The Aims of Argument: A Text and Reader

Paperback | January 2, 2014

byTimothy Crusius, Carolyn Channell

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The Aims of Argument, a comprehensive text for teaching argument, recognizes that people argue with a range of purposes in mind: to inquire, to convince, to persuade, and to negotiate. It offers a clear, logical learning sequence rather than merely a collection of assignments: inquiry is the search for truth, what we call an earned opinion, which then becomes the basis of efforts to convince others to accept our earned opinions. Case-making, the essence of convincing, is then carried over into learning how to persuade, which, requires explicit attention to appeals to character, emotion, and style. Finally, the previous three aims all play roles in negotiation, which amounts to finding and defending positions capable of appealing to all sides in a dispute or controversy.

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The Aims of Argument, a comprehensive text for teaching argument, recognizes that people argue with a range of purposes in mind: to inquire, to convince, to persuade, and to negotiate. It offers a clear, logical learning sequence rather than merely a collection of assignments: inquiry is the search for truth, what we call an earned opi...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:9 × 7.3 × 1.1 inPublished:January 2, 2014Publisher:McGraw-Hill EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0077592204

ISBN - 13:9780077592202

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Table of Contents

PART ONE

RESOURCES FOR READING AND WRITING ARGUMENTS 1

CHAPTER 1 Understanding Argument 3

  • What Is Argument? 3
  • What Is Rhetoric? 4
  • An Example of Argument 6
  • Steven Johnson, From Everything Bad Is Good for You 6
  • Arguing Responsibly 7
  • Four Criteria of Responsible Reasoning 8
    • Responsible Reasoning Is Well Informed 9
    • Responsible Reasoning Is Open to Constructive Criticism from Others 9
    • Responsible Reasoning Considers the Audience 9
    • Responsible Reasoning Understands an Argument's Contexts 10
  • Reading 10
  • Kelby Carlson, "Fighting Words: Why Our Public Discourse Must Change" 10
  • What Are the Aims of Argument? 13
    • Arguing to Inquire 13
    • Arguing to Convince 13
    • Arguing to Persuade 14
    • Arguing to Mediate 14

CHAPTER 2 Reading Arguments 17

  • Strategies for Critical Reading: Once Through Is Not Enough 18
    • First Encounters: Skimming for Context, Reading for Content 18
    • Strategy: Before Reading, Skim (and Surf) for Context 18
    • Strategy: Skim to Preview the Whole Argument 19
    • Strategy: Annotate as You Read 19
  • Sally Jenkins, "A Major Gain for College Sports" 21
    • Second Encounters: Reading to Detect the Case 23
    • Strategy: Outlining the Case 24
    • Third Encounters: Responding to an Argument 25
    • Strategy: Paraphrasing 26
    • Strategy: Summarizing 27
    • Strategy: Joining the Conversation 29
  • Mariah Burton Nelson, Response to "A Major Gain for College Sports" 33
  • Reading Alternative Forms of Argument 33
  • Keith A. Williams, "A Technological Cloud Hangs over
  • Higher Education" 35

CHAPTER 3 Analyzing Arguments: The Toulmin Method 39

  • An Overview of the Toulmin Method 39
  • Art Carden, "Let's Be Blunt: It's Time to End the Drug War" 42
  • A Step-by-Step Demonstration of the Toulmin Method 44
    • Analyzing the Claim 44
    • Identify the Claim 44
    • Look for Qualifi ers and Exceptions 44
    • Analyzing the Reasons and Evidence 45
    • State the Reasons 45
    • Find the Evidence 45
    • Examine the Evidence 46
    • Examining the Warrants 46
    • Noting Rebuttals 47
    • Summarizing Your Analysis 47
  • A Final Note about Logical Analysis 48

