The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science by W. Edward CraigheadThe Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science by W. Edward Craighead

The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science

EditorW. Edward Craighead, Charles B. Nemeroff

Hardcover | April 19, 2004

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Edited by high caliber experts, and contributed to by quality researchers and practitioners in psychology and related fields.
Includes over 500 topical entries
Each entry features suggested readings and extensive cross-referencing
Accessible to students and general readers
Edited by two outstanding scholars and clinicians
"W. Edward Craighead, Ph.D. University of Colorado, Boulder Dept. of Psychology Nuenzinger Psychology Building Campus Box 345 Boulder, CO 80309-0345 Charles B. Nremeroff, M.D., Ph.D. Emory Univ. School of Medicine Dept. of Psychiatry Atlanta, GA Dr. Craighead is Professor of Psychology and Director of Clinical Training at UCO...
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Title:The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral ScienceFormat:HardcoverDimensions:1112 pages, 11.4 × 9 × 2.3 inPublished:April 19, 2004Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0471220361

ISBN - 13:9780471220367

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For example, it)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.145 Tw (implies that the bubonic plague \(Black Death\), which)Tj T* -0.004 Tc -0.0933 Tw [(killed approximately one third of Europe)38.9(s population in the)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0607 Tw [(fourteenth century)122.2(, was not abnormal because it was wide-)]TJ T* 0 Tw (spread.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0652 Tw [(Some writers, such as F)122.2(.)0( Kraupl T)66.8(aylor \(1971\), have em-)]TJ -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0262 Tw (braced the pragmatic position that abnormality is nothing)Tj T* -0.0791 Tw [(more than the set of conditions that professionals treat. )61.2(Ac-)]TJ T* 0.0261 Tw (cording to this view of disorder as whatever professionals)Tj T* 0.0001 Tc 0.0693 Tw (treat, psychologically abnormal conditions are those that)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1155 Tw [(elicit intervention from mental health professionals. )61.3(Al-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0106 Tw (though this view avoids many of the conceptual pitfalls of)Tj T* -0.0066 Tw (other denitions, it does not explain why many conditions)Tj T* 0.0444 Tw [(treated by professionals, such as pregnancy)122.2(, a misshapen)]TJ T* -0.0002 Tw [(nose corrected by plastic surgery)122.2(, and marital conict, are)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw (not per se regarded as pathological.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1692 Tw (Advocates of a )Tj /F3 1 Tf 7.4892 0 TD 0.1693 Tw (subjective discomfort)Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.3132 0 TD 0.1692 Tw (model maintain)Tj -19.1357 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0099 Tw (that abnormal conditions are those that produce suffering)Tj T* -0.061 Tw [(in affected individuals. )61.2(Although many psychopathological)]TJ T* -0.0585 Tw [(conditions, such as Major Depressive Disorder)83.4(, clearly pro-)]TJ T* -0.0053 Tw (duce considerable subjective distress, several others, such)Tj T* -0.0887 Tw (as psychopathy \(a condition characterized by guiltlessness,)Tj T* 0.0027 Tw (callousness, and dishonesty\) and the manic phase of bipo-)Tj T* -0.0502 Tw (lar disorder \(a condition characterized by extreme levels of)Tj T* -0.043 Tw [(elation, energy)122.2(, and grandiosity\), are often associated with)]TJ T* 0.039 Tw [(minimal subjective distress. Moreover)83.4(, like the statistical)]TJ T* 0.0011 Tc 0.0683 Tw (model, the subjective discomfort model provides no guid-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0253 Tw (ance concerning what cutoffs should be used to dene ab-)Tj T* -0.0742 Tw [(normality)122.2(. How much discomfort is required for a condition)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw (to be pathological?)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0017 Tw (Most of the aforementioned denitions focus on subjec-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.016 Tw [(tive judgments concerning the presence of abnormality)122.2(. In)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0771 Tw (contrast, proponents of a )Tj /F3 1 Tf 12.1767 0 TD (biological model,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.2957 0 TD 0.0772 Tw [(such as R.)-283(E.)]TJ -20.4723 -1.3333 TD -0.002 Tc -0.0953 Tw (Kendell \(1975\), contend that abnormality should be dened)Tj T* -0.01 Tc -0.0923 Tw (by strictly biological criteria, particularly those derived from)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0272 Tw [(evolutionary theory)122.2(. For example, Kendell argued that ab-)]TJ T* -0.0734 Tw (normal conditions are characterized by a reduced life span,)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.0693 Tw (reduced biological tness \(the capacity of an organism to)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0005 Tw (transmit its genes to future generations\), or both. Despite)Tj T* -0.0758 Tw (its potentially greater scientic rigor relative to other mod-)Tj T* 0.0046 Tc 0.0648 Tw (els, a biological model is subject to numerous counterex-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0118 Tw (amples. For example, being a soldier in a war tends to re-)Tj T* -0.0002 Tc -0.0971 Tw [(duce one)39(s longevity but is not a disorder; priesthood \(which)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0156 Tw [(results in having no children\) tends to reduce one)39(s tness)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 26.1108 -2 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (1)Tj ET 0 0 0 1 K 0 J 0 j 1 w 10 M []0 d 60 656.13 m 564 656.13 l S BT /F4 1 Tf 48 0 0 48 293.7891 662.6328 Tm (A)Tj /F1 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 60 606.369 Tm -0.0001 Tc (ABNORMALITY)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 582.369 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.2364 Tw (From time immemorial, individuals have recognized a)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0366 Tw (small minority of members of their societies as psychologi-)Tj T* -0.0411 Tw (cally abnormal. The research of Jane Murphy \(1976\) fur-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1244 Tw [(ther demonstrates that people in non-W)61.2(estern cultures,)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0238 Tw [(such as the )38.9(Y)122.4(orubas of Nigeria and the )38.9(Y)100.1(upic-speaking Es-)]TJ T* -0.043 Tw [(kimos of )61.1(Alaska, readily recognize certain behaviors as ab-)]TJ T* 0.0387 Tw [(normal. Moreover)83.4(, many of these behaviors, such as talk-)]TJ T* -0.0609 Tw (ing to oneself, are similar to those regarded as abnormal in)Tj T* 0 Tc 0 Tw (W)Tj 0.9157 0 TD -0.004 Tc -0.0933 Tw [(estern society)122.3(. Murphy)39(s ndings suggest that the concept)]TJ -0.9157 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (of abnormality is not entirely culturally relative.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0948 Tw (Nevertheless, these observations leave unanswered a)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0048 Tw [(crucial question: What is abnormality? Surprisingly)122.2(, a de-)]TJ T* -0.0676 Tw (nitive answer to this question remains elusive. In this en-)Tj T* -0.0162 Tw [(try)122.2(, we examine several conceptualizations of abnormality)]TJ T* -0.0496 Tw [(and their strengths and weaknesses. )61.2(All of these conceptu-)]TJ T* -0.0577 Tw (alizations strive to provide a denition of abnormality that)Tj T* -0.086 Tw (encompasses both physical and mental disorders, although)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw [(most place primary emphasis on the latter)83.4(.)]TJ 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.005 Tw (The rst and most radical conception examined here is)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0627 Tw (that abnormality is entirely a function of societal values.)Tj T* 0.0241 Tw (According to this )Tj /F3 1 Tf 8.1623 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (subjective values)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.9883 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (model, which has been)Tj -16.1506 -1.3333 TD -0.0461 Tw (championed by Thomas Szasz \(1960\), abnormal conditions)Tj T* -0.0544 Tw [(are those deemed by society to be undesirable in some way)122.2(.)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.2388 Tw [(Although this model touches on an important truth)-49.9()]TJ T* 0.0022 Tc 0.0671 Tw [(namely)122.1(, that many or most abnormal conditions are per-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0687 Tw [(ceived as undesirable)-50.1()-50.1(it does not explain why many so-)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0773 Tw (cially undesirable behaviors, such as rudeness, laziness,)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0189 Tw [(and even racism, are not perceived as pathological. )61.2(A)-197.7(com-)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.079 Tw (prehensive denition of abnormality involves more than)Tj T* 0.0741 Tw (subjective values. This fact helps to explain in part why)Tj T* -0.0046 Tc -0.0928 Tw [(Harvard psychiatrist )61.1(Alvin Poussaint)38.9(s \(2002\) recent efforts)]TJ T* -0.0004 Tc -0.0969 Tw (to include extreme racism in the current diagnostic manual)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (have met with little success.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.029 Tw (Proponents of a )Tj /F3 1 Tf 7.3935 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (statistical)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.7821 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.029 Tw (approach, such as Henry Co-)Tj -13.5089 -1.3333 TD -0.0597 Tw (hen \(1981\), posit that abnormality can be dened as statis-)Tj T* -0.0887 Tw (tical deviation from a norm. Thus, any behavior that is rare)Tj T* 0.0136 Tw [(is abnormal. )61.2(Although this conceptualization is appealing)]TJ T* -0.0859 Tw [(in its simplicity)122.2(, it suffers from several shortcomings. First,)]TJ T* -0.0039 Tc -0.0935 Tw [(the cutoff points for abnormality are scientically arbitrary)122.2(.)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0389 Tw (Should abnormality be dened as the uppermost 1% of the)Tj T* 0.04 Tw (population, the uppermost 3%, or some other gure? Sec-)Tj T* -0.0471 Tw (ond, a statistical approach provides no guidance regarding)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1052 Tw [(which dimensions are relevant to psychopathology)122.3(. )61.1(As a)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0495 Tw (consequence, it erroneously classies high levels of certain)Tj ET Q endstream endobj 3 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 4 0 obj > endobj 5 0 obj > endobj 6 0 obj > endobj 7 0 obj > endobj 8 0 obj > endobj 9 0 obj > endobj 10 0 obj > endobj 11 0 obj > endobj 12 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 48 726.3687 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.0697 Tw [(but is similarly not a disorder)83.4(. Moreover)83.4(, a biological model)]TJ 0 -1.3333 TD 0.0001 Tc 0.0692 Tw (falls victim to the same problem of arbitrary cutoffs that)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0866 Tw (bedevils the statistical model: How much below average)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0317 Tw (must life span or tness be for a condition to be abnormal?)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.129 Tw (Whereas some of the preceding conceptualizations of)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0473 Tw (abnormality invoke primarily social criteria, such as value)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.2948 Tw (judgments, others invoke primarily biological criteria.)Tj T* 0.0004 Tc 0.0689 Tw [(Jerome W)83.3(akeeld \(1992\) suggests that the proper deni-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0026 Tw (tion of abnormality requires both social and biological cri-)Tj T* -0.0047 Tc -0.0926 Tw [(teria. Specically)122.2(, he posits that all abnormal conditions are)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.18 Tw [(harmful dysfunctions. The harm component of W)83.5(ake-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0335 Tw [(eld)39(s conceptualization refers to social values regarding a)]TJ T* -0.0405 Tw [(condition)39(s undesirability)122.2(, whereas the )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 17.8415 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (dysfunction)Tj /F2 1 Tf 5.5857 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (compo-)Tj -23.4272 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.084 Tw (nent refers to the failure of a system to function as de-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0109 Tw (signed by natural selection. For example, Panic Disorder)Tj T* -0.0023 Tc -0.0951 Tw [(is abnormal, according to W)83.4(akeeld, because \(1\) it is viewed)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0098 Tw (by society as harmful and \(2\) the fear system was not evo-)Tj T* -0.0552 Tw (lutionarily designed to respond with intense anxiety in the)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.0693 Tw [(absence of objective danger)83.5(. W)83.4(akeeld)39(s analysis is a sig-)]TJ T* 0.0015 Tc 0.0679 Tw [(nicant advance in the conceptualization of abnormality)122.1(,)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0685 Tw (because it distinguishes those features of abnormality that)Tj T* 0.0006 Tc 0.0687 Tw (are socially constructed from those that are scientically)Tj T* 0.0017 Tc 0.0677 Tw (based. Nevertheless, his analysis assumes that all disor-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0325 Tw (ders involve failures of psychological or physiological sys-)Tj T* 0.0039 Tc 0.0654 Tw [(tems. )38.9(Y)122.3(et some disorders, such as Post-T)66.9(raumatic Stress)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1293 Tw (Disorder and perhaps other anxiety disorders, probably)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0597 Tw (represent evolved defensive reactions to subjectively per-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1027 Tw [(ceived threats. Moreover)83.5(, W)83.4(akeeld)39(s analysis presumes)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0069 Tw [(the existence of a clear)22.4(-cut demarcation between adaptive)]TJ T* -0.0615 Tw (function and dysfunction. But the functioning of many sys-)Tj T* -0.0018 Tw (tems, such as the anxiety system, may be distributed con-)Tj T* -0.0694 Tw [(tinuously)122.2(, with no unambiguous dividing line between nor-)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw [(mality and abnormality)122.2(.)]TJ 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0294 Tw (In response to the problems with earlier efforts to pro-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0149 Tw [(vide an adequate denition of abnormality)122.2(, some authors,)]TJ T* -0.0022 Tw (such as David Rosenhan and Martin Seligman \(1995\) and)Tj T* 0.0695 Tw (Scott Lilienfeld and Lori Marino \(1995\), have proposed a)Tj /F3 1 Tf T* -0.0705 Tw (family resemblance)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9.0014 0 TD -0.0704 Tw [(model of abnormality)122.2(. )61.2(According to this)]TJ -9.0014 -1.3333 TD 0.0143 Tw (model, the concept of abnormality cannot be explicitly de-)Tj T* 0.0245 Tw (ned, because abnormality is an inherently fuzzy concept)Tj T* 0.0023 Tc 0.067 Tw (with indenite boundaries. Instead, conditions perceived)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0281 Tw (as abnormal share a loosely related set of characteristics,)Tj T* -0.0108 Tw [(including statistical rarity)122.2(, maladaptiveness, impairment,)]TJ T* 0.0211 Tw (and the need for treatment. The family resemblance view)Tj T* -0.0057 Tw [(implies that all efforts to construct a clear)22.3(-cut conceptual-)]TJ T* -0.0764 Tw (ization of abnormality are doomed to failure. Nevertheless,)Tj T* 0.031 Tw (this view implies that there will often be substantial con-)Tj T* -0.0415 Tw (sensus regarding which conditions are perceived as abnor-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1582 Tw (mal, because individuals rely on similar features when)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(identifying abnormality)122.2(.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 48 116.3687 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (REFERENCES)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0 -2.125 TD -0.0026 Tc -0.0947 Tw [(Cohen, H. \(1981\). The evolution of the concept of disease. In )61.2(A. Cap-)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0524 Tw (lan, H. Engelhardt, & J. McCarthy \(Eds.\), )Tj /F3 1 Tf 19.9925 0 TD (Concepts of health)Tj -19.9925 -1.375 TD -0.0043 Tc -0.0931 Tw (and disease: Interdisciplinary perspectives)Tj /F2 1 Tf 19.1709 0 TD -0.0042 Tc [(\(pp.)-273.7(209220\). Read-)]TJ -19.1709 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(ing, MA: )61.2(Addison-W)61.2(esley)122.2(.)]TJ 31.5 82.5 TD 0.0166 Tw [(Kendell, R.)