This book provides an integrated review of current research on neural plasticity and reorganization after early cerebral insults. Addressing both animal studies and a variety of diverse clinical populations, including children with congenital brain malformations, focal lesions, autism, andpervasive developmental disorders, this book summarizes many of the major advances on neural plasticity made in these areas over the past several years. Characterized by a broad historical perspective including contributions from some of the earliest researchers on environmental factors and brainorganization, the book advances the reader form the laboratory to application in several human populations. Many of the components of the book explicitly address relationships of animal and human models, showing that the laboratory and the clinic are overlapping settings, not isolated chambers asthey are often perceived. The understanding of neural plasticity and both biological and environmental factors that influence brain reorganization after early cerebral insult has major implications for treatment. The book outlines many of the potential applications for treatment of early braindisorders. The contributors include basic neuroscientists, cognitive neuroscientists, and clinician-researchers who work together to bridge gaps among disciplines. The book should facilitate collaborative research and applications in the critical areas of neural plasticity and brainreorganization. Advancement of knowledge of factors that prevent and enhance brain reorganization after early cerebral insult is a key to unraveling the mysteries of the developmental disorders characteristic of children and which influence their development through adulthood.