CHAPTER 4 Critiquing an Argument 51

  • What Is a Critique? 51
  • Why Critique an Argument? 52
  • How a Critique Differs from a Reaction 52
  • Strategies for Critiquing Arguments 53
  • Tom Stafford, "Why Sherry Turkle Is So Wrong" 54
  • The Assignment 58
    • Topic and Focus 58
    • Audience 58
    • Voice and Ethos 58
    • Writing Assignment Suggestions 58
  • Choosing an Argument 59
  • Exploring Your Topic 59
  • David Fryman, "Open Your Ears to Biased Professors" 59
    • Forming a First Impression 61
    • Stepping Back: Analyzing the Argument 61
    • Doing Research 64
    • The Reality Test for Arguments 64
    • Preparing to Write 65
    • Formulating Your Stance 65
    • Consider Your Reader, Purpose, and Tone 66
  • Drafting Your Paper 66
    • Organization 67
    • Introduction 67
    • Body 67
    • Conclusion 67
    • Development 67
    • Introduction 67
    • Body 67
    • Conclusion 68
  • Revising Your Draft 68
    • Excerpts from a Sample Discovery Draft 68
    • Excerpt 1: Introduction 68
    • Excerpt 2: A Counterargument 68
    • Example Assessment: Sizing Up D. D. Solomon's First Draft 70
    • Develop a Revision Strategy 70
  • Revised Draft: D. D. Solomon's Evaluation of Fryman's Argument 70
  • D. D. Solomon, "How Professors Should Deal with Their Biases" 70
    • Responding to the Revised Student Draft 71
    • Edit Your Paper 72
  • Chapter Summary 72

CHAPTER 5 Analyzing and Using Visual Arguments 73

  • Understanding Visual Arguments 74
  • "Reading" Images 74
  • Analysis: Five Common Types of Visual Argument 75
    • Advertisements 75
    • Editorial Cartoons 76
    • Public Sculpture 77
    • News Photographs 81
    • Graphics 83
  • Writing Assignment: Analyzing an Advertisement or EditorialCartoon 86
    • STUDENT SAMPLE-Analysis of Visual Rhetoric: Ryan Herrscher, "The Image ofHappiness: An Analysis of Coca-Cola's 'Open Happiness' Campaign" 86
    • Alternative Assignment 1 89
    • Alternative Assignment 2 89
    • Alternative Assignment 3 89

CHAPTER 6Writing Research-Based Arguments 91

  • Finding an Issue 92
    • Understand the Difference between a Topic and an Issue 92
    • Find Issues in the News 93
    • The Internet 93
    • Library Online Databases and Resources 93
    • Magazines and Newspapers 93
    • Lectures, Panel Discussions, Class Discussion, Conversations 94
    • Personal Observations 94
    • Finding an Issue on the Topic of Global Warming: A Student Example 94
  • Finding Sources 95
  • Field Research 96
    • Observations 96
    • Questionnaires and Surveys 96
    • Interviews 97
  • Library and Internet Research 98
    • Kinds of Sources 98
    • Books 98
    • Periodicals 99
    • Audiovisual Materials 100
    • Websites 100
    • Blogs, Listservs, Usenet Groups, Message Boards 101
    • Choosing Precise Search Terms 101
    • Use Keyword Searching 102
    • Use Phrase Searching 102
    • Use Boolean Searching 102
    • Use Subject Words 102
  • Searching Your Library 103
    • Your Library's Online Catalog 104
    • Your Library's Online Resources 106
  • Internet Research 108
    • Domains 108
    • Commercial (.com) 109
    • Nonprofi t Organizations (.org) 109
    • Educational Institutions (.edu) 109
    • Government Agencies (.gov) 109
    • Advanced Features for Searching the Web 109
    • Advanced Searches 109
    • Google Specialized Searches 110
    • Google Scholar 110
    • Subject Directories to the Web 110
    • Blogs, Listservs, Message Boards, and Chat Groups 111
  • Evaluating Sources 111
    • Eliminate Inappropriate Sources 111
    • Carefully Record Complete Bibliographic Information 111
    • Read the Source Critically 111
    • Who Is the Writer, and What Is His or Her Bias? 112
    • How Reliable Is the Source? 112
    • When Was This Source Written? 113
    • Where Did This Source Appear? 113
    • What Is the Author's Aim? 114
    • How Is the Source Organized? 114
    • Special Help with Evaluating Websites 114
  • Using Sources 117
    • Richard Moe, "Battling Teardowns, Saving Neighborhoods" 117
    • Writing Informally to Gain Mastery over Your Sources 121
      1. Annotate the Source 121
      2. Respond to the Source in Your Notebook 121
      3. Paraphrase Important Ideas from the Source 122
      4. Examples of Adequate and Inadequate Paraphrasing 123
      5. Write Summaries of Portions of a Source 124
      6. Write Capsule Summaries of Entire Sources 126
      7. Dialogue about Sources 127
  • Incorporating and Documenting Source Material 128
    • Different Styles of Documentation 128
    • MLA Style 128
    • APA Style 129
    • Direct Quotations 129
    • MLA Style 129
    • APA Style 129
    • Altering Direct Quotations with Ellipses and Square Brackets 130
    • Using Block Quotations 131
    • Indirect Quotations 131
    • MLA Style 131
    • APA Style 132
  • In-Text References to Electronic Sources 133
  • Creating Works Cited and Reference Lists 133
    • MLA Style for Entries in the Works Cited List 133
    • Books 134
    • Articles in Periodicals 138
    • Other Genres as Sources 139
    • Sources on the Internet 139
    • Student Sample of a Research Paper in MLA Style 143
    • Using APA Documentation Style 143
    • In-text Citations 143
    • Reference List Examples 146
    • Books 146
    • Articles in Periodicals 148
    • Sources on the Internet 150
    • Other Genres as Sources 151
    • Student Sample of a Research Paper in APA Style 151
    • STUDENT SAMPLE-A Research Paper (MLA Style): Julie Ross, "Why ResidentialConstruction Needs to Get a Conscience" 152