-277.9(E. \(1975\). The concept of disease and its implications)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0278 Tw [(for psychiatry)122.2(. )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 6.8011 0 TD [(British Journal of Psychiatry)61.2(, 127,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 16.0339 0 TD 0 Tw (305315.)Tj -24.335 -1.625 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.3904 Tw [(Kraupl T)66.8(aylor)83.4(, F)122.2(.)0.1( \(1971\). )61.2(A)-612(logical analysis of the medico-)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD 0.1655 Tw (psychological concept of disease. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 15.9957 0 TD (Psychological Medicine, 1,)Tj /F2 1 Tf -15.9957 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (356364.)Tj -1.5 -1.625 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.2985 Tw [(Lilienfeld, S.)-282.9(O., & Marino, L. \(1995\). Mental disorder as a)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.052 Tw [(Roschian concept: )61.2(A)-268.6(critique of W)83.4(akeeld)39(s harmful dysfunc-)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw (tion analysis. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.7967 0 TD [(Journal of Abnormal Psychology)61.2(, 104,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 17.5735 0 TD 0 Tw [(41)61.2(1420.)]TJ -25.8702 -1.625 TD 0.0034 Tc 0.0659 Tw [(Murphy)122.2(, J.)-281.4(M. \(1976\). Psychiatric labeling in cross-cultural per-)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (spective. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 4.2493 0 TD -0.0278 Tw (Science, 191,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.1095 0 TD 0 Tw (10191028.)Tj -11.8588 -1.625 TD -0.0595 Tw [(Poussaint, )61.2(A.)-277.9(F)122.2(.)0.1( \(2002\). )39(Y)122.4(es: It can be a delusional symptom of psy-)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0278 Tw (chotic disorders. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 7.7567 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (W)Tj 0.8423 0 TD -0.0002 Tc -0.0277 Tw (estern Journal of Medicine, 176,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 14.8901 0 TD -0.0003 Tc 0 Tw (4.)Tj -24.9891 -1.625 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0375 Tw (Rosenhan, D., & Seligman, M. \(1995\). )Tj /F3 1 Tf 17.9105 0 TD (Abnormal psychology)Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.183 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (\(3rd)Tj -26.5935 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(ed.\). New )38.9(Y)122.4(ork: Norton.)]TJ -1.5 -1.625 TD -0.046 Tw [(Szasz, T)100(.)-277.8(S. \(1960\). The myth of mental illness. )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 21.4952 0 TD (American Psychol-)Tj -19.9952 -1.375 TD -0.0002 Tc -0.0277 Tw (ogist, 15,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.3329 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (1)Tj 0.4946 0 TD -0.0001 Tc [(131)61.2(18.)]TJ -6.3275 -1.625 TD 0 Tc (W)Tj 0.9025 0 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0863 Tw [(akeeld, J.)-282.9(C. \(1992\). The concept of mental disorder: On the)]TJ 0.5975 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0339 Tw (boundary between biological facts and social values. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 24.0581 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (American)Tj -24.0581 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (Psychologist, 47,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.8312 0 TD 0 Tw (373388.)Tj 11.3814 -2.75 TD 0 Tc (S)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 482.779 492.369 Tm 0.0068 Tc (COTT)Tj 8 0 0 8 501.5283 492.369 Tm 0.0048 Tc -0.0277 Tw (O. L)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 517.4698 492.369 Tm 0.0068 Tc 0 Tw (ILIENFELD)Tj /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 477.7 481.369 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (Emory University)Tj /F1 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 312 414.369 Tm 0 Tw [(ACCOMMODA)54.8(TION)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 312 390.369 Tm -0.0283 Tw (The term )Tj /F3 1 Tf 4.4986 0 TD 0 Tw (accommodation)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.4693 0 TD -0.0283 Tw (is used in various areas of study)Tj -11.9679 -1.3333 TD 0.0224 Tw (relevant to psychology and neuroscience. Several applica-)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (tions are considered here.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 312 336.369 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (V)Tj 0.6301 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (isual Accommodation)Tj /F3 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 312 318.369 Tm -0.0703 Tc 0 Tw (Vi)Tj 0.9634 0 TD -0.0033 Tc -0.0941 Tw [(sual accommodation)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.4873 0 TD -0.094 Tw (is the automatic adjustment process)Tj -10.4507 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0374 Tw (by which the lens of the eye adjusts to )Tj /F3 1 Tf 18.1865 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (focus)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.6466 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0374 Tw (on objects at)Tj -20.833 -1.3333 TD -0.0621 Tw (different distances. The lens is a pliant transparent ellipti-)Tj T* 0.0315 Tw (cal structure that refracts, or bends, rays of light inward,)Tj T* 0.0088 Tw (thus focusing them on the retina. When the eye is at rest,)Tj T* -0.0013 Tc 0 Tw (the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.6767 0 TD -0.0961 Tw (suspensory ligaments)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9.8688 0 TD -0.096 Tw (hold the lens rmly in a relatively)Tj -11.5455 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0086 Tw [(attened position. The normal resting eye is then in a far)22.4(-)]TJ T* 0.0009 Tc 0.0684 Tw (point vision position and can focus on objects that are at)Tj T* -0.0041 Tc -0.0932 Tw [(least 20 feet \(6 meters\) distant, without any accommodative)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1456 Tw (adjustment of the lens. Light rays passing through the)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.007 Tw (cornea and aqueous humor then enter the pupil of the eye)Tj T* 0.0252 Tw (and pass through the lens, after which they pass through)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (the vitreous humor and reach the retina in focus.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0019 Tw (For near vision, closer than 20 feet, accommodation for)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0011 Tc 0.0682 Tw (focusing takes place: The )Tj /F3 1 Tf 12.1735 0 TD 0.0683 Tw (ciliary muscles,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.5584 0 TD (located around)Tj -19.7318 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0639 Tw (and attached to the suspensory ligaments, contract. This)Tj T* -0.0365 Tw (causes relaxation of the suspensory ligaments, which then)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1191 Tw (allow the attened lens to thicken and bulge, becoming)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0199 Tw (more convex, or rounded. The light rays are thus bent and)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (fall, sharply focused, on the retina.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0015 Tc -0.0958 Tw (The ability to focus changes with age. In early childhood,)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0567 Tw (children can focus on objects as close as 2.5 inches \(6.3 cen-)Tj /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 262.666 749.9608 Tm 0 Tw [(ACCOMMODA)54.8(TION)]TJ 9 0 0 9 48 749.9661 Tm 0 Tc (2)Tj ET Q endstream endobj 13 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 14 0 obj > endobj 15 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 726.3687 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0.0007 Tc 0.0687 Tw [(timeters\). )61.2(As age increases, accommodation becomes less)]TJ 0 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0809 Tw (possible due to progressive hardening of the lens. By 30)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0061 Tw (years of age, near vision is usually not clear at less than 6)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.0964 Tw (inches \(15 centimeters\) from the eye. During the 40s, visual)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0593 Tw (articles usually have to be moved farther and farther away)Tj T* -0.0097 Tw (in order to be clearly seen. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 12.4031 0 TD 0 Tw (Presbyopia)Tj /F2 1 Tf 5.3033 0 TD -0.0097 Tw (is the term given to)Tj -17.7064 -1.3333 TD 0.0141 Tw (decreasing ability to focus with advancing age. This leads)Tj T* -0.015 Tw [(to the need for near)22.4(-vision-lensed eyeglasses for most sen-)]TJ T* -0.0254 Tw (ior citizens for activities requiring close vision. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 21.6137 0 TD 0 Tw (Hyperopia,)Tj /F2 1 Tf -21.6137 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1047 Tw (or farsightedness, and )Tj /F3 1 Tf 10.9826 0 TD 0 Tw (myopia,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.07 0 TD 0.1047 Tw (or nearsightedness, may)Tj -15.0526 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (also be related to problems of accommodation.)Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0002 Tc -0.0669 Tw (Illumination level)Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.3791 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (has been found to have an effect upon)Tj -9.7124 -1.3333 TD 0.0047 Tc 0.0647 Tw (accommodation. There have been various theories of the)Tj /F3 1 Tf T* 0.0049 Tc 0.2519 Tw (physiological mechanism)Tj /F2 1 Tf 12.4317 0 TD (for accommodation. Some re-)Tj -12.4317 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0616 Tw (searchers consider the sympathetic nervous system to be)Tj T* -0.055 Tw (responsible for a basic tonal background, through vascular)Tj T* 0.0025 Tc 0.0669 Tw (innervation. The oculomotor nerve, through increased or)Tj T* 0.0021 Tc 0.0673 Tw (decreased innervation, leads to positive and negative ac-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (commodation, or specic adjustment for focusing.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 60 480.3687 Tm (Nerve Accommodation)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 462.3687 Tm 0.05 Tw (When a constant stimulus, such as an electric current, is)Tj T* 0.0336 Tw (applied to a nerve, the excitability of the nerve under the)Tj T* -0.0608 Tw [(cathode, or negative electrode, increases quickly)122.2(. W)39(ith con-)]TJ T* -0.0667 Tw [(tinued stimulation by current ow)100(,)0( there is a slow decrease)]TJ T* -0.0905 Tw [(in nerve excitability)122.2(, known as )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 13.8873 0 TD 0 Tw (accommodation,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.6848 0 TD -0.0905 Tw (followed by)Tj -21.5722 -1.3333 TD -0.018 Tw (a sudden drop when the current is stopped. Following ces-)Tj T* -0.092 Tw (sation of the stimulating current, the nerve briey becomes)Tj T* -0.0388 Tw (less sensitive to stimulation than it was before the current)Tj T* -0.0014 Tc -0.0959 Tw (was turned on. Following a resting period, the original level)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0072 Tw (of excitability tends to be restored. During the adaptation)Tj T* -0.0821 Tw [(period, or time of decrease in excitability)122.2(, it may be possible)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1124 Tw (to stimulate the nerve by changing either the length or)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (strength of the stimulus.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 60 288.3687 Tm (Accommodation in Auditory Theory)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 270.3687 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.1458 Tw [(The ear consists of three main divisions: the outer ear)83.5(,)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0282 Tw [(middle ear)83.4(, and inner ear)83.4(. The )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 14.0518 0 TD (outer ear)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.3113 0 TD (is the portion that)Tj -18.3631 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.092 Tw (allows sound waves to be transmitted, via the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 22.3556 0 TD 0 Tw (tympanic)Tj -22.3556 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc (membrane,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 5.3193 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (or )Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.1352 0 TD (eardrum,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.4853 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0865 Tw (to the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 2.7713 0 TD -0.0002 Tc [(middle ear)144.3(.)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 5.1976 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (In the middle ear)Tj -18.9086 -1.3333 TD -0.0172 Tw (are three tiny bones, the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 11.5055 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (ossicles,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.9233 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0172 Tw (comprising the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 7.1122 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (ossicular)Tj -22.541 -1.3333 TD (chain.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.0686 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0594 Tw (Here, the sound waves are transduced into mechan-)Tj -3.0686 -1.3333 TD -0.062 Tw [(ical energy)122.2(, the ossicular chain rocking back and forth. The)]TJ T* -0.0375 Tw [(two tiny muscles of the middle ear)83.4(, the )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 17.8188 0 TD (tensor tympani)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.1072 0 TD 0 Tw (and)Tj -24.926 -1.3333 TD (the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.8152 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (stapedius,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.979 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0376 Tw (have attachments to the ossicles. The ossi-)Tj -6.7942 -1.3333 TD -0.0024 Tc -0.095 Tw (cles interface with the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 10.0821 0 TD [(inner ear)144.4(,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.3779 0 TD (which includes the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 8.5958 0 TD 0 Tw (cochlea,)Tj /F2 1 Tf -23.0558 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0339 Tw (a snail-shaped structure that ultimately contains the elec-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.3299 Tw (trochemical mechanisms for changing the mechanical)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0143 Tw (waves into nerve impulses traveling along the eighth cra-)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (nial, or )Tj /F3 1 Tf 3.5184 0 TD 0 Tw (auditory)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.1741 0 TD 0 Tc (\()Tj /F3 1 Tf 0.3328 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (acoustic)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.7009 0 TD -0.0003 Tc (\), )Tj /F3 1 Tf 0.8606 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (nerve)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.7112 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (to the brain.)Tj -13.9648 -1.3333 TD -0.0036 Tc -0.0937 Tw (The function of the middle-ear muscles has been debated)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0907 Tw (over the years. One of at least ve theories has been termed)Tj T* -0.0897 Tw [(the frequency-selection or accommodation theory)122.2(. This the-)]TJ T* -0.0548 Tw (ory presumes that contraction of the muscles increases the)Tj 29.3333 73.3333 TD 0.0628 Tw (sharpness of hearing by acting as a damping mechanism)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD 0.0536 Tw (that selectively absorbs acoustic energy at particular fre-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0878 Tw (quencies. The other theories are the intensity-control or)Tj T* 0.2078 Tw [(protective theory)122.2(, the xation theory)122.2(, the labyrinthine-)]TJ T* -0.0038 Tc -0.0935 Tw [(pressure theory)122.2(, and a less-accepted theory that the middle-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (ear muscles are involved in the formation of overtones.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0009 Tc -0.0964 Tw (The middle-ear muscles are usually not under voluntary)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0685 Tw (control but contract in response to sound energy in what)Tj T* 0.0435 Tw (has been called the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 9.2853 0 TD (acoustic reex. Electromyography)Tj /F2 1 Tf 15.7518 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (has)Tj -25.0371 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0202 Tw [(been an important laboratory technique for its study)122.2(. The)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.2426 Tw (acoustic reex alters the mechanical properties of the)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.036 Tw (middle ear transmission system; )Tj /F3 1 Tf 15.17 0 TD [(acoustic impedence)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.9773 0 TD (is the)Tj -24.1473 -1.3333 TD -0.0012 Tc -0.0961 Tw (term given to the consequent mechanical resistance. It may)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1206 Tw (be measured indirectly by audiologists and auditory re-)Tj T* 0.142 Tw (searchers and has become a notable means of studying)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0687 Tw (hearing in humans for both research and clinical purposes.