The axon, interposed between the cell body and the synaptic terminals in most neurons, plays a crucial role in connecting neurons and acting as a conduit for the transmission of information between them. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date compendium that brings together chapterson the structure, function, and pathophysiology of axons in both the PNS and CNS. Carefully written, well-illustrated with superb illustrations, and generously referenced, the 33 chapters and introduction have been authored by 49 world-renowned authorities. Recent advances in the molecularneurobiology of axons are carefully reviewed, and new areas, such as the molecular biology of ion channels and myelination, the role of calcium in pathophysiology and regeneration, cell adhesion molecules and their roles in axo-glial interactions and axonal guidance, and optical recording methods,are highlighted. This book will provide an essential reference for neuroscientists as well as clinicians such as neurologists, neurosurgeons, and clinical electrophysiologists interested in axons.