The Alternative Introduction to Biological Anthropology

Paperback | December 8, 2010

byJonathan Marks

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In The Alternative Introduction to Biological Anthropology, author Jon Marks presents an innovative framework for thinking about the major issues in the field with fourteen original essays designed to correlate to the core chapters in standard textbooks. Each chapter draws on and complements -but does not reconstitute (except for the sake of clarity) - the major data and ideas presented in standard texts. Marks explores such topics as how we make sense of data about our origins, where our modern ideas comes from, our inability to separate natural facts from cultural facts and values aswe try to understand ourselves, and the social and political aspects of science as a culturally situated mental activity.

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In The Alternative Introduction to Biological Anthropology, author Jon Marks presents an innovative framework for thinking about the major issues in the field with fourteen original essays designed to correlate to the core chapters in standard textbooks. Each chapter draws on and complements -but does not reconstitute (except for the s...

Jon Marks is Professor of Anthropology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. He is a past president of the General Anthropology Division of the American Anthropological Association and was the recipient of the AAA/Mayfield Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching. He is the author of Why I Am Not a Scientist: Anthrop...
Format:PaperbackDimensions:304 pages, 5.98 × 9.21 × 0.71 inPublished:December 8, 2010Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195157036

ISBN - 13:9780195157031

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Table of Contents

Preface1. What Is Anthropology, What Is Biological Anthropology, and Should I Be Getting Science Credit for This? (On the Philosophy of Science)What is Anthropology?The Subfields of AnthropologyThe Anthropology of ScienceThe Normative View of Science: Scientific MethodThe Social Matrix of ScienceRelativizing ScienceThe Origins of AnthropologyThe Origins of Physical AnthropologyBiological Anthropology TodayReferences and Further Reading2. Where Did Our Scientific Ideas about Ourselves Come From? (On the History of Science)The Beginnings of a New View of NatureThe Scientific RevolutionThe Decline of DegenerationThe Anatomy of a "Pygmie"Biblical Fallibility, or at Least IncompletenessMonogenismCause and EffectThe Great Chain of BeingBuffon's Objection to the Nested HierarchyExtinctionNatural TheologyUniformitarian GeologyAdam's WorldHuman EvolutionReferences and Further Reading3. Can You Tell If You Are a Darwinist? (On Theories of Evolution)Darwin's ArgumentWhere People Fit InThe SacrificeImplications for PatternImplications for SpeciesImplications for Biological HistoryImplications for Relating Humans to Other AnimalsPhylogeny: The Core of DarwinismOther DarwinismsSocial DarwinismNeo-DarwinismThe "Synthetic Theory"Evolution at the Molecular LevelPunctuated EquilibriaSociobiologyUniversal DarwinismAtheistic DarwinismReferences and Further Reading4. Why Do I Look Like the Cable Guy, Daddy? (On Issues of Human Heredity)Ten Non-Mendelian LawsThe Chromosome TheoryLinkageCrossing-OverPolygenic InheritanceEnvironmental Influence on PhenotypesUnit CharactersProperties of HeterozygotesPleiotropyImprintingExtra-nuclear InheritanceThe Molecular Genomic Basis of HeredityThe Alpha-Globin Gene ClusterMutationMeanings of the Gene and GeneticsReferences and Further Reading5. Are We Here? If So, Why? (On Issues of Microevolution)Do Things Exist for a Reason?Principal Abstraction: The Gene PoolGene FlowInbreedingNatural SelectionGenetic DriftSickle-CellWhy Is the Gene Pool the Way It Is?Adaptation or Founder Effect?Another Point Illustrated by Sickle-Cell and PhenylketonuriaSickle-Cell, Tay-Sachs, and Genetic ScreeningKinship as a Biocultural ConstructionGenetic History and the Diversity ProjectWho Owns the Body?References and Further Reading6. Building Better Monkeys, or at Least Different Ones (On Systematics)SpeciationSpecific Mate Recognition SystemsGenetic Systems Producing IncompatibilitySpecies as IndividualsLevels and Rates of EvolutionDevelopmental GeneticsAllometric GrowthExtinctionClassificationSystematics and PhylogenyClassical and Cladistic TaxonomyPhylogeneticsLimitations of the Phylogenetic MethodReferences and Further Reading7. Is That an Ape in Your Genes, or Are You Just Glad to See Me? (On the Place of Humans in the Natural Order)Primate ClassificationProblems of UniformitarianismGenetic and Anatomical DataThe MammalsOur Place in Primate SystematicsThe Living ApesThe TrichotomyCladism, Reductionism, and the Rise of the HomininsWhat Does It Mean to Be 98% Genetically Chimpanzee?References and Further Reading8. Apes Run around Naked, Live in Trees, and Fling their Poo. Do You? (On the Relevance of apes to Understanding Humans)What Primates Can and Can't Tell UsPrimate FieldworkPrimates in GroupsSocial Behavior and EcologyFoodSexual Activity and ParenthoodModels for Human EvolutionBaboons in the Sixties, Chimps in the NinetiesLooking Elsewhere for Clues about Human EvolutionThe Ape MindCultureConservationReferences and Further Reading9. Being and Becoming (On the Relevance of Humans to Understanding Humans)Human NatureThe Most Fundamental Human Adaptation: BipedalismWhy Be Bipedal?The Second Fundamental Human Adaptation: The TeethWhy Reduce the Canines?The Third Fundamental Human Adaptation: The BrainWhy Be Big-Brained?Social and Life-History NoveltiesPhysiological and Sexual NoveltiesWhat Does It Take to Make a Scenario of Human Evolution Valuable?Cultural EvolutionReferences and Further Reading10. If History is Humanities, and Evolution is Science, What Is Paleoanthropology? (On the Assumptions of a Diachronic Science)Scientific Inferences across TimeSkeletal BiologySexual DimorphismOntogenyGeographic VariationPaleopathologySources of Morphological VariationLumping and SplittingFossilizationOther ConsiderationsRights and Responsibilities in PaleoanthropologyKinds of EvidenceSuperposition and AssociationDatingDoing the Best We Can with Lost DataMaking Sense of Human AncestryClassifying the Living Apes and Fossil AncestorsReferences and Further Reading11. The Dental and the Mental (On Making Sense of the Early Diversification of the Human Lineage)The Shadow of Piltdown ManA Hominid OriginDiscovery of the AustralopithecinesAustralopithecus: Basal BipedsParanthropus-The Dental AdaptationEarly Homo: The Mental AdaptationThe Beginning of Cultural EvolutionReferences and Further Reading12. What to Do When Confronted by a Neandertal (On Continuity and Discontinuity)The Human LineageThe Mental and Social Life of Homo erectusHomo sapiens, the Wise SpeciesNeandertal LifeAnatomically Modern PeopleThe Emergence of ArtThe Political Nature of AncestryTesting Paleontological Models GeneticallyReferences and Further Reading13. Just How Different is Different? (On Race)RacePatterns of Contemporary Human VariationWhy Do We See Races?Race as a Biocultural CategoryAsking Scientific Questions about Human DiversityRace Is to Ethnicity as Sex Is to Gender, But Not QuiteWhat is Innate?Patterns of Human Genetic and Behavioral VariationReferences and Further Reading14. Nature/Culture, or How Science Consistently Manages to Give Little Answers to Big Questions (On the Non-reductive Core of Anthropology)Adaptability and the Human ConditionFolk Theories of HeredityThe State of the SpeciesThe Anthropology of ScienceBioethicsNAGPRA: Who Owns the Bones?Origin Myths, Scientific and OtherwiseBiocultural Studies, or Cyborg AnthropologyReferences and Further ReadingIndex