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 324 516.3687 Tm -0.0278 Tw (Accommodation in Infant Development)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 324 498.3687 Tm -0.0143 Tw (The term )Tj /F3 1 Tf 4.5265 0 TD 0 Tw (accommodation)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.4832 0 TD -0.0143 Tw (was also used by Jean Piaget as)Tj -12.0097 -1.3333 TD 0.0005 Tc 0.0688 Tw (part of his theoretical view of how infants develop cogni-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0495 Tw [(tively)122.2(. )61.2(Accommodation refers to the infant)39(s modication of)]TJ T* -0.0397 Tw (concepts or of notions of the world as a response to new ex-)Tj T* 0.014 Tw (periences or to experiences inconsistent with a previously)Tj T* 0.0018 Tc 0.0676 Tw (held notion. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 5.9188 0 TD 0 Tw (Assimilation)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.2184 0 TD 0.0676 Tw (refers to the incorporation into)Tj -12.1372 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0289 Tw [(the child)39(s cognitive structure of notions from elements of)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1009 Tw (environmental experience. When an organized cognitive)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0735 Tw (pattern develops through the processes of assimilation and)Tj T* 0.0006 Tw (accommodation, a )Tj /F3 1 Tf 8.5567 0 TD 0 Tw (schema)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.6837 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (or )Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.2223 0 TD (scheme)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.5536 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0006 Tw (is said to have devel-)Tj -17.0163 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0756 Tw (oped. Schemata develop, according to Piaget, during the)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.032 Tw (rst 2 years, or )Tj /F3 1 Tf 7.4229 0 TD (sensorimotor period,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9.7063 0 TD (during which the in-)Tj -17.1293 -1.3333 TD 0.0654 Tw (fant develops mainly through sensorimotor activities. Pi-)Tj T* -0.092 Tw (aget differentiated six stages of sensorimotor development.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0182 Tw [(Piaget)39(s theories have been applied, among other ways,)]TJ -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0126 Tw (as a partial model of infant and childhood development of)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1988 Tw [(language and prelanguage behaviors. W)39(ith this model,)]TJ T* 0.2496 Tw (speech-language pathologists and others working with)Tj T* -0.0004 Tc -0.0969 Tw (speech and language development can assess very early de-)Tj T* (velopment for signs of problems. Early intervention aims to)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0556 Tw [(aid the prevention of later)83.4(, larger)22.4(-magnitude difculty and)]TJ T* -0.0016 Tw (thus to promote more adequate functioning later on in ar-)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (eas such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing.)Tj 8 0 0 8 446.4 212.3687 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (B)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 452.2154 212.3686 Tm 0.0067 Tc (ARBARA)Tj 8 0 0 8 479.4708 212.3686 Tm 0.0048 Tc -0.0278 Tw (B. M)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 497.1799 212.3686 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (A)Tj 0.6738 0 TD 0.0067 Tc (TES)Tj /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 446.4 201.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(City College of New Y)144.4(ork, CUNY)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 324 177.3687 Tm (See also:)Tj /F1 1 Tf 4.0006 0 TD (Adaptation; Depth Perception; Eye; Perception;)Tj -3.0006 -1.3333 TD [(Piaget)36.8(s Theory)]TJ 11 0 0 11 324 102.369 Tm (ACHIEVEMENT NEED)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 324 78.369 Tm -0.032 Tw (The most thoroughly studied of the 20 psychological needs)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1395 Tw [(identied by H.)-282.9(A. Murray in his seminal study)122.3(, )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 23.6753 0 TD 0 Tw (Explo-)Tj /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 273.4402 749.9608 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (ACHIEVEMENT NEED)Tj 9 0 0 9 558.9968 749.9661 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (3)Tj ET Q endstream endobj 16 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 17 0 obj > endobj 18 0 obj > endobj 19 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F3 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 48 726.3687 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0.0049 Tc 0.334 Tw [(rations in Personality)61.2(,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.5735 0 TD (is what Murray termed need)Tj -11.5735 -1.3333 TD -0.0051 Tc -0.0922 Tw (achievement. In early research studies, the need to achieve)Tj T* 0 Tc 0 Tw (\()Tj /F3 1 Tf 0.3328 0 TD -0.0002 Tc -0.0757 Tw (n Ach)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.5715 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (\) was assumed to be present in any situation marked)Tj -2.9043 -1.3333 TD -0.0034 Tc -0.0939 Tw (by competition with a standard of excellence. \(The standard)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0097 Tw [(of excellence could of course be set by others)-226.3(performance)]TJ T* -0.0587 Tw [(or by one)39(s own aspirations.\) In most of these studies, espe-)]TJ T* 0.0292 Tw [(cially the ones conducted by D.)-277.9(C. McClelland and his as-)]TJ T* 0 Tw (sociates, )Tj /F3 1 Tf 4.1259 0 TD -0.0002 Tc -0.0591 Tw (n Ach)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.8068 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (was measured by analyses of stories told by)Tj -6.9328 -1.3333 TD 0.0215 Tw (subjects in response to pictures included in or resembling)Tj T* 0.0038 Tc 0.0655 Tw [(those of the Thematic )61.1(Apperception T)100.1(est \(T)61.2(A)61.3(T\). The con-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0301 Tw [(current validity of the T)61.2(A)61.3(T measure was shown by a study)]TJ T* -0.0614 Tw [(in which McClelland and )61.1(Atkinson found that naval cadets)]TJ T* 0.0269 Tw (who had been made to fail \(because of false information)Tj T* 0.0483 Tw (given them about their performance on seemingly impor-)Tj T* 0.0015 Tc 0.0679 Tw (tant tests\) introduced more achievement themes in their)Tj T* -0.0613 Tc 0 Tw (TA)Tj 1.2664 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0151 Tw (T stories than did members of a control group. The pre-)Tj -1.2664 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0703 Tw [(dictive validity of the T)61.2(A)61.3(T method was demonstrated by)]TJ T* -0.0077 Tc -0.0947 Tw (McClelland, who found that college students who made high)Tj /F3 1 Tf T* -0.0002 Tc -0.0075 Tw (n Ach)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.9101 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (scores were more likely to enter entrepreneurial oc-)Tj -2.9101 -1.3333 TD -0.0005 Tc -0.0968 Tw [(cupations in later years than were students who scored low)100.3(.)]TJ 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.018 Tc -0.0943 Tw (McClelland maintained that the level of economic achieve-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0066 Tc -0.0957 Tw (ment attained by a society is determined by the way it raises)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0478 Tw (its children. This is the theme of his best-known work, )Tj /F3 1 Tf 24.9272 0 TD -0.0003 Tc 0 Tw (The)Tj -24.9272 -1.3333 TD -0.0093 Tc -0.0931 Tw [(Achieving Society)61.2(,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.1855 0 TD (in which he maintained that achievement)Tj -8.1855 -1.3333 TD -0.0101 Tc -0.0944 Tw (themes identied in such diverse modes of expression as pot-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0452 Tw [(tery designs, literature, and children)39(s textbooks predicted)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1101 Tw (levels of economic achievement decades later in various)Tj T* -0.0031 Tc -0.0942 Tw (countries and cultures, ancient, medieval, and modern. The)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0025 Tw [(effect of child-rearing practices can, however)83.4(, be reversed.)]TJ T* -0.0021 Tc -0.0952 Tw [(McClelland and W)39.1(inter report eld studies conducted in In-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0557 Tw (dia of businessmen with initially low levels of )Tj /F3 1 Tf 21.7416 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (n Ach)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.0364 0 TD 0 Tw (who)Tj -24.778 -1.3333 TD -0.0971 Tw (were coached in order to raise their levels of aspiration, and)Tj T* 0.0005 Tc 0.0689 Tw (who consequently expanded their business activities and)Tj T* -0.0111 Tc -0.0962 Tw [(made signicant economic contributions to their community)122.2(.)]TJ 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0003 Tc -0.0971 Tw (The work of McClelland and his associates has been crit-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0005 Tc 0.0688 Tw [(icized on a number of grounds. M.)-278.6(S. W)61.1(e)-0.1(instein observed)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.021 Tw [(that he, as well as other researchers, found T)61.2(A)61.2(T)0( measures)]TJ T* -0.0956 Tw [(to be of low reliability and questionable validity)122.2(. Maehr and)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0654 Tw [(Nicholls objected to the McClelland group)39(s emphasis on)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0174 Tw [(personality as a critical variable in determining behavior)83.4(,)]TJ T* -0.0046 Tc -0.0927 Tw (to the narrowness of their achievement criteria, and to their)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0487 Tw (failure to obtain signicant results regarding achievement)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (motivation in women.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0157 Tw (Many researchers have also been unable to nd signi-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0149 Tc 0.1793 Tw [(cant relationships between women)38.8(s )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 18.1467 0 TD (n Ach)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.3737 0 TD (scores and)Tj -21.5204 -1.3333 TD 0.0199 Tc 0.1765 Tw (achievement-related variables. Horner suggested that)Tj T* -0.0151 Tc -0.0958 Tw (women are likely to believe that ambition is inappropriate for)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0501 Tw (them, especially in elds dominated by men, and that, as a)Tj T* -0.0151 Tc -0.0563 Tw (consequence, they are inhibited by a fear of success. Subse-)Tj T* -0.0101 Tc -0.0972 Tw [(quent research by Sid and Lindgren, however)83.6(, indicated that)]TJ T* -0.0194 Tc -0.093 Tw (fear of success has inhibiting effects on men as well as women.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0128 Tc -0.0945 Tw [(One reason for researchers)-109.5(inability to relate )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 19.9237 0 TD -0.0129 Tc (n Ach)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.6598 0 TD -0.0128 Tc 0 Tw (scores)Tj -23.9168 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0906 Tw [(to women)39(s achievement may lie in the way )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 19.5506 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (n Ach)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.7438 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (is usually)Tj -22.2944 -1.3333 TD 0.0502 Tw [(assessed. These measures, both of the T)61.1(A)61.3(T and question-)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0979 Tw (naire type, have typically attempted to cover all compo-)Tj T* 0.0026 Tc 0.0668 Tw (nents of what has come to be recognized as achievement)Tj 29.3333 73.3333 TD -0.0093 Tc -0.093 Tw (motivation: task orientation, positive attitudes toward prob-)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD -0.0044 Tc -0.0929 Tw (lems and challenges, responsiveness to the Zeigarnik effect,)Tj T* 0.0033 Tc 0.066 Tw (preference for medium-risk ventures \(as contrasted with)Tj T* -0.0012 Tc -0.0962 Tw (high- or low-risk ventures\), competitiveness, and the desire)Tj T* -0.0074 Tc -0.0949 Tw (to work independently for self-determined goals rather than)Tj T* -0.0101 Tc -0.0726 Tw (for group goals. The unsatisfactory reliability and validity of)Tj /F3 1 Tf T* -0.0007 Tc -0.0967 Tw (n Ach)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.7284 0 TD [(measures may be the result of attempting to measure)]TJ -2.7284 -1.3333 TD -0.0051 Tc -0.0923 Tw (too broad a spectrum of traits. Lindgren proposed that prob-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0004 Tw (lems inherent in such measures could be bypassed by em-)Tj T* -0.0267 Tw (ploying a forced-choice questionnaire which would require)Tj T* 0.0008 Tc 0.0686 Tw (subjects to choose between achievement-related personal)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0951 Tw (styles and those that were afliation-related. The rationale)Tj T* 0.0468 Tw (for this juxtaposition of factors was found in a number of)Tj T* 0.003 Tw (studies that showed needs for achievement and afliation)Tj T* 0.042 Tw (to be negatively correlated. Research by Lindgren and by)Tj T* 0.0692 Tw (Sadd and colleagues with the resulting questionnaire re-)Tj T* -0.0964 Tw (ported \(1\) no signicant differences between mean scores of)Tj T* -0.0046 Tw (men and women undergraduates, and \(2\) positive correla-)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (tions between )Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.6112 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (n Ach)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.8695 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (scores and academic performance.)Tj -8.1473 -1.3333 TD 0.0028 Tc 0.0666 Tw (The strong emphasis on cognitive psychology that ap-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.066 Tw (peared in the 1970s had a marked effect on achievement)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.4105 Tw (motivation research. During this period, Maehr and)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0972 Tw (Nicholls pointed out, researchers became interested in sub-)Tj T* -0.002 Tc -0.0953 Tw [(jects)-119.4(cognitions about the nature of achievement, their pur-)]TJ T* -0.0008 Tc -0.0965 Tw (poses in performing achievement-related acts, and their at-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0601 Tw (tributions as to causes of outcomes. Cross-cultural studies,)Tj T* -0.0967 Tw (for example, turned up both differences and similarities be-)Tj T* 0.0106 Tw (tween national cultures and the way in which their mem-)Tj T* -0.0285 Tw (bers interpreted success and failure and attributed the)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (antecedents and consequences of success.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0033 Tc -0.0941 Tw (By the early 1980s, the question of whether achievement)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0291 Tw (motivation may be appropriately studied as a personality)Tj T* 0.0036 Tc 0.0658 Tw (trait or whether it should be studied cognitively had not)Tj T* -0.0047 Tc -0.0926 Tw (been resolved; thus, personality and cognitive psychologists)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0458 Tw (continued to pursue their separate ways. The earlier ques-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1632 Tw [(tions that had been raised by W)61.2(einstein as to whether)]TJ T* 0.2612 Tw (achievement motivation could be measured, or indeed)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0406 Tw (whether it existed at all, seemed to have been resolved, for)Tj T* -0.0596 Tw (research activity in this area actually increased during the)Tj T* 0.0079 Tw [(1970s and 1980s. W)61.2(einstein)39(s criticism of the reliability of)]TJ T* -0.0613 Tc 0 Tw (TA)Tj 1.2664 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0534 Tw [(T measures may)122.2(, however)83.4(, have stimulated the develop-)]TJ -1.2664 -1.3333 TD 0.0307 Tw (ment of questionnaire measures, for the majority of stud-)Tj T* 0.0255 Tw (ies of achievement motivation in the 1980s employed this)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (potentially more reliable type of assessment.)Tj 8 0 0 8 480.8648 188.3687 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (H)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 487.5669 188.3686 Tm 0.0067 Tc [(ENR)36.7(Y)]TJ 8 0 0 8 506.8536 188.3686 Tm 0.0049 Tc -0.0278 Tw (C. L)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 522.3479 188.3686 Tm 0.0067 Tc 0 Tw (INDGREN)Tj /F5 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 312 164.