many problems as possible but the main theme is still the adaptation of organisms to changing temperatures. What was conceived as a chapter on physical and chemical aspects by Professor L. LUMPER of GieBen will be published later as a supplementary volume. A special effort has been made to cover the copious literature published since 1955 though not, of course, exhaustively. The various chapters were completed at different times and those written earlier have footnotes referring to subsequent literature. The botanical contributions by W. LARCHER, K. NAPP-ZINN and A. PISEK were translated by Mrs. JOY WIESER; Dr. J. M. AUGENFELD was the translator of those on poikilotherms by H. D. JANKOWSKY, H. LAUDIEN and H. PRECHT as well as of those on homeotherms by H. HENSEL, K. BRUCK and P. RATHS. The section on limiting temperatures by H. PRECHT was translated by HAZEL PROSSER. We are grateful to them for undertaking this work.
Title:Temperature and LifeFormat:PaperbackDimensions:782 pagesPublished:March 22, 2012Publisher:Springer NatureLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3642657109

ISBN - 13:9783642657108

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Table of Contents

Poikilothermic Organisms.- Microorganisms.- I. Basic Aspects of Temperature Action on Microorganisms.- A. Influence of Temperature on the Growth and Multiplication of Microorganisms.- 1. Growth of Cells.- 2. Effects of Temperature on Reproduction.- 3. Growth Curves.- B. Heat Killing of Microorganisms.- 1. Time Course of Heat Killing of Microorganisms.- 2. The Time-Temperature Relation of Heat Killing.- 3. Factors Affecting the Heat Resistance of Vegetative Bacteria.- a) The Effect of Water.- b) The Effect of Salts and Ions.- c) The Effect of Proteins.- d) The Effect of Oils and Fats.- e) The Effect of pH.- f) The Effect of Age.- g) The Effect of Growth Temperature.- 4. Resistance Adaptation.- a) General Remarks.- b) Mechanisms of Resistance Adaptation.- c) Recovery of Heat-Injured Microorganisms.- C. Adaptive Temperature Responses.- 1. Capacity Adaptation.- 2. Examples of Capacity Adaptation of Microbial Activities.- 3. Mechanisms of Capacity Adaptation.- 4. Time Course of Capacity Adaptation.- D. Response of Microorganisms to Subzero Temperatures.- 1. Influence of Freezing Temperature, Freezing Time, and Freezing Rate.- 2. Influence of Defrosting.- 3. Influence of Repeated Freezing and Thawing.- 4. Sensitivity of Microorganisms to Freezing.- 5. Recovery of Frost-Injured Microorganisms.- 6. Influence of Freezing on the Metabolism of Microorganisms.- 7. Interaction between Microorganisms and Menstrua during Freezing and Defrosting.- a) The Phases of Frost Killing.- b) Protective Action against Frost Killing.- 8. Metabolic Activities of Microorganisms and Microbial Enzymes at Subzero Temperatures.- 9. Mechanisms of Freezing Injury.- 10. Cold Shock.- E. Thermophilic Organisms.- 1. General Remarks.- 2. Cellular Mechanisms of Growth at High Temperatures.- F. Effect of Temperature on Bacterial Spores.- 1. Properties and Heat Resistance of Spores.- 2. Heat Activation of Spores.- 3. Heat Killing of Spores.- II. Genetic Regulation of Temperature Responses.- A. Introduction.- B. Genetic Determination of Heat Stability of Proteins.- C. Loss of Function at Low Temperatures.- D. Mutations which Decrease the Temperature Range for Growth.- E. Biochemical Basis of Cold-Sensitivity.- F. Adaptation to New Temperature Ranges for Growth.- G. Mutations which Extend the Temperature Range of Growth.- H. Direct Temperature Effects on Nucleic Acids.- I. Summary.- References.- Plants.- I. Plant Temperatures and Energy Budget.- A. Introduction.- B. Radiation.- C. Convective Heat Exchange.- D. Transpiration.- E. Energy Budget Equation.- II. The Normal Temperature Range.- A. Effect of Temperature on Metabolic Processes.- A 1. Carbohydrate Metabolism.- 1. Photosynthesis (A. PISEK).- a) Basic Aspects of Photosynthesis.- b) Cardinal Temperatures of Photosynthesis in General.