CHAPTER 7 Ethical Writing and Plagiarism 163

  • Why Ethics Matter 163
  • What Plagiarism Is 164
  • The Ethics of Using Sources 164
    • Purchasing a Paper 164
    • Using a Paper Found Online 165
    • Using Passages from Online Sources without Citing the Source 165
    • Inadequate Paraphrasing 167
    • Paraphrasing Ideas or Information without Naming the Source 168
    • When Opinions Coincide 170
  • The Ethics of Giving and Receiving Help with Writing 170
  • Ethical Writing and Good Study Habits 172

PART TWO

THE AIMS OF ARGUMENT 173 CHAPTER 8Joining the Conversation: Arguing to Inquire 175

  • What Is Comparing Perspectives? 176
  • Why Write to Compare Perspectives? 176
  • How Does Comparing Perspectives Work? 177
    • What to Ask When Comparing Perspectives 177
    • The Writer as Inquirer 177
  • Andy Rudd, "Which Character Should Sports Develop?" 177
  • Readings 180
  • John F. Schumaker, "The Paradox of Narcissism" 181
  • Jean M. Twenge, "Changes in Narcissism" 185
  • Duncan Greenberg, "Generation Y and the New Myth of Narcissus" 187
  • The Assignment 189
    • Topic and Focus 189
    • Audience 189
    • Voice and Style 189
    • Writing Assignment Suggestions 189
  • Choosing a Topic 190
  • Exploring Your Topic 190
    • Paraphrase or Summarize the Main Points 191
    • Turn Main Points into Questions 192
    • Paraphrase and Comment 192
    • Keep Track of Connections across Perspectives 193
    • Maintain an Exploratory Stance 194
  • Drafting Your Paper 194
    • Planning the Draft 194
    • The Art of Questioning: Planning the Body 194
    • Development and Organization 195
  • Revising Your Draft 195
  • REVISED STUDENT EXAMPLE-Ian Fagerstrom, "Comparison of Perspectiveson Narcissism" 197
  • Chapter Summary 200

CHAPTER 9 Making Your Case: Arguing to Convince 201

  • What Is a Case? 202
  • Why Make a Case? 202
  • How Do You Make a Case? 203
    • Examining Your Audience's Beliefs 205
  • Readings 205
  • Olivia Judson, "Optimism in Evolution" 205
    • Strategies Used in Case-Making: Structure and Readership 207
  • Putting Your Voice into Your Argument 208
  • Wilbert Rideau, "Why Prisons Don't Work" 209
    • Strategies Used in Case-Making: Problem-Solution, Cause-and-Effect Reasoning 211
  • T. Boone Pickens, "A Plan for Reducing American Dependenceon Foreign Oil" 212
  • Strategies Used in Case-Making: Lines of Reasoning 216
  • The Assignment 218
    • Topic and Focus 218
    • Audience 218
    • Voice and Style 219
    • Writing Assignment Suggestions 219
  • Choosing a Topic 219
  • Exploring Your Topic 220
    • Find the Issues 220
    • Order the Issues (Stasis) 220
    • Do More Research 222
    • Analyze Your Sources: Information versus Interpretation 222
    • Start Your Working Bibliography 223
    • A Key Question before Drafting: Is My Opinion Defensible? 223
    • Assessing Your Opinion from Research Results 224
  • Preparing to Write 224
    • State Your Opinion as a Thesis 224
    • Writing Defensible Claims 225
    • Unpack Your Thesis 226
    • Examine Possible Reasons 226
  • Arrange Your Evidence under Each Reason 227
    • Examine Possible Evidence 227
    • STUDENT EXAMPLE: Noelle Alberto's Draft Case Outline 227
  • Drafting Your Paper 229
    • Development and Organization 229
    • STUDENT EXAMPLE: Excerpts from Alberto's Draft 230
  • Revising Your Draft 231
    • Formulate a Plan to Guide Your Revision 231
    • REVISED STUDENT EXAMPLE: Noelle Alberto, "Multitasking:A Poor Study Habit" 231
  • Chapter Summary 233