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (See also: )Tj /F1 1 Tf 4.0006 0 TD [(Af)17.7(liation Need; Optimal Functioning)]TJ 11 0 0 11 312 102.369 Tm (ACQUIRED DRIVES)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 312 78.369 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.0288 Tw (One of the raging controversies in the history of psychol-)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD 0.0294 Tw (ogy once centered on the aspect of the nature-nurture is-)Tj /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 264.782 749.9608 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (ACQUIRED DRIVES)Tj 9 0 0 9 48 749.9661 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (4)Tj ET Q endstream endobj 20 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 21 0 obj > endobj 22 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 726.3687 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0.0049 Tc 0.1016 Tw (sue, which asks whether motives are inborn or learned.)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0376 Tw [(Some psychologists, of whom W)38.9(illiam McDougall was the)]TJ T* 0.0126 Tc 0.0667 Tw (most important, took the instinctivist position that mo-)Tj T* 0.0199 Tc 0.1696 Tw (tives are inborn, unlearned, universal within species,)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1189 Tw [(and)-50.1()-50.1(at least to a degree)-50.1()-50.1(continuous between species.)]TJ T* 0.1295 Tw [(Other psychologists, for whom John B. W)83.4(atson was the)]TJ T* 0.0769 Tw (most important spokesman, argued that motives are ac-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0094 Tw (quired through learning and therefore differ from individ-)Tj T* -0.0469 Tw (ual to individual, culture to culture, and species to species.)Tj T* 0.0694 Tw (As occurred generally with the nature-nurture issue, the)Tj T* 0.0518 Tw (intensity of this controversy has lessened with time. It is)Tj T* 0.0132 Tw (now clear that all motives are a joint product of biological)Tj T* -0.035 Tw (and environmental forces. If the question is asked at all, it)Tj T* 0.0394 Tw (is in terms of the relative importance of these two contri-)Tj T* 0 Tw (butions.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0533 Tw (Certain motives, sometimes called )Tj /F3 1 Tf 16.3423 0 TD 0.0532 Tw (primary drives,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.4913 0 TD 0 Tw (are)Tj -25.167 -1.3333 TD 0.0415 Tw [(chiey biological. Hunger)83.4(, thirst, pain avoidance, and sex)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1281 Tw [(are examples. Even in these cases, however)83.5(, experience)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0089 Tw (plays a part. Rhythms of feeding and drinking, sensitivity)Tj T* 0.0043 Tc 0.065 Tw (to pain, and preferences in sexual partners are all inu-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0629 Tw [(enced in this way)122.2(. Other motives, sometimes called )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 23.2807 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (second-)Tj -23.2807 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc (ary)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.8175 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (or )Tj /F3 1 Tf 1.2436 0 TD 0.0219 Tw (acquired drives,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.6871 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (are determined primarily by expe-)Tj -10.7481 -1.3333 TD -0.0423 Tw (rience, as for instance fears, affection for parents, drug ad-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.3191 Tw (dictions, and functionally autonomous habits such as)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0972 Tw (miserliness. These examples show something of the variety)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.163 Tw (of acquired drives. They also suggest that different ac-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0129 Tw (quired drives may depend on forms of learning that differ)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw [(at least supercially)122.2(.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 60 372.3687 Tm (Acquisition of Fear)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 354.3687 Tm -0.0848 Tw (One of the forms of learning just referred to is )Tj /F3 1 Tf 20.6646 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (classical con-)Tj -20.6646 -1.3333 TD -0.0031 Tc 0 Tw (ditioning.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.6484 0 TD -0.003 Tc -0.0943 Tw (Experimental evidence that some motives are ac-)Tj -4.6484 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0137 Tw (quired as the result of this process dates at least to the fa-)Tj T* -0.0818 Tw [(mous study of W)83.4(atson and Rayner)83.4(, who conditioned the boy)]TJ T* -0.075 Tw [(little )61.2(Albert to fear a white rat. The rat \(CS\) was shown to)]TJ T* -0.0046 Tc -0.0927 Tw (the child, simultaneously with a loud and unpleasant sound)Tj T* -0.002 Tc -0.0953 Tw (\(US\) produced by the striking of a steel bar behind his head.)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0157 Tw [(The sound caused the child to cry \(UR\). )61.2(After a few repeti-)]TJ T* -0.0485 Tw [(tions, )61.2(Albert cried at the sight of the rat \(CR\), and this fear)]TJ T* 0.0152 Tw (generalized to other furry objects, such as a fur neckpiece)Tj T* -0.0559 Tw [(or a Santa Claus mask. )61.2(Attempts to repeat the W)83.4(atson and)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0722 Tw [(Rayner study were not always successful, and V)100.1(alentine)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0274 Tw (made the cogent point that fears might be much more eas-)Tj T* -0.0669 Tw (ily conditioned to furry objects such as a caterpillar or a rat)Tj T* 0.0589 Tw (than to others such as a pair of opera glasses. In spite of)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1798 Tw [(these criticisms, the impact of the W)83.5(atson and Rayner)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0036 Tw (study on the history of psychology was considerable. It in-)Tj T* 0.0213 Tw (dicated that reactions once thought to be instinctive were)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (more properly seen as the result of learning.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 60 108.3687 Tm [(Af)17.7(fectional Responses)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 90.3687 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.0821 Tw (The young of many species come to treat the rst large,)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0584 Tw (moving, noisy object they see as if it were a parent. In most)Tj T* 0.0235 Tw (cases this object is in fact a parent, but the process of )Tj /F3 1 Tf 25.1122 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (im-)Tj 4.2211 73.3333 TD (printing,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.3684 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.019 Tw (as it is called, may produce such attachments to)Tj -4.3684 -1.3333 TD -0.0278 Tw (other species and even inanimate objects.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (V)Tj 0.6218 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0635 Tw (arious lines of evidence indicate that an essential com-)Tj -1.9552 -1.3333 TD 0.0322 Tw (ponent of imprinted reactions is motivational. The hatch-)Tj T* -0.0006 Tc -0.0968 Tw (lings of precocial birds, if imprinted on any object, stay near)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0267 Tw (that object and will climb over obstacles to get near it; fur-)Tj T* -0.0525 Tw [(ther)83.4(, they make distress calls in its absence. The process of)]TJ T* -0.002 Tc -0.0953 Tw (learning involved in imprinting bears a strong resemblance)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (to classical conditioning and may be the same thing.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 324 600.3687 Tm [(Social T)73.9(echniques)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 324 582.3687 Tm 0.0199 Tc 0.0817 Tw (Literature in the area of acquired motivation suggests)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0939 Tw (that some motives may be acquired by a process that is)Tj T* 0.0099 Tc 0.0035 Tw [(more like instrumental learning. E.)-288.1(C. T)100(olman has given)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0251 Tw (us an account that is fairly representative. Figure 1 sum-)Tj T* -0.0201 Tw [(marizes his view)100(, which holds that, in infancy)122.2(, the individ-)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1583 Tw (ual has only a set of biological drives. Inevitably these)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0712 Tw (drives are subjected to frustration, and new techniques are)Tj T* -0.0459 Tw (developed to satisfy them. Whatever techniques lead to re-)Tj T* -0.0085 Tw (lief from frustration are learned, and they become charac-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1435 Tw [(teristic of the individual)39(s repertory of responses to the)]TJ T* 0.1443 Tw [(world. )61.2(As T)100(olman)39(s drive-conversion diagram \(Figure 1\))]TJ T* 0.0016 Tc 0.0677 Tw (also suggests, these rst primitive adjustments achieved)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0554 Tw (by the individual are not adequate to deal with all situa-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1118 Tw (tions. They too are frustrated, with the result that new)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.02 Tw [(learning occurs and the individual)39(s reactions to the world)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw [(are modied further)83.4(.)]TJ 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0429 Tw (It should be noted that, so far in this account, nothing)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0162 Tw [(has been said about motives. )39(Y)122.4(et a glance at Figure 1 will)]TJ T* -0.0942 Tw (reveal that several of the social techniques are ones that we)Tj T* -0.0306 Tw [(often describe in motivational terms. )61.2(Aggression, hostility)122.2(,)]TJ T* -0.0025 Tc -0.0948 Tw [(social approval, loyalty)122.2(, identication, and self-punishment)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0386 Tw (are all terms that probably occur more often in psychologi-)Tj T* -0.0452 Tw (cal literature in the context of motive than in that of habit.)Tj T* -0.0077 Tc -0.0946 Tw (This suggests that there must be some sense in which habits)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0821 Tw [(are, or can become, motives. Gordon )61.1(Allport once suggested)]TJ T* -0.0051 Tc -0.0833 Tw (in an article that such is the case, and he offered the concept)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0894 Tw [(of functional autonomy)122.3(, whereby well-established habits)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.01 Tw [(become ends in themselves)-50()-50.1(that is, motives. It should be)]TJ T* -0.0512 Tw [(noted, however)83.4(, that functional autonomy does not explain)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw (such effects; it only describes them.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 324 204.3687 Tm 0 Tw (Addictions)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 324 186.3687 Tm -0.0134 Tw (Addictions to tobacco, alcohol, and other substances are of)Tj T* -0.0444 Tw (special interest because they dramatize certain features of)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0757 Tw (the psychology of acquired motivation. The motivational)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0739 Tw (power of the addictions is obvious: Lives have been devoted)Tj T* -0.0052 Tw (to, and even lost to, activities performed to support an ad-)Tj T* -0.0041 Tc -0.0932 Tw (diction. Established addictions no doubt represent a change)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0696 Tw (in the physiology of the addicted person, probably a change)Tj T* -0.0008 Tc -0.0965 Tw (in how certain neurotransmitters function. But at the same)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0465 Tw (time, addictions are clearly acquired. This testies to the)Tj T* -0.0526 Tw (power that experience may sometimes have over biological)Tj T* 0 Tw (processes.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 276.782 749.9608 Tm -0.0278 Tw (ACQUIRED DRIVES)Tj 9 0 0 9 558.9968 749.9661 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (5)Tj ET Q endstream endobj 23 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 24 0 obj > endobj 25 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 414.3687 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.0616 Tw (The mechanism of learning an addiction appears to be a)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0336 Tw (two-stage process. In the rst stage, the future addict ex-)Tj T* 0.0098 Tw (periments with the addictive substance out of curiosity or)Tj T* 0.0412 Tw (a yielding to peer pressure, or for some other reason that)Tj T* -0.0718 Tw (soon becomes irrelevant. In the case of some drugs, like the)Tj T* 0.058 Tw (opiates, only a few such encounters are required to leave)Tj T* -0.0202 Tw (the individual with a powerful craving after the initial eu-)Tj T* -0.0719 Tw (phoria produced by the drug wears off. The only ways to re-)Tj T* -0.0571 Tw (lieve this craving are either painful waiting for the craving)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1307 Tw (to subside or taking more of the substance in question.)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0051 Tw (People who become addicted choose the latter alternative,)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1055 Tw [(thus beginning the vicious circle: drug)-50()-50.1(euphoria)-50()-50.1(ago-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0692 Tw [(nized craving)-50()-50.1(drug again. In abstract terms, the learning)]TJ T* 0.0046 Tw (process appears to be of the operant or instrumental vari-)Tj T* -0.0018 Tc -0.0956 Tw [(ety)122.2(, with the relief from craving and the agony of abstinence)]TJ T* 0.003 Tc 0.0663 Tw (playing a greater role than the positively reinforcing eu-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (phoric experience initiated by the drug.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 48 192.3687 Tm (Motivation and Emotion)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 48 174.3687 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.0872 Tw (The literature on the various acquired drives and drugs)Tj T* 0.0038 Tc 0.0655 Tw (provides a particularly straightforward way of making a)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0231 Tw [(methodological point. )61.2(Although common speech and some)]TJ T* -0.046 Tw (psychological theories make a distinction between motives)Tj T* -0.0236 Tw (and emotions, it is clear that these terms refer to different)Tj T* -0.0569 Tw (aspects of the same process. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 12.8987 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (Motivation)Tj /F2 1 Tf 5.2375 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0569 Tw (refers to the power)Tj -18.1362 -1.3333 TD 0.0282 Tw [(of an acquired drive to promote certain kinds of behavior)83.4(,)]TJ T* -0.0753 Tw [(chiey those of reaching certain goals)-50()-50.1(relief from fear)83.4(, be-)]TJ T* 0.0003 Tw (ing near a parent, achieving certain social goals, or avoid-)Tj 29.3333 37.3333 TD -0.0893 Tw (ing withdrawal symptoms. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 12.3243 0 TD 0 Tw (Emotion)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.0948 0 TD -0.0893 Tw (refers to the subjective)Tj -16.4191 -1.3333 TD -0.0278 Tw (experiences associated with the arousal of these states.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.2346 Tw [(These points are all very nicely integrated in R.)-282.8(L.)]TJ -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(Solomon)39(s )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 4.9042 0 TD 0.054 Tw (opponent-process theory)Tj /F2 1 Tf 11.3054 0 TD (of emotion. The essen-)Tj -16.2096 -1.3333 TD -0.0701 Tw (tial ideas in this theory are the following: \(1\) the conditions)Tj T* 0.0003 Tc 0.069 Tw [(that arouse a motivational/emotional state \(State )61.2(A\) also)]TJ T* -0.001 Tc -0.0963 Tw [(call out a more sluggishly acting opposed state \(State B\); \(2\))]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.037 Tw (State B is a slave state, which occurs as an inevitable ac-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1247 Tw [(companiment of State )61.2(A; \(3\) termination of the original)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0498 Tw [(emotional circumstances leaves State B as the individual)38.9(s)]TJ T* -0.0248 Tw (dominating emotional state; and \(4\) State B, but not State)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (A, increases with use and decreases with disuse.