- c) Temperature Curves for Net Photosynthesis.- d) Cardinal Temperatures of Photosynthesis in Various Plants.- ?) Plants from Different Altitudes in the Central European Alps and from their Sub-Mediterranean Southern Foot.- ?) Additional Facts Concerning Temperature Dependence and Cardinal Temperatures of Photosynthesis.- e) Experimental Adaptation: Extent and Speed of the Reactions Involved.- 2. Respiration (A. Pisek).- 3. Transformations and Translocation of Carbohydrates (W. Larcher).- a) Temperature-Dependent Conversions of Carbohydrates.- b) The Influence of Temperature on the Translocation of Carbohydrates.- A 2. Temperature Dependence of other Metabolic Processes (W. Larcher).- 1. The Influence of Temperature on the Water Balance of Higher Plants.- a) Water Uptake.- b) Water Transport.- c) Transpiration.- 2. Influence of Temperature on the Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants.- B. Effect of Temperature on Growth and Development.- B 1. Dependence of the Growth Processes on Temperature (A. Vegis).- 1. Dormancy of Buds and Seeds.- a) Phases of the Rest Period and the Various Kinds of Dormancy.- b) Temperature Range for Seed Germination and Bud Break in Relation to the Depth of Dormancy during the Rest Period.- ?) Narrowed Range for Germination and Bud Break at Low Temperatures.- ?) Narrowed Range for Germination and Bud Break at High Temperatures.- ?) Narrowed Range for Germination of Seeds and Bud Break at Intermediate Temperatures.- ?) Two Narrow Germination Temperature Ranges.- c) Effect of Alternating Temperatures.- d) The Role of Enclosing Structures in the Induction of Dormancy and in Narrowing the Temperature Range for Germination of Seeds and Bud Break.- e) The Role of Low Temperatures in the Abolition of Dormancy.- ?) Stratification of Seeds.- ?) Chilling Requirements of Buds.- ?) Induction of Flower-Bud Opening by Decrease in Temperature.- 2. Temperature Requirements for the Growth and Development of Plants.- a) Development of Tulipa Bulbs.- b) Development of Iris Bulbs.- c) Development of Hippeasirum.- d) Thermoperiodicity.- B 2. Low Temperature Effect on Flower Formation: Vernalization (K. Napp-Zinn).- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Kinetics of Vernalization.- a) Vernalization in the Strict Sense.- ?) Criteria of Vernalization.- ?) Cold-Requiring Phanerogams.- ?) Cold Requirement and Cold Resistance.- ?) Locus of Perception.- ?) Plants with and without a Juvenile Phase.- ?) The Role of Soaking in the Vernalization of Seed.- ?) Effective Temperatures.- ?) Vernalization and Light Conditions.- b) The Promotion of Later Stages of Flower Formation by Cold.- ?) Flower Initiation.- ?) Sex Determination.- ?) Flower Unfolding.- c) Similar Phenomena in Lower Plants.- 3. The Genetic Basis of Vernalization Requirements.- 4. Physiological Analysis.- a) Kinetic Analysis.- b) Grafting and Decapitation.- c) Nutrition.- d) Breakdown of Reserve Materials.- e) Nucleic Acids, Proteins and Amino Acids.- f) Additional Observations of a Cell-Physiological Nature.- g) Growth Substances.- ?) Auxins and Antiauxins.- ?) Gibberellins and Antigibberellins.- ?) Other Growth Substances.- h) Phytochrome.- i) Concluding Remarks.- III. Limiting Temperatures for Life Functions.- A. Gradual Progress of Damage Due to Temperature Stress (W. Larcher).- 1. Effect of Extreme Temperatures on Protoplasmic Streaming.- 2. Respiratory Behavior.- 3. Depression of Photosynthetic Capacity.- B. Temperature Resistance and Survival (W. Larcher).- 1. Avoidance.- a) Frost Avoidance by Delay or Prevention of Ice Formation in Tissues.- b) Heat Avoidance by Means of Reduction of Radiation Absorption and by Transpirational Cooling.- 2. Tolerance.- a) Variability of Heat and Frost Tolerance.- ?) Influence of Stage of Development and Age.- ?) Seasonal Course of Resistance and Short-Term Adaptive Phenomena (Adjustments).- ?) The Influence of Various Environmental Stimuli on Temperature Resistance.- b) Specificity of Temperature Resistance.