The Biology and Utilization of Shrubs brings together the wide range of information about shrubs from many disciplines and world locations. The book is organized into seven parts. Part I describes the major shrublands found on each of the vegetated continents. It provides an overview of the dominant shrubland types as well as the associated features of soil and climate that influence the geographic distribution of major shrub species. Part II discusses environmental influences and plant responses. Part III considers the range of genetic diversity for important traits and how these may vary in different habitats. Part IV discusses the effects of stress on physiological processes of shrubs, and the kinds of strategies shrubs employ to meet physiological stress. Part V offers evidence to support the claim that the many virtues of shrubs provide a basis for sustaining shrub use for livestock fodder, wildlife habitat, reclamation and erosion control, fuel, and naturalized landscaping. Part VI outlines methods for collecting and processing seeds from natural stands or from superior genotypes planted in seed production orchards. Part VII describes cultural adaptation to shrub use in a livestock-dominated primitive culture, followed by a detailed economic analysis of establishing shrub plantations to improve livestock production.