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0488 Tw (Solomon and others have applied this opponent-process)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.081 Tw (theory to many different motivational/emotional reactions.)Tj T* -0.0051 Tc -0.0968 Tw (The application provides a rich account of the details of such)Tj T* -0.0043 Tc -0.0931 Tw (behavior and a means of understanding the changes in such)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0449 Tw (reactions after many arousals of the emotion. In opiate ad-)Tj T* -0.0359 Tw [(diction, for instance, at rst the effect of the drug \(State )61.2(A\))]TJ T* -0.013 Tw (is a feeling of euphoria, a rush; when the drug wears off,)Tj T* 0.0034 Tc 0.0659 Tw [(its aftereffect \(State B\) is craving. W)39(ith continued usage)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0257 Tw (and the strengthening of State B, the effect of the drug is)Tj T* 0.0245 Tw (less intense and is often described as a feeling of content-)Tj T* -0.0348 Tw [(ment. Its aftereffect is now much more intense)-50.1()-50.1(an excru-)]TJ T* 0.0161 Tw (ciatingly painful set of withdrawal symptoms. Similar ac-)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (counts are put forward for other emotional experiences.)Tj 8 0 0 8 494.2851 103.3687 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (G)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 500.5477 103.3687 Tm 0.0067 Tc (REG)Tj 8 0 0 8 515.3617 103.3687 Tm 0.0048 Tc -0.0278 Tw (A. K)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 531.7427 103.3687 Tm 0.0068 Tc 0 Tw (IMBLE)Tj /F5 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 312 78.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (See also:)Tj /F1 1 Tf 4.0006 0 TD (Functional Autonomy; Specic Hungers)Tj 8 0 0 8 264.782 749.9608 Tm (ACQUIRED DRIVES)Tj 9 0 0 9 48 749.9661 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (6)Tj ET 1 g 48 467 504 -35 re f BT /F6 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 48 452 Tm 0 g -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(Figure 1.)-500.1(T)110.8(o)0.1(lman)54.8(s drive-conversion diagram.)]TJ /F7 1 Tf 7 0 0 7 48 441 Tm 0 Tw [(Sour)7.7(ce:)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 3.4646 0 TD -0.0278 Tw [(Figure adapted from G.)-277.9(A. Kimble \(1961\). Based on E.)-277.9(C. T)110.7(omlin \(1942\).)]TJ ET Q q 1 i 73 466 453.796 266.245 re W n 48 733 504 -266 re 286.961 441 m W* n -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n 0 0 0 1 K 0 J 0 j 0.729 w 4 M []0 d /GS3 gs 317.244 706.755 m 368.795 655.204 l S 0 0 0 1 k 365.438 654.743 m 368.158 655.841 l 369.257 658.562 l 371.873 652.127 l 365.438 654.743 l f 395.49 628.478 m 447.041 576.928 l S 443.684 576.466 m 446.404 577.565 l 447.502 580.286 l 450.119 573.85 l 443.684 576.466 l f 281.286 706.116 m 229.735 654.566 l S 233.093 654.104 m 230.373 655.203 l 229.274 657.924 l 226.657 651.488 l 233.093 654.104 l f 205.545 629.687 m 197.396 621.537 l S 200.752 621.075 m 198.032 622.173 l 196.934 624.894 l 194.317 618.459 l 200.752 621.075 l f 163.155 587.767 m 103.982 528.595 l S 107.34 528.133 m 104.62 529.232 l 103.521 531.953 l 100.904 525.517 l 107.34 528.133 l f 251.604 628.071 m 303.155 576.52 l S 299.797 576.059 m 302.519 577.158 l 303.617 579.878 l 306.233 573.443 l 299.797 576.059 l f BT /F6 1 Tf 10.6944 0 0 10.6944 247.547 722.4169 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [( BIOLOGICAL)17.8( DRIVES)]TJ 1.2961 -1.187 TD (\(when frustrated\))Tj 8.75 0 0 8.75 176.366 643.4979 Tm (Self-assertive techniques)Tj 1.639 -1.1714 TD (\(when frustrated\))Tj 17.1317 1.0804 TD (Collective techniques)Tj 1.0286 -1.1714 TD (\(when frustrated\))Tj -11.0206 -7.7154 TD (Self-assertive techniques)Tj 0.3605 -1.1714 TD (plus repressed hostility)Tj 17.0274 1.1714 TD (Collective assertive techniques,)Tj 3.3621 -1.1714 TD (loyalty to group)Tj -41.0083 -5.1796 TD (Socially)Tj -0.3335 -1.1714 TD (approved)Tj 0.139 -1.1714 TD (behavior)Tj 5.3487 2.3429 TD [(Over)55(-socilitude,)]TJ 0.3335 -1.1714 TD (sentamentality)Tj 7.4321 1.0675 TD (Self-punishment)Tj 8.0449 0.1039 TD (Crime,)Tj -0.7779 -1.1714 TD (radicalism)Tj 13.1423 1.1714 TD (Aggression)Tj 0.8335 -1.1714 TD (against)Tj -0.4169 -1.1714 TD (outsiders)Tj 0.8339 -1.1714 TD (\(war\))Tj 5.5433 3.5143 TD (Aggression)Tj 0.8335 -1.1714 TD (against)Tj -0.4446 -1.1714 TD (attacking)Tj 0.1671 -1.1714 TD (enemies)Tj 0.6944 -1.1714 TD (\(war\))Tj 5.5986 4.6857 TD (Federation)Tj 0.0924 -1.1714 TD 0.0001 Tw [(into lar)17.8(ger)]TJ 0.9357 -1.1714 TD 0 Tw (group)Tj ET 0 0 0 0 k 119.456 616.764 74.652 -28.762 re f 0.486 w 119.456 616.764 74.652 -28.762 re S BT 8.75 0 0 8.75 131.9756 605.066 Tm 0 0 0 1 k (Identification)Tj 0.3895 -1.1714 TD (with parent)Tj ET 0 0 0 0 k 262.982 616.764 74.653 -28.762 re f 262.982 616.764 74.653 -28.762 re S BT 8.75 0 0 8.75 284.021 605.066 Tm 0 0 0 1 k (Learning)Tj -0.3335 -1.1714 TD (repression)Tj ET 0 0 0 0 k 406.509 616.764 74.653 -28.762 re f 406.509 616.764 74.653 -28.762 re S BT 8.75 0 0 8.75 419.03 605.066 Tm 0 0 0 1 k (Identification)Tj 0.5005 -1.1714 TD (with group)Tj ET 0 0 0 0 k 194.135 693.627 74.654 -28.762 re f 194.135 693.627 74.654 -28.762 re S BT 8.75 0 0 8.75 215.173 681.9296 Tm 0 0 0 1 k (Learning)Tj -0.0285 -1.1714 TD (\(fixation\))Tj ET 0 0 0 0 k 331.828 692.034 74.654 -28.762 re f 331.828 692.034 74.654 -28.762 re S BT 8.75 0 0 8.75 352.867 680.3368 Tm 0 0 0 1 k (Learning)Tj -0.0285 -1.1714 TD (\(fixation\))Tj ET 0.729 w 338.092 550.023 m 384.741 519.556 l S BT 8.75 0 0 8.75 308.105 509.371 Tm (Aggression)Tj 0.8335 -1.1714 TD (against)Tj -0.2499 -1.1714 TD (interiors)Tj ET 381.55 518.415 m 383.986 520.049 l 384.504 522.937 l 388.385 517.176 l 381.55 518.415 l f 310.656 549.46 m 326.779 519.556 l S 323.432 520.077 m 326.353 520.349 l 328.186 522.64 l 328.846 515.724 l 323.432 520.077 l f 290.763 549.622 m 275.735 519.556 l S 274.235 522.595 m 276.138 520.362 l 279.066 520.18 l 273.789 515.662 l 274.235 522.595 l f 270.685 549.402 m 224.63 519.556 l S 224.88 522.935 m 225.387 520.046 l 227.818 518.403 l 220.978 517.189 l 224.88 522.935 l f 249.254 550.217 m 158.817 519.556 l S 159.89 522.77 m 159.67 519.845 l 161.623 517.656 l 154.695 518.158 l 159.89 522.77 l f 489.513 549.245 m 502.629 519.556 l S 499.332 520.338 m 502.265 520.38 l 504.271 522.52 l 504.388 515.574 l 499.332 520.338 l f 461.578 549.453 m 448.668 519.556 l S 447 522.506 m 449.024 520.383 l 451.959 520.365 l 446.942 515.56 l 447 522.506 l f Q endstream endobj 26 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 27 0 obj > endobj 28 0 obj > endobj 29 0 obj > endobj 30 0 obj > endobj 31 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F1 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 60 724.6963 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (ACTION POTENTIAL)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 702.3693 Tm 0.0049 Tw (The action potential is a self-propagating change in mem-)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD 0.065 Tw (brane voltage conducted sequentially along the axon of a)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1058 Tw (neuron that transmits information from the neuron cell)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0774 Tw (body or sensory ending to the axon terminal. The action po-)Tj T* -0.0553 Tw (tential is initiated either as the consequence of summation)Tj T* 0.0293 Tw (of local electronic potentials in the region where the axon)Tj T* 0.0139 Tw (arises from the neuron cell body \(axon hillock\), or as a re-)Tj T* -0.0034 Tc -0.0939 Tw (sult of a sufciently large generator potential in the sensory)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0795 Tw (ending. Once initiated, the action potential is conducted)Tj T* 0.0793 Tw (without change in magnitude along the axon until it in-)Tj T* 0.0041 Tc 0.0652 Tw (vades the axon terminal and causes release of quanta of)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (neurotransmitter molecules.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.1001 Tc 0 Tw (To)Tj 1.0668 0 TD ( )Tj 0.2256 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0523 Tw (understand the action potential it is necessary to un-)Tj -2.6257 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1065 Tw [(derstand the resting membrane potential. T)100(o)0( record the)]TJ T* 0.0014 Tc 0.068 Tw (resting membrane potential and the action potential one)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0231 Tw (electrode is inserted into the cell while a second electrode)Tj T* -0.0786 Tw (remains outside the cell. The voltage potential between the)Tj T* 0.0004 Tc 0.069 Tw (two electrodes is amplied and measured. For most neu-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0715 Tw (rons the measured resting membrane potential is from 60)Tj T* -0.0318 Tw (to 70 millivolts \(mV\); the inside of the cell is negative rel-)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (ative to the outside of the cell.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0024 Tc 0.067 Tw (The resting membrane potential is determined by the)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0039 Tc -0.0934 Tw (relative distribution of positively or negatively charged ions)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0456 Tw (near the extracellular and intracellular surfaces of the cell)Tj T* -0.0214 Tw (membrane. Positive sodium \(Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 192.5892 417.3933 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 195.9377 414.3693 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0214 Tw (\) and potassium \(K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 274.3512 417.3933 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 277.6997 414.3693 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0215 Tw (\) ions)Tj -24.1889 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0727 Tw (and negative chloride \(Cl)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 167.4029 405.3933 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw ()Tj 9 0 0 9 170.5198 402.3693 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.0727 Tw (\) and organic \(A)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 239.514 405.3933 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw ()Tj 9 0 0 9 242.6309 402.3693 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.0727 Tw (\) ions are im-)Tj -20.2923 -1.3333 TD 0 Tc 0.0694 Tw (portant for both the resting membrane potential and the)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1753 Tw (action potential. The positively charged ions are called)Tj /F3 1 Tf T* -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (cations,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.7834 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0294 Tw (and the negatively charged ions are called )Tj /F3 1 Tf 19.5332 0 TD 0 Tw (anions.)Tj /F2 1 Tf -23.3166 -1.3333 TD -0.0278 Tw (The organic anions are mostly proteins and organic acids.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0398 Tw (During the resting state Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 186.0561 345.3933 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 191.547 342.3693 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0398 Tw (and Cl)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 218.6878 345.3933 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw ()Tj 9 0 0 9 223.9022 342.3693 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0398 Tw (have higher extra-)Tj -18.2114 -1.3333 TD -0.0079 Tc -0.0944 Tw (cellular than intracellular concentrations, and K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 254.2889 333.3933 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 259.1479 330.3693 Tm -0.0079 Tc -0.1556 Tw (and A)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 282.0608 333.3933 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw ()Tj 9 0 0 9 286.6432 330.3693 Tm -0.0079 Tc (are)Tj -25.1826 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0272 Tw (more highly concentrated within the cell. The organic ions)Tj T* -0.0096 Tc -0.0927 Tw (never leave the intracellular compartment, and in most neu-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0489 Tw (rons Cl)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 90.4306 297.3933 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw ()Tj 9 0 0 9 96.4431 294.3693 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0489 Tw (is relatively free to pass through the membrane.)Tj -4.0492 -1.3333 TD -0.0203 Tw (Three factors contribute to determining the ionic distribu-)Tj T* 0.0642 Tw (tion across the membrane. The rst factor is the relative)Tj T* -0.0532 Tw (permeability of the membrane to each ion species. The sec-)Tj T* -0.0672 Tw (ond factor is the concentration gradient of each ion species.)Tj T* -0.0088 Tc -0.0935 Tw (The third factor is the electromotive force created by the sep-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (aration of charges across the semipermeable membrane.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.009 Tw (Because the inside of the cell is negative relative to the)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0249 Tw (outside, and there is a lower intracellular concentration of)Tj T* -0.0017 Tc 0 Tw (Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 72.3091 189.3933 Tm 0 Tc (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 75.6433 186.3693 Tm -0.0017 Tc -0.0956 Tw (, the sodium cations would ood into the cell if the mem-)Tj -1.7381 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0244 Tw (brane were freely permeable to Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 205.0908 177.3933 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 208.4393 174.3693 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0244 Tw [(. )61.1(At rest, however)83.4(, the)]TJ -16.4933 -1.3333 TD 0.0253 Tw (cell membrane is not freely permeable to Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 245.755 165.3933 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 249.1035 162.3693 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0253 Tw (. Permeabil-)Tj -21.0115 -1.3333 TD -0.0183 Tw (ity of a membrane to any given ion species is controlled by)Tj T* 0.0142 Tw (the number of membrane channels available for that par-)Tj T* 0.0509 Tw (ticular species. Membrane channels are made of proteins)Tj T* -0.0317 Tw (that extend from the extracellular to the intracellular sur-)Tj T* -0.01 Tw (face of the membrane \(i.e., they are membrane-spanning\).)Tj T* -0.074 Tw (The membrane channels may be always open, or nongated,)Tj T* -0.0202 Tw (or open only under certain conditions. Channels that open)Tj 29.3333 71.9999 TD -0.0523 Tw (or close depending on conditions are called )Tj /F3 1 Tf 19.5752 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (gated channels.)Tj /F2 1 Tf -19.5752 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0406 Tw (Whether gated channels are open or closed depends on the)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1454 Tw (conformation of the proteins that form the walls of the)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0271 Tw (channel. When the neuron membrane is at rest the gated)Tj T* -0.0112 Tw (channels for Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 389.6178 681.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 395.3661 678.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0112 Tw (are closed. The Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 472.063 681.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 477.8113 678.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0112 Tw (that does enter ows)Tj -17.0901 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0688 Tw (through the nongated, nonspecic channels in the mem-)Tj T* 0.2084 Tw (brane, but it is actively extruded from the cell by the)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0943 Tw (sodium-potassium pump. This pump is made of carrier pro-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1668 Tw (teins and uses metabolic energy supplied by adenosine)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0677 Tw [(triphosphate \(A)61.2(TP\). Na)]TJ 5.53 0 0 5.07 422.3243 621.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 428.7825 618.3687 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0.0677 Tw (and K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 454.5591 621.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 461.0173 618.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0677 Tw (are linked in transmem-)Tj -15.2241 -1.3333 TD 0.0007 Tc 0.0686 Tw (brane transportation such that three Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 495.5261 609.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 502.0077 606.3687 Tm 0.0007 Tc 0.0686 Tw (ions are trans-)Tj -19.7786 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0172 Tw (ported out of the cell for every two K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 476.8752 597.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 482.8795 594.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0172 Tw (ions that are trans-)Tj -17.6533 -1.3333 TD 0.0012 Tc 0.0682 Tw (ported into the cell. The Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 441.5521 585.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 444.9121 582.3687 Tm 0.001 Tc (K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 456.9388 585.3926 Tm 0 Tc (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 463.4245 582.3687 Tm 0.0012 Tc 0.0681 Tw (pump maintains the in-)Tj -15.4916 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0348 Tw (tracellular and extracellular concentrations of these ions,)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.154 Tw (which is necessary for homeostatic osmotic equilibrium)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0293 Tw (across the cell membrane as well as creation of the resting)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (membrane potential.