- ?) Constitutional Differences.- ?) Differences in Resistance between Species and Varieties.- ?) Differences in Resistance between Organs and Tissues.- 3. Survival Limits of Plants.- C. Cell Death by Cold and Heat, and Resistance to Extreme Temperatures. Mechanisms of Hardening and Dehardening (U. Heber and K. A. Santarius).- 1. Low Temperatures.- a) Introduction.- b) Phenomenology of Cell Freezing.- c) Changes in a Cell System Brought about by Freezing.- d) Susceptibility of Cell Components.- e) Causes of Injury.- ?) Temperature Effects.- ?) Mechanical Damage by Ice Crystals.- ?) Reduction of Cell Volume.- ?) Toxicity of Cell Components.- ?) Osmotic Injury.- f) Mechanisms of Injury.- g) Modes of Protection.- ?) Sugars and Sugar Derivatives.- ?) Organic Acids.- ?) Amino Acids.- ?) Non-Physiological Solutes.- ?) Proteins.- ?) Other Compounds.- h) Mechanisms of Protection.- i) Development of Resistance.- 2. High Temperatures.- a) Introduction.- b) Heat Sensitivity of Cell Components.- c) Causes of Heat Injury.- d) Heat Resistance.- References.- Animals.- I. Body Temperature and External Temperature.- A. Regulation of Body Temperature in Invertebrates.- 1. Body Temperatures above Environmental Temperatures.- a) Individual Thermoregulation.- b) Social Thermoregulation in Insects.- 2. Heat Output at High Body Temperatures.- B. Regulation of Body Temperature in Poikilothermic Vertebrates.- 1. Fishes.- 2. Amphibia.- 3. Reptiles.- II. The Normal Temperature Range.- II 1. Constant Systems (H. Precht).- II 1 a. The First, Usually Ascending, Sections of the Curves.- A. Direct Responses.- 1. Relation of Biological Processes to Experimental Temperature.- a) Experimental Procedure.- b) Presentation of Q10 and µ Values.- c) Low Temperature Coefficients, and Other Special Cases.- d) The Thermal Dependence of Michaelis' Constant (B. Havsteen).- e) The Relationship between Q10 and the Kinetic Parameters (B. Havsteen).- f) Enthalphy-Entropy Compensation Phenomena in Aqueous Solutions. A Ubiquitous Property of Water? (B. Havsteen).- ?) Observations.- ?) Characterization.- ?) Thermodynamics.- ?) Generalizations.- g) Body Size and Relation to Experimental Temperature.- h) Relation of the Temperature Coefficient of the ET Curve to the Acclimation Temperature.- 2. Effects of Temperature Changes.- a) Overshoots and Other Responses.- b) Transitory After-Effects.- B. Regulation by Control Systems.- C. Acclimations, Acclimatizations, Adaptations.- 1. Changes in Body Composition.- a) Water Content.- b) Salts, Ions.- c) Proteins, Fats, RNA, DNA, etc..- 2. Capacity Adaptations.- a) Genetic Adaptations.- ?) Organisms from Habitats of Different Temperature Regimes.- ?) Steno- and Eurythermal Forms.- b) Non-Genetic Adaptations.- ?) Experimental Design and Classification of Types.- ?) Significance and Distribution of Non-Genetic Capacity Adaptations.- ?) Restriction of Capacity Adaptation to Specific Ranges of Acclimation Temperature.- ?) The Time Course of Capacity Adaptation.- ?) Capacity Adaptation on Various Levels.- ?) Pre-Treatment under Varying Conditions.- ?) Further Investigations on the Mechanism of Capacity Adaptation.- II 1 b. Inflection Points and Descending Parts of the Curves.- II 2. Changing Reaction Systems H. Laudien.- A. Effect of Temperature on Processes of Growth and Development.- 1. Constant-Temperature Conditions.- a) Lower Limiting Temperature.- b) Central Temperature Range.- c) Optimum Temperature.- d) Supraoptimal Temperatures.- e) Mathematical Formulation of the Relation between Rates of Development and Temperature.- 2. Effects of Variable Temperature on Processes of Growth and Development.- a) Adaptational Phenomena of Developmental Processes.- b) Temperatures which Change Regularly during the Day.- c) The Effect of Short-Term Treatment with Extreme Temperatures.- d) On the Applicability of Laboratory Experiments to Field Conditions.- 3. Life Span.- 4. Mortality.- 5. Fecundity.- 6. Nutritional Requirements and Synthetic Processes.