CHAPTER 10 Motivating Action: Arguing to Persuade 235

  • What Is Persuasion? 235
  • Why Write to Persuade? 236
  • How Does Persuasion Work? 236
    • The Art of Questioning: What Really Persuades Us? 237
  • Readings 238
    • Subaru Advertisement 238
  • Tom Beaudoin, "Consuming Faith" 239
    • Strategies for Appealing for Action 242
  • Katharine Weber, "The Factories of Lost Children" 243
    • Strategies for Appealing for Action 245
  • Using Your Voice in Appealing for Action 246
  • The Assignment 247
    • Topic and Focus 247
    • Audience 247
    • Voice and Ethos 247
    • Writing Assignment Suggestions 247
  • Choosing a Topic 248
  • Exploring Your Topic 248
    • Focus, Audience, and Need 248
    • Establishing Need 249
    • Doing Research 250
  • Preparing to Write: Thinking about Persuasive Appeals 250
    • The Appeal through Logos: Deciding on a Claim and Reasons 251
    • Developing Reasons for Your Claim 252
    • Making a Brief of Your Case 252
    • STUDENT EXAMPLE: Natsumi Hazama's Brief 252
    • The Appeal through Ethos: Presenting Good Character 254
    • Establishing Ethos with Your Readers 254
    • The Appeal through Pathos: Using Emotional Appeals 254
  • Drafting Your Paper 255
    • Development and Organization 255
  • Revising Your Draft 256
    • Getting Feedback from Others 256
    • Practicing Revision 257
    • Revising to Bring Out the Structure of the Argument 258
    • Revising to Improve Incorporation of Quoted Material 259
    • REVISED STUDENT EXAMPLE: Natsumi Hazama, "Is Too Much PressureHealthy?" 260
  • Chapter Summary 263

CHAPTER 11 Resolving Conflict: Arguing to Mediate 265

  • Mediation and the Other Aims of Argument 266
  • The Process of Mediation 267
  • Mediation and Rogerian Argument 267
    • A Conflict to Mediate 268
    • Understanding the Positions 268
  • Roger Kimball, "Institutionalizing Our Demise: America vs. Multiculturalism" 268
  • Elizabeth Martínez, "Reinventing 'America': Call for a New National Identity" 275
    • Analysis of the Writers' Positions 280
    • Kimball's Position 280
    • Martínez's Position 281
    • Locating the Areas of Agreement and Disagreement 282
    • Differences over Facts 282
    • Differences over Interests, Values, and Interpretations 282
    • Finding Creative Solutions: Exploring Common Ground 285
    • Exploring Common Ground in the Debate over National Identity 286
  • The Mediatory Essay 287
  • Bharati Mukherjee, "Beyond Multiculturalism: A Two-Way
    • Transformation" 287
    • Analyzing Mukherjee's Essay 293
    • Ethos: Earning the Respect of Both Sides 293
    • Pathos: Using Emotion to Appeal to Both Sides 293
    • Logos: Integrating Values of Both Sides 294
  • The Assignment 295
    • Prewriting 295
    • Drafting 296
    • Revising 296
    • STUDENT EXAMPLE-Arguing to Mediate: Angi Grellhesl, "Mediating theSpeech Code Controversy" 297
  • Chapter Summary 299
PART THREE

READINGS: ISSUES AND ARGUMENTS 301 CHAPTER 12Consumer Society: Achieving Balance 303

  • Consumerism: Ten Quotations 305
  • Virginia Postrel, "The Aesthetic Imperative" 306
  • E. D. Kain, "In Defense of Consumerism" 310
  • David Brooks, "The Grill-Buying Guy" 312
  • Alex Kotlowitz, "False Connections" 315
  • Three Cartoons about the Consumer Society 320
  • Caroline Heldman, "Out-of-Body Image" 322
  • Alissa Quart, "X-Large Boys" 327
  • Don Peck and Ross Douthat, "Does Money Buy Happiness?" 331
  • John F. Schumaker, "The Happiness Conspiracy: What Does It Mean to Be
  • Happy in a Modern Consumer Society?" 336
  • For Further Reading 340