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0459 Tw (During the resting state the membrane channels do not)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0031 Tc 0.0663 Tw (allow movement of Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 419.2023 513.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 425.7053 510.3687 Tm 0.0031 Tc 0.0662 Tw [(into the cell. However)83.3(, some Na)]TJ 5.53 0 0 5.07 560.652 513.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 324 498.3687 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.09 Tw (does enter the cell through nonspecic membrane chan-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0659 Tw (nels. Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 358.9302 489.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 365.3726 486.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0659 Tw (does this because it has a higher concentration)Tj -4.597 -1.3333 TD 0.0261 Tw (outside than inside and, therefore, ows down its concen-)Tj T* 0.0191 Tw [(tration gradient. )61.1(Additionally)122.2(, the electromotive force cre-)]TJ T* -0.0741 Tw (ated by the relative intracellular negativity propels Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 547.491 453.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 552.6732 450.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc (in-)Tj -25.4081 -1.3333 TD 0.0328 Tw [(ward. The sodium-potassium )61.1(A)61.3(TP-coupled pump counter-)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw (acts the inux of Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 407.155 429.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 412.754 426.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (ions in the resting state.)Tj -8.5282 -1.3333 TD 0.0313 Tw (The membrane is also not fully permeable to K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 533.257 417.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 539.3881 414.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0313 Tw (in the)Tj -23.932 -1.3333 TD 0.0184 Tw (resting state, but K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 405.4961 405.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 411.5112 402.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0185 Tw (ions are, compared to Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 515.8359 405.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 521.851 402.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0184 Tw (ions, freer)Tj -21.9834 -1.3333 TD 0.0039 Tc 0.0654 Tw [(to move through the cell membrane. That is, the neuron)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0497 Tw (membrane is more permeable to K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 469.7335 381.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 476.0294 378.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0496 Tw (than to Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 521.7606 381.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 525.1091 378.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0496 Tw (. For this)Tj -22.3455 -1.3333 TD -0.0066 Tw (reason K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 361.103 369.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 366.8926 366.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0066 Tw (moves more readily down its concentration gra-)Tj -4.7658 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1195 Tw (dient than Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 385.0711 357.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 388.4646 354.3687 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.1195 Tw (, and the resting membrane potential is,)Tj -7.1627 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0626 Tw (therefore, closer to the K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 429.228 345.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 435.6409 342.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0626 Tw (equilibrium potential than the)Tj -12.4045 -1.3333 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 336.3376 333.3926 Tm 0 Tc (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 341.9366 330.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (equilibrium potential.)Tj -0.6596 -1.3333 TD -0.1001 Tc 0 Tw (To)Tj 1.0668 0 TD ( )Tj 0.3243 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0464 Tw (summarize, in the resting state the paucity of open)Tj -2.7244 -1.3333 TD -0.015 Tw (membrane channels for Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 436.4128 309.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 442.1266 306.3687 Tm -0.0002 Tc -0.015 Tw (and K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 467.1588 309.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 472.8726 306.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.015 Tw (and the Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 519.105 309.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 522.4535 306.3687 Tm -0.0003 Tc (K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 534.4571 309.3926 Tm 0 Tc (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 540.1709 306.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc (pump)Tj -24.019 -1.3333 TD -0.041 Tw (serve to maintain an excess of extracellular Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 516.8976 297.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 522.3773 294.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.041 Tw (and intra-)Tj -22.0419 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0689 Tw (cellular K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 366.0644 285.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 369.4579 282.3687 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.0689 Tw (. The magnitude of the resting membrane po-)Tj -5.0509 -1.3333 TD 0.1107 Tw (tential is the result of the degree of separation of these)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0334 Tw (cations and the presence of the organic anions within the)Tj T* -0.0082 Tw (cell. Because the membrane is more permeable to K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 538.727 249.3925 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 544.5018 246.3687 Tm -0.0002 Tc (than)Tj -24.5002 -1.3333 TD (Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 336.3376 237.3925 Tm 0 Tc (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 339.6862 234.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0105 Tw (, the resting membrane potential more closely approx-)Tj -1.7429 -1.3333 TD -0.0278 Tw (imates the equilibrium potential for K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 481.4142 225.3925 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 487.0132 222.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (than for Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 534.8397 225.3925 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 538.1882 222.3687 Tm (.)Tj -22.4654 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0606 Tw (The Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 366.2936 213.3925 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 371.5976 210.3687 Tm -0.0002 Tc -0.0605 Tw (and K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 396.22 213.3925 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 401.524 210.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0606 Tw (channels are voltage-gated. This means)Tj -8.6138 -1.3333 TD -0.0429 Tw (that a change in voltage across the membrane changes the)Tj T* -0.0261 Tw (conformation of the channel protein to either open or close)Tj T* 0.0046 Tc 0.0648 Tw (the channel. If the membrane depolarizes and the mem-)Tj T* 0.0002 Tc 0.0692 Tw (brane potential becomes more positive, the Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 520.5151 165.3925 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 526.9918 162.3687 Tm 0.0001 Tc (channels)Tj -22.5546 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0476 Tw (begin to open. On dendrites and cell bodies, channels are)Tj T* -0.0444 Tw (opened by neurotransmitters released at the synapse from)Tj T* -0.0526 Tw (other cells. The neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the)Tj T* 0.0492 Tw (target neuron and open chemically gated ion channels. If)Tj T* -0.0035 Tw [(the neurotransmitter is excitatory)122.2(, the postsynaptic mem-)]TJ T* -0.005 Tc -0.0923 Tw [(brane is slightly depolarized in the area of the synapse. This)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0736 Tw (depolarization is less than required for generation of an ac-)Tj /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 274.5545 749.9608 Tm -0.0278 Tw (ACTION POTENTIAL)Tj 9 0 0 9 558.9968 749.9661 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (7)Tj ET Q endstream endobj 32 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 33 0 obj > endobj 34 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 48 726.3687 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0.0049 Tc 0.1773 Tw [(tion potential. However)83.5(, depolarizing excitatory postsy-)]TJ 0 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0471 Tw (naptic potentials \(EPSPs\) sum at the axon hillock with hy-)Tj T* -0.0843 Tw (perpolarizing inhibitory postsynaptic potentials \(IPSPs\). If)Tj T* -0.0656 Tw (the resulting change in membrane polarity at the hillock is)Tj T* 0.0037 Tc 0.0657 Tw (a depolarization that exceeds about 10 mV an action po-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (tential is initiated.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0276 Tw (Depolarization at the axon hillock causes voltage-gated)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 60.3376 645.3926 Tm 0 Tc (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 65.8155 642.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0412 Tw (channels to open. The number of Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 214.0729 645.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 219.5508 642.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0412 Tw (channels opened)Tj -19.0612 -1.3333 TD -0.0223 Tw (by the depolarization is proportional to the amount of pos-)Tj T* -0.018 Tw (itive change in membrane potential until threshold for ac-)Tj T* 0.0395 Tw (tion potential initiation is exceeded, at which time essen-)Tj T* 0.0099 Tc 0.0096 Tw (tially all of the Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 125.9893 597.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 132.105 594.3687 Tm 0.0099 Tc 0.0096 Tw (channels in the area of threshold de-)Tj -9.345 -1.3333 TD 0.0199 Tc 0.1945 Tw (polarization open and Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 162.7349 585.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 170.6939 582.3687 Tm 0.0199 Tc 0.1944 Tw (rushes into the axon. The)Tj -13.6327 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0253 Tw (membrane potential then moves rapidly \(about 0.5 ms\) to-)Tj T* -0.0438 Tw (ward Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 83.6083 561.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 89.0634 558.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0438 Tw (equilibrium potential until it becomes about +55)Tj -4.5626 -1.3333 TD -0.0574 Tw [(mV)144.4(. This is the rising phase of the action potential; when it)]TJ T* 0.009 Tw (reaches its peak, Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 132.744 537.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 138.6743 534.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.009 Tw (channels close and voltage-gated K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 284.6517 537.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 48 522.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0247 Tw (channels open. K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 118.7114 525.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 124.3379 522.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0247 Tw (leaves the cell and, in combination with)Tj -8.482 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0985 Tw (decreased Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 105.2545 513.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 112.0801 510.3687 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.0985 Tw (conductance, reverses the depolarization.)Tj -7.12 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0039 Tw (The K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 73.537 501.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 79.4216 498.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0039 Tw (channels stay open long enough not only to return)Tj -3.4913 -1.3333 TD -0.0037 Tw (the membrane potential to its resting level, but to cause a)Tj T* -0.0496 Tw (brief \(about 2 ms\) overshoot hyperpolarization. During the)Tj T* -0.0611 Tw (early part of the hyperpolarizing phase of the action poten-)Tj T* 0.0004 Tc 0.0689 Tw (tial, Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 80.1693 453.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 86.6482 450.3687 Tm 0.0004 Tc 0.0689 Tw (channels can not reopen and another action po-)Tj -4.2942 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0498 Tw (tential can not be generated. This is known as the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 22.8537 0 TD 0 Tw (absolute)Tj -22.8537 -1.3333 TD -0.0043 Tc -0.0931 Tw (refractory period.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.9507 0 TD (This prevents action potentials from sum-)Tj -7.9507 -1.3333 TD 0.0001 Tc 0.0693 Tw [(mating. )61.2(As the membrane continues to repolarize, an ac-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0394 Tw (tion potential can be generated if a stronger than normal)Tj T* -0.0065 Tw (stimulus is applied to the axon. This is known as the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 24.5395 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (rela-)Tj -24.5395 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0474 Tw (tive refractory period.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9.9994 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (W)Tj 0.9419 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0474 Tw (ithin 2.5 ms after peak depolariza-)Tj -10.9413 -1.3333 TD 0.0023 Tw (tion of the action potential, the resting Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 223.3011 369.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 226.6497 366.3687 Tm -0.0003 Tc (K)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 238.6533 369.3926 Tm 0 Tc (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 244.5232 366.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc (concentra-)Tj -21.8359 -1.3333 TD -0.0448 Tw (tions are restored and the system is ready for reactivation.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0586 Tw (The action potential propagates because the ionic cur-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0151 Tw (rent ow at one point of the membrane causes changes in)Tj T* -0.0041 Tc -0.0932 Tw (current ow in the adjacent membrane toward the axon ter-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0073 Tw (minal. The current ow changes the transmembrane volt-)Tj T* -0.0671 Tw (age potential and opens Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 159.0892 297.3926 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 164.3339 294.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0671 Tw (channels. The entire sequence)Tj -12.926 -1.3333 TD 0.0583 Tw (just described is then repeated. In myelinated axons, the)Tj T* -0.0965 Tw [(current ow occurs only at the nodes of Ranvier)83.4(. In addition)]TJ T* -0.0344 Tw (to lacking the electrical insulation provided by myelin, the)Tj T* 0.0623 Tw (nodes of Ranvier also have a far greater concentration of)Tj T* 0.0048 Tc 0 Tw (Na)Tj 5.53 0 0 5.07 60.4276 237.3925 Tm 0 Tc (+)Tj 9 0 0 9 67.7006 234.3687 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.1482 Tw (channels than do the parts of the axon covered by)Tj -2.189 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0232 Tw (myelin. The result of the presence of myelin is that the ac-)Tj T* 0.0559 Tw (tion potential jumps from one node to the next \(saltatory)Tj T* -0.0003 Tc -0.097 Tw (conduction\). This produces more rapid conduction of the ac-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (tion potential than is possible in nonmyelinated axons.)Tj /F4 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 48 156.3687 Tm -0.0002 Tc -0.0287 Tw (SUGGESTED READING)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0 -2.625 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0736 Tw [(Koester)83.4(, J. \(1991a\). Membrane potential. In E.)-282.8(R. Kandel, J.)-282.9(H.)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD 0.0041 Tc 0.0652 Tw [(Schwartz, & T)99.9(.)-282(M. Jessell \(Eds.\), )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 15.7196 0 TD (Principles of neural science)Tj /F2 1 Tf -15.7196 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(\(3rd ed., pp.)-277.9(8194\). New )38.9(Y)122.4(ork: Elsevier)83.4(.)]TJ -1.5 -1.75 TD -0.0741 Tw [(Koester)83.4(, J. \(1991b\). V)100(oltage-gated ion channels and the generation)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0749 Tw [(of the action potential. In E.)