- a) Food Consumption.- b) Respiration.- c) Synthetic Processes.- 7. The Effect of Temperature on Associations between Different Species.- B. Morphological Effects of Normal and Extreme Temperatures.- 1. Mutations.- 2. Meiosis, Mitosis, and Cellular Processes.- a) Mitosis and Meiosis.- b) Relation of Gene Penetrance to Temperature.- c) Temporal Limitation of Temperature Sensitivity.- 3. Effects on Sex Ratio.- a) Indirect and Direct Influences.- b) Sensitive Periods.- c) Mechanisms of Influence.- d) Sex Ratio in the Annual Cycle.- 4. Type of Reproduction.- 5. Influence of Temperature on Form, Color and Size.- a) Size and Form.- b) Cyclomorphosis.- c) Color.- d) Seasonal Dimorphism.- e) Final Size.- C. Resting Stages in Development and Their Induction or Termination by the Effect of Temperature.- 1. Quiescence.- 2. Diapause.- a) Obligatory and Facultative Diapause, "Parapause".- b) Induction of Diapause by Temperature.- c) Intensity of Diapause.- d) Termination of Diapause.- e) Relation between Developmental Arrest and the Endogenous Annual Clock.- f) Distinction between the Concept of Diapause and Other Inhibitions of Development.- III. Limiting Temperatures of Life Functions.- A. Limiting Temperatures.- 1. Factors which Influence Limiting Temperatures.- 2. Limiting Temperatures and their Measurement.- 3. Bases of Resistance and Possibilities of Changing Them.- a) Upper Temperature Limits.- b) Low Limiting Temperatures.- B. On the Problem of Hardening.- C. Regulations by Control Systems.- D. Resistance Adaptations.- 1. Genetic Adaptations.- a) Distribution Limited by Temperature.- b) Genetically Conditioned Temperature Limits.- 2. Non-Genetic Adaptations.- a) Occurrence and Meaning.- b) Adaptation on Different Levels.- c) The Time Course of Resistance Adaptation.- d) Varied Preliminary Exposures.- e) Long-Lasting Influences.- IV. Activity, Behavior etc..- A. Temperature and Behavior.- 1. Lower Temperature Limits.- 2. Constant Temperatures in the Moderate Range.- 3. Responses to Temperature Change.- 4. Upper Limiting Temperatures.- 5. Adaptation Phenomena of Movements.- 6. Effect of Temperature on Daily Activity Rhythms of Behavior.- 7. Effect of Temperature on Learning and Memory.- B. Temperature Senses.- 1. Temperature Receptors and Their Functions.- 2. Behavior Leading to Avoidance of Unfavorable Temperatures.- a) Temperature Choice as a Problem in Orientation.- b) Orientation in Temperature-Stimulus Fields with Gradients.- c) Orientation in Temperature-Stimulus Fields without Gradients.- ?) Animals as Sources of Heat.- ?) The Sun as a Heat Source.- d) Temperature as an Inducer of Tactic or Instinctive Behavior.- e) Temperature Regulation by Instinctive Behavior.- References.- Homeothermic Organisms.- I. Homeothermy and Poikilothermy.- II. Body Temperatures.- A. The Temperature Field of the Body.- 1. Radial and Axial Temperature Gradients.- 2. Skin and Subcutaneous Temperature.- 3. Core Temperature.- 4. Temperature of Body Orifices.- B. Body Temperature and External Temperature.- C. Periodic Fluctuations in Body Temperature.- 1. Diurnal Fluctuations.- 2. Longer Temperature Periods.- III. Principles of Thermoregulation.- A. Concept of Regulation.- B. Biological Temperature Regulation.- C. Disturbances of Thermoregulation.- D. Interference of Regulations.- IV. Production of Body Heat.- A. Basal Metabolism.- B. Heat Production and Body Size.- C. Heat Production and External Temperature.- D. The Modes and Sites of Extra Heat Production.- E. Brown Adipose Tissue and Its Significance for Nonshivering Thermogenesis.- V. Heat Exchange with the Environment.- A. Pathways of Heat Transport.- 1. Heat Flow from the Body Interior to the Skin Surface.- 2. Heat Flow between Body and Environment.- B. Physiological Regulation of Heat Flux.- 1. Blood Flow through the Skin and Mucous Membranes.- 2. Hair, Feathers, and Air Sacs.- 3. Ventilation Volume.- 4. Salivary Cooling.- 5. Water Loss from the Skin.- 6. Total Evaporation and Air Temperature.