The Cellular Structure of the Mammalian Nervous System: A re-examination, and some consequences for neurobiology by H. HillmanThe Cellular Structure of the Mammalian Nervous System: A re-examination, and some consequences for neurobiology by H. Hillman

The Cellular Structure of the Mammalian Nervous System: A re-examination, and some consequences for…

byH. Hillman

Paperback | February 12, 2012

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It would seem an appropriate time to re-examine the cellular structure of the mammalian nervous system for the following reasons. Firstly, there is considerable confusion in the literature about the appearance of the different kinds of neuroglia by light and by electron microscopy, and this is complemented by widespread disagreements among distinguished neuropathologists about the international classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Secondly, there is an increasing volume of experiments on the physiology and biochemistry of tissue cultures of neurons and different kinds of neuroglia, whose validity depends upon the accurate identification of both the parent tissue and also of the cells subsequently growing in culture. The biochemical classifica­ tion in recent years has often tended to become independent of the cellular identification, which makes the use of the neuroglial cell names doubtful and the significance of the biochemical properties of the cells difficult to relate to the physiological properties in vitro or in vivo (Table 1).
Title:The Cellular Structure of the Mammalian Nervous System: A re-examination, and some consequences for…Format:PaperbackDimensions:318 pagesPublished:February 12, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401086818

ISBN - 13:9789401086813

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Table of Contents

Foreword.- Acknowledgements.- Philosophy.- 1 Landmarks in the cell biology of the nervous system.- Description of the cell..- Fixation and cutting sections..- Achromatic objectives..- Early findings in neurohistology..- Neuroglia described..- Staining procedures..- Control experiments..- Brain as a syncytium..- The reticular versus neuronal doctrine..- Axons and dendrites..- Mitochondria..- Golgi body..- Neuromuscular junction..- Synapses..- Transmission..- Neurons and neuroglia..- Nisslbody..- Granules..- Myelinated fibres..- The Schwann cell..- Nucleoli and nucleolar membrane..- Nucleololus..- Cytoarchitectonics and myeloarchitec-tonics..- White matter..- Physiological experiments on tracts..- Microscopical techniques..- Tissue culture..- Cellular and intracellular movements..- The cell membrane..- Electron microscopy..- 2 Methods of studying neural structure.- Microdissection..- Histological techniques..- Tissue culture..- Electron microscopy..- Subcellular fractionation..- 3 Cellular identification - general comments.- Appearances of cells..- Geometry of cells..- Specificity of stains..- Physiological properties..- Specific cell markers..- Appearances in tissue culture..- The current view of different kinds of cells as described in the literature..- 4 Specific identification.- Light microscopy of histological sections..- Appearances by electron microscopy..- Appearances in tissue culture..- Specific staining..- Markers..- Conclusions from the literature..- 5 Experimental studies.- Histology..- Examination of unstained tissues..- Cells with apparently thin films of cytoplasm..- Serial sections..- Quantimetry..- Electron microscopical studies..- Dorsal root ganglia..- White matter. Axons..- 6 Critique of these experiments.- 7 The fine structure of the nervous system.- The neuron..- The synapses..- Dendrites..- Neuromuscular junctions..- Cytoplasm of neurons..- The nuclear membrane of neurons..- Nuclear pores..- Nucleoplasm..- Nucleoli of neurons..- Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia..- The syncytium..- Naked nuclei..- White matter..- Ganglion cells..- Ependymal cells and endothelial cells..- Myelin sheath..- The Geren model..- The Schwann cell..- 8 Other evidence supporting these conclusions.- Tissue between neurons..- Resistance and impedance of brain and spinal cord..- Proportion of brain in which abrupt direct current potentials can be recorded..- Viscosity of brain and spinal cord..- Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes..- 9 Summary of conclusions about nervous tissue in living mammals.- Types of cells..- Syncytium..- Neurons..- Absence of cell contacts..- Cytoplasm..- Nuclear membranes..- Mitochondria. Nucleoli..- Nucleolar membrane..- Naked nuclei..- Ganglia..- Unmyelinated fibres..- Nature of myelin sheath..- Fibre tracts in white matter..- Transmitters. Blood - brain barrier..- The Geren model..- The nature of axoplasmic flow..- 10 Problems arising from the latter conclusions.- Previous holders of these views..- Identification of astrocytes..- Synapses and transmission..- The nature of the structures described as synapses seen by light and by electron microscopy..- 'Unit' membranes..- Cytoskeleton or endoskeleton..- The integrity of the brain..- The central nervous system as a syncytium..- Evidence other than standard transmission electron microscopy..- Gliosis..- 11 Properties of the nervous system in the light of present conclusions.- Classification of cell types, normal and pathological..- Membrane transport..- The extracellular space..- Cerebral oedema..- Blood-brain barrier..- The syncytium and the extracellular fluid..- The vesicle hypothesis of transmission..- A general theory of receptors..- Does neuroglia have a high sodium ion content?.- Epilepsy..- Myelin and demyelinating diseases..- Biochemical studies of the central nervous system..- 12 Practical recommendations.- 13 Postscript.- Appendices.- 1 Specificity of staining procedures.- 2 Specificity of markers.- 3 Typical quantimetric counts.- 4 Biological membranes and measurement of their thickness.- 5 The tissue in the electron microscope.- 6 Unsatisfactory terms.- 7 A few naive questions.- References.- Author index.