-277.9(R. Kandel, J.)-277.9(H. Schwartz, & T)100(.)-277.8(M.)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0969 Tw (Jessell \(Eds.\), )Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.921 0 TD 0.097 Tw (Principles of neural science)Tj /F2 1 Tf 13.2811 0 TD 0.0969 Tw [(\(3rd ed., pp.)-282.9(104)]TJ -20.2022 -1.375 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (1)Tj 0.4946 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(18\). New )38.9(Y)122.4(ork: Elsevier)83.4(.)]TJ 31.0054 82.5 TD -0.0897 Tw [(Siegelbaum, S.)-277.9(S., & Koester)83.4(, J. \(1991\). Ion channels. In E.)-277.9(R. Kan-)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0249 Tw [(del, J.)-277.9(H. Schwartz, & T)100(.)-277.8(M. Jessell \(Eds.\), )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 19.5198 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (Principles of neural)Tj -19.5198 -1.375 TD 0 Tw (science)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.4129 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(\(3rd ed., pp.)-277.9(6679\). New )38.9(Y)122.4(ork: Elsevier)83.4(.)]TJ -4.9129 -1.625 TD 0.0233 Tw [(Shepherd, G.)-277.9(M. \(1994\). The membrane potential: The action po-)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0035 Tc -0.0939 Tw (tential. In )Tj /F3 1 Tf 4.6972 0 TD 0 Tw (Neurobiology)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.2115 0 TD -0.0939 Tw [(\(3rd ed., pp.)-274.5(87121\). New )38.9(Y)122.4(ork: Oxford)]TJ -10.9086 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (University Press.)Tj -1.5 -1.625 TD 0.0007 Tc 0.0686 Tw [(Smock, T)99.9(.)-278.6(K. \(1999\). Communication among neurons: The mem-)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0025 Tc -0.0948 Tw (brane potential. In )Tj /F3 1 Tf 8.611 0 TD -0.0026 Tc [(Physiological psychology: A)-158.4(neuroscience ap-)]TJ -8.611 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (proach)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.3965 0 TD -0.0278 Tw [(\(pp.)-277.9(4787\). Upper Saddle River)83.4(, NJ: Prentice Hall.)]TJ 10.6035 -2.75 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (M)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 443.5908 612.369 Tm 0.0067 Tc (ICHAEL)Tj 8 0 0 8 469.5502 612.369 Tm 0.0049 Tc -0.0278 Tw (L. W)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 487.1168 612.369 Tm 0.0067 Tc 0 Tw (OODRUFF)Tj /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 436 601.369 Tm -0.0002 Tc -0.0277 Tw [(East T)99.9(ennessee State University)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 312 534.369 Tm 0 Tw [(ADAPT)54.7(A)54.7(TION)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 312 510.369 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0444 Tw [(Like many other words in psychology)122.2(, )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 17.3687 0 TD 0 Tw (adaptation)Tj /F2 1 Tf 5.2874 0 TD -0.0444 Tw (has mul-)Tj -22.6561 -1.3333 TD 0.0079 Tw [(tiple meanings. )61.1(At the basis of all the meanings, however)83.4(,)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw (is the concept carried by its Latin root, )Tj /F3 1 Tf 17.9235 0 TD 0 Tw (adaptare:)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.6741 0 TD -0.0278 Tw (to t.)Tj -21.2643 -1.3333 TD -0.01 Tc -0.0924 Tw (Among ethologists, who think that characteristic species-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0199 Tc 0.1289 Tw (typical behaviors are distillations of evolutionary pro-)Tj T* -0.0004 Tc -0.0969 Tw (cesses, each physical and behavioral characteristic of a spe-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0274 Tw (cies is the product of and contributes to its adaptive radia-)Tj T* 0.0512 Tw (tion, the multiplication of individuals that can survive in)Tj T* 0.0037 Tc 0.0656 Tw (the changing environment, and the diversication of the)Tj T* 0.0035 Tc 0.0659 Tw (species in a diverse environment. Such adaptation is ge-)Tj T* 0.0006 Tc 0.0688 Tw [(netically based and requires numerous generations to be)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (accomplished.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1115 Tw (In contrast to this genetic adaptation are phenotypic)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0045 Tc 0.0648 Tw (adaptations, often only seconds in duration, which occur)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0447 Tw (within the life span of an individual. The results of these)Tj T* -0.0261 Tw (adaptations are not transmitted to the offspring, although)Tj T* -0.018 Tw (the capacity for such adaptation is. Implicit in the concept)Tj T* 0.0154 Tw (is the alteration of an individual by the presence of a per-)Tj T* 0.0342 Tw (sistent, nontoxic or nontraumatic, nonfatiguing stimulus,)Tj T* 0.0099 Tw [(or by the prolonged cessation and absence of a customary)122.2(,)]TJ T* 0.0499 Tw (persistent stimulus, such as weightlessness. Examples of)Tj T* -0.0022 Tc -0.0951 Tw [(such adaptation include the gradual diminution in the cold-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0324 Tw (ness of water after we immerse our hand in it; the reduc-)Tj T* 0.0358 Tw (tion in loudness of a tone after a few seconds; and the re-)Tj T* -0.0698 Tw (turn of sight \(though colorless\) after a period in a darkened)Tj T* -0.0241 Tw (room following exposure to bright lights, and the return of)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.2346 Tw (comfortable color vision after reexposure to a brightly)Tj T* 0.0099 Tc 0.0435 Tw (lighted environment. The mechanisms involved in these)Tj T* 0.049 Tw (examples are all different: stimulus \(receptor\) failure in)Tj T* 0.0199 Tc 0.0894 Tw (the cold; activation of an acoustic reex \(plus receptor)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0641 Tw (change\); and bleaching and regeneration of photopigments)Tj T* 0.0187 Tc 0.0656 Tw (plus neural change in the retina. In general, scientists)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0306 Tw (tend to think of this kind of adaptation as occurring in or)Tj T* -0.0065 Tw [(affecting the receptor)83.4(, whereas the term for a similar phe-)]TJ T* 0.0099 Tc 0 Tw [(nomenon)-49.9()]TJ /F3 1 Tf 5.4014 0 TD (habituation)Tj /F2 1 Tf 5.5654 0 TD 0 Tc ()Tj 1.06 0 TD 0.0099 Tc 0.0323 Tw (is reserved for those situations)Tj -12.0269 -1.3333 TD 0.0046 Tc 0.0647 Tw (in which more central events are at least involved if not)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (prominent.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0 Tc (A)Tj 1.0859 0 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1375 Tw [(so-called General )61.2(Adaptation Syndrome was pro-)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 274.8799 749.9608 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw [(ADAPT)54.7(A)54.7(TION)]TJ 9 0 0 9 48 749.9661 Tm 0 Tc (8)Tj ET Q endstream endobj 35 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 36 0 obj > endobj 37 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 726.3687 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.089 Tw (posed by Selye \(1950\) as part of our typical response to dan-)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD 0.0482 Tw (gerous environmental challenge. This syndrome is an ex-)Tj T* -0.0362 Tw [(tension of Cannon)39(s Emergency Syndrome \(1932/1960\) the)]TJ T* 0.0067 Tw (ee, fright, or ght syndrome, consisting of a rapid total)Tj T* -0.0876 Tw (body response to the challenge. Many manifestations of the)Tj T* -0.0006 Tc -0.0967 Tw (adaptation syndrome have been observed in lower animals,)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0365 Tw (but they often are difcult to detect in humans. Other con-)Tj T* -0.0285 Tw (cepts \(e.g., acclimatization\) have been proposed to account)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (for many of the data.)Tj /F4 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 60 606.3687 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (REFERENCES)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0 -2.25 TD -0.0149 Tw [(Cannon, W)122.1(.)-277.9(B. \(1960\). )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.2578 0 TD -0.0001 Tc [(The wisdom of the body)61.2(.)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.2305 0 TD -0.054 Tw [(New Y)122.4(ork: )-39(Norton.)]TJ -19.9882 -1.375 TD -0.0278 Tw (\(Original work published 1932\))Tj -1.5 -1.625 TD (Selye, H. \(1950\). )Tj /F3 1 Tf 7.7872 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (Stress.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.3221 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(Montreal, Canada: )61.2(Acta.)]TJ 9.9047 -2.75 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (A)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 233.9276 542.3687 Tm 0.0067 Tc (RTHUR)Tj 8 0 0 8 258.1176 542.3687 Tm 0.0048 Tc -0.0277 Tw (J. R)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 272.7232 542.3687 Tm 0.0068 Tc 0 Tw (IOPELLE)Tj /F5 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 518.3687 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (See also:)Tj /F1 1 Tf 4.0006 0 TD (Accommodation; General Adaptation Syndrome)Tj 11 0 0 11 60 450.369 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (ADDICTION)Tj /F3 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 426.369 Tm (Addiction)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.7657 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0097 Tw (is a term widely used to indicate any type of ex-)Tj -4.7657 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.2026 Tw (cessive repetitive involvement with an activity or sub-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0665 Tw (stance, and it is applied as readily to exercise, reading, and)Tj T* -0.0028 Tc -0.0945 Tw (television viewing as to alcohol, cocaine, or heroin use. Such)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0681 Tw (broad use of the term detracts from its technical value, and)Tj T* -0.0877 Tw (in this entry the term will be used to refer only to substance)Tj T* -0.0018 Tc -0.0955 Tw (use. When considering problematic patterns of use, two dis-)Tj T* -0.0027 Tc -0.0946 Tw (tinct patterns, abuse and dependence, are described \(Amer-)Tj T* -0.0018 Tc -0.0955 Tw [(ican Psychiatric )61.3(Association, 1994\). Substance )61.4(Abuse refers)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.048 Tw [(to life problems from substance use)-50.1()-50.1(use in situations in)]TJ T* -0.0663 Tw (which it is physically dangerous, use interfering with occu-)Tj T* -0.0854 Tw (pational roles or with family and other social relationships,)Tj T* -0.0503 Tw (or use resulting in legal difculties. In contrast, Substance)Tj T* -0.0289 Tw (Dependence is more syndromal. Physiological components)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1882 Tw [(of dependence may include tolerance)-50.1()-50.1(the need for in-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0393 Tw (creasing amounts of the substance to attain the same be-)Tj T* -0.0254 Tw [(havioral and subjective effects)-50()-50.1(or withdrawal, a physical)]TJ T* 0.0035 Tc 0.0658 Tw (syndrome activated by cessation of use of the substance.)Tj T* -0.0039 Tc -0.0934 Tw (Behavioral components include using larger amounts of the)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.2438 Tw (substance over longer periods of times than intended;)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0162 Tw (spending excessive amounts of time obtaining, using, and)Tj T* 0.0009 Tc 0.0684 Tw (recovering from use of the substance; or using instead of)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0654 Tw (engaging in other recreational and social pursuits. Psycho-)Tj T* 0.0037 Tc 0.0657 Tw (logical components include continued use despite knowl-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0595 Tw (edge of medical or psychological conditions caused or wors-)Tj T* -0.0664 Tw (ened by substance use, and desire or actual attempts to cut)Tj T* 0.0694 Tw (down or stop using the substance. Use of a range of sub-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1394 Tw (stances, including alcohol, other sedative/hypnotic/anxi-)Tj T* 0.0031 Tc 0.0662 Tw (olytic drugs, cocaine, other stimulants, heroin, cannabis,)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1144 Tw (hallucinogens, inhalants, and nicotine, can lead to Sub-)Tj T* 0.0149 Tc 0.026 Tw [(stance )61.2(Abuse or Dependence. )61.2(A)-257.5(withdrawal syndrome is)]TJ 29.3333 73.3333 TD 0.001 Tc 0.0684 Tw (associated only with alcohol, sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (drugs, heroin, and nicotine.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 324 684.3687 Tm 0 Tw (Epidemiology)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 324 666.3687 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.0993 Tw (Use of alcohol is common; regular use or abuse of other)Tj T* 0.0898 Tw [(drugs is less common \(Grant & Dawson, 1999\). )61.3(At some)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.051 Tw [(time in their adult lives two thirds of )61.2(Americans have been)]TJ T* -0.081 Tw (regular drinkers \(consumed at least 12 drinks in a year\). In)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1096 Tw [(contrast, just under 16% of )61.2(Americans are regular drug)]TJ T* 0.0036 Tc 0.0657 Tw (users \(illicit use of a drug at least 12 times in a year\) at)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.062 Tw (some point in their lives. The lifetime prevalence of Sub-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0725 Tw [(stance )61.2(Abuse and Dependence varies by substance, with)]TJ T* 0.1735 Tw [(different prevalence rates for men and women. )61.3(Alcohol)]TJ T* 0.1843 Tw (Abuse or Dependence is most common, with a lifetime)Tj T* 0.0042 Tc 0.0651 Tw [(prevalence for men of 25.5% and for women of 1)61.4(1.4%. In)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0784 Tw (contrast, 8.1% of men and 4.2% of women have had any)Tj T* 0.0869 Tw (form of drug abuse or dependence at some time in their)Tj T* 0.095 Tw (lives. The most common drug of abuse or dependence is)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0455 Tw (cannabis, followed by prescription drugs, cocaine, amphet-)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (amines, hallucinogens, opiates, and sedatives.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 324 456.3687 Tm 0 Tw (Etiology)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 324 438.3687 Tm 0.0189 Tw (The causes of addiction are complex and involve an inter-)Tj T* 0.0085 Tw [(play among three dimensions)-50()-50.1(the biological, the psycho-)]TJ T* (logical, and the social. The relative importance of each di-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0847 Tw (mension varies with the specic substance of abuse and)Tj T* 0.1431 Tw [(with the individual user)83.5(. Considerable research has at-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.019 Tw (tempted to identify the causes of dependence at the cellu-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.2144 Tw [(lar or molecular level. )61.2(A)-436(number of different neuronal)]TJ T* 0.0859 Tw [(changes have been suggested as causing )61.2(Alcohol Depen-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0732 Tw (dence, including changes in neuronal membranes, changes)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1582 Tw (in the excitability and function of nerve cells mediated)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0935 Tw [(through the calcium and GABA)-123.1(receptor/chloride channels,)]TJ T* -0.0283 Tw (changes in the activity of excitatory neurotransmitter sys-)Tj T* 0.012 Tw (tems, and changes in second messenger systems \(Moak &)Tj T* -0.0229 Tw (Anton, 1999\). Research on opiate dependence has failed to)Tj T* -0.0312 Tw (nd changes in opiate receptors associated with addiction.)Tj T* 0.0041 Tw [(However)83.4(, at the subcellular level, chronic exposure to opi-)]TJ T* -0.0903 Tw (ates has been demonstrated to lead to long-term changes in)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (specic G protein subunits \(Stine & Kosten, 1999\).)