- 7. Body Posture.- 8. Parental Behavior.- VI. Nervous and Hormonal Factors in Temperature Regulation.- A. Central Nervous Structures of Temperature Regulation.- 1. Extirpation Experiments.- 2. Thermoreceptive Structures (Other than Cutaneous Thermoreceptors).- 3. Thermointegrative Structures and Processing of Temperature Information in the Central Nervous System.- B. Control of Effector Systems.- C. Central Transmitting Substances and Thermoregulation.- D. Peripherally Induced Processes.- 1. Direct Effects of Temperature on Cutaneous Blood Flow.- 2. Direct Effects of Temperature on Sweat Secretion.- 3. Direct Effects of Temperature on Anterior Horn Cells and Shivering.- 4. Initiation of Thermoregulatory Responses by Thermal Stimulation of Limited Skin Areas ("Reflex Control").- E. Body Temperature as the Controlled Variable. Displacements of the "Set Point".- 1. Periodic Fluctuations of Body Temperature.- 2. Fever.- 3. Long-Term Adaptation.- 4. Central Nervous Diseases.- 5. Psychogenic Effects (Emotional Reactions). Vigilance.- F. Body Temperature during Work.- VII. Cutaneous Thermoreception.- A. Thermal Sensations in Man.- 1. Structure of Sensation.- 2. Thermal Sensations and Temperature.- B. Neurophysiology of Thermoreceptors.- 1. Classifications and General Properties.- 2. Morphological Structures.- 3. Electrophysiology of Thermoreceptors in Homeotherms.- 4. Comparative Electrophysiology of Thermoreceptors.- C. Comparison of Various Approaches to Thermoreceptor Function.- 1. Temperature Sensation and Neural Activity.- 2. Thermal Comfort and Temperature Regulation.- 3. Behavioral Responses in Animals.- VIII. Long-Term Thermal Adaptation.- A. Adaptation to Cold.- 1. In Animals.- 2. Cold-Adaptation in Man.- B. Adaptation to Heat.- 1. Heat Adaptations in Animals.- 2. Heat Adaptation in Man.- C. Endocrine System and Thermal Adaptation.- 1. Thyroid.- 2. Adrenals.- 3. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System.- D. Artificial Thermal Adaptation.- IX. Temperature Limits of Life.- A. Limits of Regulation in Heat.- 1. Weakly Sweating Animals.- 2. Man and Strongly Sweating Mammals.- B. Hyperthermia.- 1. General Heat Injuries.- 2. General Heat Death.- 3. Local Effects of Heat.- C. Limits of Regulation in Cold.- 1. Limits of Regulation in Animals.- 2. Limits of Regulation in Man.- D. Hypothermia.- 1. The Course of Hypothermia in Animal Experiments.- 2. Hypothermia in Man.- 3. General Cold Death.- 4. Local Effects of Cold.- 5. Deep Cooling of Organs and Tissues.- X. Temperature and Development.- A. Spermatogenesis.- B. Effects of Temperature on Growth.- C. Ontogenetic Development of Homeothermy.- 1. The Significance of Body Size and Shape.- 2. Comparison of Effector Systems.- 3. Neutral Zone, Range of Regulation ("Tolerated Ambient Temperature Range").- 4. Deep-Body Temperatures; Stability of Body Temperature; Quality of the Neonatal Control System; "Set Point".- 5. Thermal and Other External Effects on the Development of Temperature Regulation.- D. Tolerance of Hypothermia by Homeothermic Species in the Course of Development.- XI. Hibernation and Related Phenomena.- A. Distribution of Hibernation and Other Lethargic States.- B. Torpidity among Birds.- C. The Lethargy of Bats.- D. True Hibernation.- 1. Readiness for Hibernation.- 2. Onset of Hibernation.- 3. Arousal.- 4. Temperature Regulation.- 5. Respiration.- 6. Metabolism.- 7. Heart and Circulation.- 8. Hormonal Changes.- 9. Attempts at Artificial Induction of Hibernation.- XII. Temperature and Geographic Distribution of Homeotherms.- A. General Remarks.- B. Temperature Conditions in Various Biotopes.- C. Temperature and Migration.- D. Special Characteristics of Chiroptera.- E. Physiological Causes of Geographic Temperature Limits.- F. Ecogeographical Rules.- G. Eurythermic and Stenothermic Species.- H. Adaptation to Various Climates.- 1. Tropical Climate.- 2. Desert Climate.- 3. Polar Climate.- I. Temperature and Productivity of Domestic Animals.- References.