CHAPTER 13 Global Warming: What Should Be Done? 343

  • Text of the American College and University Presidents' Climate Commitment 344
  • National Geographic, "Global Warming: An Overview" 347
  • Scientifi c American, "15 Ways to Make a Wedge" 352
  • Bill Blakemore, "Who's 'Most to Blame' for Global Warming?" 353
  • Gregg Easterbrook, "Some Convenient Truths" 358
  • Tim Appenzeller, "The Coal Paradox" 362
  • Al Gore, "Existing Technologies for Reducing CO2 Emissions" 367
  • Michelle Nijhuis, "Selling the Wind" 368
  • Union of Concerned Scientists, "Ten Personal Solutions" 372
  • William F. Ruddiman, "Consuming Earth's Gifts" 375
  • For Further Reading 378

CHAPTER 14 The Millennials: Issues Facing Young Adults 381

  • Pew Research Center, "Millennials: Confi dent. Connected. Open to Change" 383
  • Kit Yarrow and Jayne O'Donnell, "Gen Y Is from Mercury" 391
  • Kim Brooks, "Is It Time to Kill the Liberal Arts Degree?" 395
  • Stuart Rabinowitz, "A Liberal Arts Education Is Still Relevant" 399
  • Dale Archer, "College Debt: Necessary Evil or Ponzi Scheme?" 402
  • Richard Vedder, "Forgive Student Loans?" 405
  • Anya Kamenetz, "Waking Up and Taking Charge" 408
  • For Further Reading 413

CHAPTER 15 Immigration Revisited: A New Look at aPermanent Issue 415

  • Historical Images: Our Contradictory Attitudes toward Immigration 417
  • Tamar Jacoby, "The New Immigrants and the Issue of Assimilation" 418
  • Samuel Huntington, "One Nation, Out of Many: Why 'Americanization'of Newcomers Is Still Important" 425
  • Jeff Koterba, Cartoon: "Playing POLITICS with the Border" 429
  • Ross Douthat and Jenny Woodson, "The Border" 430
  • Linda Chavez, "The Realities of Immigration" 434
  • Chris Farrell, "Obama's Next Act: Immigration Reform" 441
  • Dava Castillo, "Comprehensive Immigration Reform-Past, Present,and Future" 444
  • Leslie Marmon Silko, "The Border Patrol State" 447
  • For Further Reading 451

CHAPTER 16 Declining Civility: Is Rudeness on the Rise? 453

  • P. M. Forni, "What Is Civility?" 455
  • Sara Rimer, "Play with Your Food, Just Don't Text" 459
  • Elizabeth Bernstein, "Why We Are So Rude Online" 462
  • Leonard Pitts, Jr., "Going beyond Edgy-and Falling off the Cliff" 465
  • Tufts Now, "Left Is Mean But Right Is Meaner, Says New Study ofPolitical Discourse" 467
  • Brian McGee, "Can Political Rhetoric Be Too Civil?" 470
  • Frank D. Adams and Gloria J. Lawrence, "Bullying Victims: The EffectsLast into College" 472
  • Emily Bazelon, "Don't Be a Bystander" 479
  • For Further Reading 482

CHAPTER 17 Enhancing Humans: How Far Is Too Far? 485

  • Carl Elliott, "The Tyranny of Happiness" 487
  • Benedict Carey, "Brain Enhancement Is Wrong, Right?" 492
  • Barbara Sahakian and Nora Volkow, "Professor's Little Helper?" 495
  • Gregory Stock, "Choosing Our Genes" 501
  • John Naish, "Genetically Modifi ed Athletes" 506
  • Arthur L. Caplan, "A Shot in the Rear: Why Are We Really againstSteroids?" 509
  • Ed Smith, "Lance Armstrong and the Cult of Positive Thinking" 514
  • Larry Gonick and Mark Wheelis, Cartoon: "Gene-Splicing as BigBusiness" 517
  • C. Ben Mitchell, "On Human Bioenhancements" 519
  • For Further Reading 521

APPENDIXES

  1. A Brief Guide to Editing and Proofreading 523
  2. Fallacies-and Critical Thinking 541
  3. Glossary 557
  4. Credits 562
  5. Index 565