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0007 Tc 0.0687 Tw (Substance use disorders run in families, and research)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0288 Tw (has attempted to distinguish genetic from familial aspects)Tj T* -0.0067 Tw [(of etiology)122.2(. Both twin and adoption studies suggest a heri-)]TJ T* -0.0458 Tw [(table component to )61.2(Alcohol Dependence. W)38.9(ith other drugs,)]TJ T* -0.0014 Tc -0.0959 Tw (some studies are suggestive of genetic elements, such as ev-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0249 Tw (idence of common drug preferences in monozygotic twins,)Tj T* 0.0004 Tc 0.0689 Tw (and increased risk for drug dependence in families \(Hes-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0249 Tw (selbrock, Hesselbrock, & Epstein, 1999\). The relationship)Tj T* 0.0327 Tw (between family history and the development of alcohol or)Tj T* -0.0886 Tw [(other substance dependence, however)83.4(, is not absolute)-50.1()-50.1(the)]TJ T* 0.0693 Tw [(majority of offspring from families with )61.2(Alcohol )61.2(Abuse or)]TJ T* 0.0328 Tw (Dependence do not develop problems, and the majority of)Tj T* -0.0929 Tw [(those with )61.2(Alcohol )61.2(Abuse or Dependence do not have a clear)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw (family history \(Fingarette, 1988\).)Tj /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 289.1133 749.9608 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (ADDICTION)Tj 9 0 0 9 558.9968 749.9661 Tm 0 Tc (9)Tj ET Q endstream endobj 38 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 39 0 obj > endobj 40 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 726.3687 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.083 Tw (Among those with familial alcohol or drug problems, the)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.056 Tw (mechanisms by which inherited risk is expressed are not)Tj T* -0.0563 Tw [(clear)83.4(. The most common mechanism appears to be through)]TJ T* -0.0497 Tw [(specic temperament or personality)-50()-50.1(persons high in sen-)]TJ T* 0.0104 Tw (sation seeking, low in harm avoidance, and low in reward)Tj T* -0.0744 Tw [(dependence. Consequently)122.2(, those with inherited risk for al-)]TJ T* 0.0605 Tw (cohol or drug dependence are at greater risk for Conduct)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw [(Disorder or )61.2(Antisocial Personality Disorder)83.4(.)]TJ 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1927 Tw (Psychological research has demonstrated the impor-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0296 Tw (tance of interactions between the individual and environ-)Tj T* -0.0697 Tw (ment. Repeated exposure to drug use situations can lead to)Tj T* 0.0375 Tw (conditioned physiological responses to the situations that)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0695 Tw (are similar to physiological responses to the actual drug)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0947 Tw (\(Rohsenow et al., 1994\). The development of strong positive)Tj T* -0.0877 Tw (expectancies about the effects of certain drugs can also con-)Tj T* -0.0016 Tc -0.0958 Tw (tribute to continued use \(Brown, Christiansen, & Goldman,)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0448 Tw (1987\). Individuals may use substances to enhance positive)Tj T* -0.0574 Tw (moods as well as to cope with negative emotions, and those)Tj T* -0.0259 Tw (with other psychological problems are at particularly high)Tj T* -0.088 Tw (risk for the development of substance use disorders as well.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0001 Tc 0.0692 Tw (Alcohol and drug use occurs in a social context. Intro-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0899 Tw (duction to alcohol and drug use most commonly occurs with)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1154 Tw (either peers or family members. Individuals who are at)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.013 Tw (high risk for using drugs and for other problem behaviors)Tj T* -0.0005 Tc -0.0969 Tw (often join with peers of a similarly high risk level, and these)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0211 Tw (peer groups then may inuence those within the group to)Tj T* 0.0584 Tw (continue to use or experiment with other substances and)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (other high-risk behaviors.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 48 372.3687 Tm 0 Tw (Prevention)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 48 354.3687 Tm 0.0614 Tw (Prevention of addiction has taken many forms, including)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1 Tw (broad-brush prevention programs in schools; prevention)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0101 Tw (targeted at specic populations, such as pregnant women;)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1674 Tw (and environmentally focused interventions that change)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0552 Tw (laws and policies, decrease access to the substance, and in-)Tj T* -0.0021 Tc -0.0952 Tw (crease penalties. Individually and environmentally focused)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0256 Tw (interventions have been successful in preventing or delay-)Tj T* -0.0044 Tc -0.0929 Tw (ing the onset of use, decreasing use among those already us-)Tj T* -0.002 Tc -0.0954 Tw (ing, and decreasing harmful consequences to the individual)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (or to others.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 48 216.3687 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (T)Tj 0.4819 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (reatment)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 48 198.3687 Tm 0 Tc (T)Tj 0.6001 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0128 Tw (reatment efforts include both psychological and pharma-)Tj -0.6001 -1.3333 TD 0.012 Tw [(cological approaches. )61.2(A)-228.5(number of psychological therapies)]TJ T* 0.0034 Tc 0.066 Tw [(are effective in the treatment of Substance )61.4(Abuse or De-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0528 Tw (pendence. Brief, motivationally focused interventions are)Tj T* -0.006 Tc -0.0963 Tw (effective for individuals with milder problems, and they also)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0683 Tw (may enhance treatment outcomes when combined with on-)Tj T* -0.007 Tc -0.0953 Tw [(going treatments \(Bien, Miller)83.3(, & T)99.9(onigan, 1993\). Cognitive-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0105 Tw (behavioral therapies, including community reinforcement)Tj T* 0.0034 Tc 0.066 Tw (treatment, relapse prevention, social skills training, and)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0234 Tw [(behavioral couples therapy)122.2(, have good support for their ef-)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1192 Tw [(fectiveness in treating )61.2(Alcohol Dependence \(McCrady &)]TJ 29.3333 72 TD -0.0014 Tc -0.0959 Tw [(Langenbucher)83.4(, 1996\). Community reinforcement combined)]TJ 0 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0003 Tw (with the use of vouchers \(Higgins et al., 1994\), and family)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1071 Tw (therapy \(Liddle & Dakof, 1995\) are effective in treating)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0406 Tw (drug dependence. Outcomes for those who complete long-)Tj T* 0.0296 Tw (term treatment in therapeutic communities are good, but)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1206 Tw [(dropout rates are high \(Simpson & Curry)122.3(, 1997\). T)66.8(reat-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0179 Tw (ments to facilitate involvement with self-help groups such)Tj T* -0.0391 Tw [(as )61.2(Alcoholics )61.2(Anonymous or Narcotics )61.2(Anonymous also are)]TJ T* -0.059 Tw [(effective \(Project MA)61.2(TCH Research Group, 1997\), and con-)]TJ T* -0.0628 Tw (tinued active participation in self-help groups is correlated)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (with better outcomes.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.2211 Tw (Separate from medications for withdrawal, effective)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.117 Tw (pharmacotherapies to treat substance use disorders are)Tj T* 0.1436 Tw [(somewhat limited in number)83.4(. Naltrexone, acamprosate,)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0584 Tw (and disulram have evidence supporting their use in the)Tj T* -0.0053 Tw (treatment of alcohol dependence. Methadone, LAAM \(1-a-)Tj T* -0.025 Tw (acetylmethadol\), and buprenorphine have strong evidence)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.195 Tw (of effectiveness in the treatment of opioid dependence.)Tj T* 0.0006 Tc 0.0688 Tw [(Nicotine replacement products are effective in the initial)]TJ T* 0.0039 Tc 0.0655 Tw (phases of treatment for nicotine dependence, and bupro-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0434 Tw [(pion appears to be effective for longer)22.4(-term pharmacother-)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw (apy \(Barber & OBrien, 1999\).)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 312 442.3687 Tm 0 Tw (Conclusions)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 312 424.3687 Tm -0.0585 Tw (The term )Tj /F3 1 Tf 4.4381 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (addiction)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.587 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0585 Tw (is overused, but it is useful in referring)Tj -9.0251 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1308 Tw (to a range of substance use problems. Etiology of these)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0312 Tw (problems is complex, with multiple biological, psychologi-)Tj T* -0.0207 Tw (cal, and social factors contributing. Prevention is possible,)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (and a number of effective treatments are available.)Tj /F4 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 312 350.3687 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (REFERENCES)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0 -2.25 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0346 Tw [(American Psychiatric )61.1(Association. \(1994\). )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 19.2978 0 TD -0.0002 Tc -0.0345 Tw (Diagnostic and statisti-)Tj -17.7978 -1.375 TD 0.0198 Tc 0.0645 Tw (cal manual of mental disorders)Tj /F2 1 Tf 15.5795 0 TD [(\(4th ed.\). W)83.3(ashington, DC:)]TJ -15.5795 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(Author)83.4(.)]TJ -1.5 -1.625 TD -0.081 Tw [(Barber)83.4(, W)122.2(.)-277.8(S., & OBrien, C.)-277.9(P)144.4(.)0( \(1999\). Pharmacotherapies. In B.)-277.9(S.)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD 0.0127 Tw [(McCrady & E.)-277.9(E. Epstein \(Eds.\), )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 15.3189 0 TD -0.0002 Tc [(Addictions: A)-268.3(comprehensive)]TJ -15.3189 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (guidebook)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.897 0 TD -0.0278 Tw [(\(pp.)-277.9(347369\). New )38.9(Y)122.3(ork: Oxford University Press.)]TJ -6.397 -1.625 TD 0.0351 Tw [(Bien, T)100(.)-277.8(H., Miller)83.4(, W)122.2(.)-277.8(R., & T)100(onigan, J.)-277.9(S. \(1993\). Brief interven-)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0278 Tw [(tions for alcohol problems: )61.2(A)-188.8(review)100(. )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 16.6639 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (Addiction, 88,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.6651 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (315336.)Tj -24.829 -1.625 TD -0.0041 Tc -0.0933 Tw [(Brown, S.)-273.9(A., Christiansen, B.)-274(A., & Goldman, M.)-274(S. \(1987\). The )61.1(Al-)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0723 Tw [(cohol Expectancy Questionnaire: )61.2(An instrument for the assess-)]TJ T* -0.0084 Tw (ment of adolescent and adult expectancies. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 19.9844 0 TD -0.0085 Tw (Journal of Studies)Tj -19.9844 -1.375 TD -0.0278 Tw (on Alcohol, 48,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.9525 0 TD 0 Tw (483491.)Tj -8.4525 -1.625 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.068 Tw (Fingarette, H. \(1988\). )Tj /F3 1 Tf 10.6153 0 TD (The myth of heavy drinking as a disease.)Tj /F2 1 Tf -9.1153 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (Berkeley: University of California Press.)Tj -1.5 -1.625 TD -0.0556 Tw [(Grant, B.)-277.9(F)122.2(., & Dawson, D.)-277.9(A. \(1999\). )61.2(Alcohol and drug use, abuse,)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.003 Tc -0.0943 Tw [(and dependence: Classication, prevalence, and comorbidity)122.4(. In)]TJ T* 0.0027 Tc 0.0666 Tw [(B.)-280.8(S. McCrady & E.)-280.9(E. Epstein \(Eds.\), )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 18.2263 0 TD [(Addictions: A)-325(compre-)]TJ -18.2263 -1.375 TD 0.0048 Tc 0.1818 Tw [(hensive guidebook)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.061 0 TD [(\(pp.)-282.9(929\). New )39(Y)122.4(ork: Oxford University)]TJ -9.061 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (Press.)Tj -1.5 -1.625 TD -0.0638 Tw [(Hesselbrock, M., Hesselbrock, V)144.4(., & Epstein, E. \(1999\). Theories of)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD 0.0654 Tw [(etiology of alcohol and other drug use disorders. In B.)-277.9(S. Mc-)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.171 Tw [(Crady & E.)-282.9(E. Epstein \(Eds.\), )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 14.8725 0 TD 0.1711 Tw [(Addictions: A)-431.6(comprehensive)]TJ -14.8725 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (guidebook)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.897 0 TD -0.0278 Tw [(\(pp.)-277.9(5074\). New )39(Y)122.3(ork: Oxford University Press.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf -10.7579 83.949 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (ADDICTION)Tj 9 0 0 9 48 749.9661 Tm (10)Tj ET Q endstream endobj 41 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 42 0 obj > endobj 43 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 60 726.369 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0.0129 Tw [(Higgins, S.)-277.9(T)100(., Budney)122.2(, )61.1(A.)-277.9(J., Bickel, W)122.2(.)-277.8(K., Foerg, F)122.2(.)-277.8(E., Donham,)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0088 Tw [(R., & Badger)83.4(, G.)-277.9(J. \(1994\). Incentives improve outcome in out-)]TJ T* 0.0225 Tw (patient behavioral treatment of cocaine dependence. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 24.5584 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (Archives)Tj -24.5584 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(of General Psychiatry)61.2(, 51,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.934 0 TD 0 Tw (568576.)Tj -13.434 -1.5938 TD -0.0699 Tw [(Liddle, H., & Dakof, G.)-277.9(A. \(1995\). Family-based treatment for ado-)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.2413 Tw (lescent drug use: State of the science [Monograph]. In E.)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0377 Tw (Rahdert & D. Czechowicz \(Eds.\), )Tj /F3 1 Tf 15.1217 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (Adolescent drug abuse: Clini-)Tj -15.1217 -1.375 TD 0.0048 Tc 0.1742 Tw [(cal assessment and therapeutic interventions)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 21.8967 0 TD 0 Tw [(\(pp.)-282.9(218254\).)]TJ -21.8967 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug )61.2(Abuse Research.)]TJ -1.5 -1.5938 TD 0.0005 Tc 0.0688 Tw [(McCrady)122.2(, B.)-278.7(S., & Langenbucher)83.4(, J.)-278.7(W)122.2(.)0( \(1996\). )61.2(Alcoholism treat-)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0437 Tw (ment and health care reform. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 14.0495 0 TD [(Archives of General Psychiatry)61.2(,)]TJ -14.0495 -1.375 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (53,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.6397 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (737746.)Tj -3.1397 -1.5938 TD 0.0099 Tc -0.0045 Tw [(Moak, D., & )61.2(Anton, R. \(1999\). )61.3(Alcohol. In B.)-287.8(S. McCrady & E.)-287.8(E.)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0017 Tc -0.0957 Tw (Epstein \(Eds.\), )Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.8922 0 TD [(Addictions: A)-158.2(comprehensive guidebook)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 17.9147 0 TD 0 Tw [(\(pp.)-276.3(75)]TJ -24.8069 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(94\). New )39(Y)122.3(ork: Oxford University Press.)]TJ -1.5 -1.5938 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1806 Tw [(Project MA)61.2(TCH Research Group. \(1997\). Matching alcoholism)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.005 Tw [(treatments to client heterogeneity: Project MA)61.2(TCH posttreat-)]TJ T* 0.0149 Tc 0.0353 Tw (ment drinking outcomes. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 12.2603 0 TD 0.0352 Tw (Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58,)Tj /F2 1 Tf -12.2603 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (729.)Tj -1.5 -1.5938 TD -0.0036 Tc -0.0938 Tw [(Rohsenow)99.9(, D.)-274.6(J., Monti, P)144.4(.)-274.4(M., Rubonis,)-219.5(A.)-274.6(V)144.4(., Sirota,)-219.5(A.)-274.6(D., Niaura,)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0493 Tw [(R.)-277.9(S., Colby)122.2(, S.)-277.9(M., et al. \(1994\). Cue reactivity as a predictor of)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1171 Tw (drinking among male alcoholics. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 15.8311 0 TD (Journal of Consulting and)Tj -15.8311 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(Clinical Psychology)61.2(, 62,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.0731 0 TD 0 Tw (620626.)Tj -12.5731 -1.5938 TD -0.0031 Tc -0.0943 Tw [(Simpson, D.)-275(D., & Curry)122.2(, S.)-275.1(J. \(Eds.\). \(1997\). Drug abuse treatment)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0145 Tw (outcome study [Special issue]. )Tj /F3 1 Tf 14.2036 0 TD (Psychology of Addictive Behav-)Tj -14.2036 -1.375 TD -0.0002 Tc -0.0277 Tw [(iors, 1)83.3(1)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 3.2767 0 TD [(\(4\), 21)61.1(1337.)]TJ -4.7767 -1.5938 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0157 Tw [(Stine, S.)-277.9(M., & Kosten, T)100(.)-277.8(R. \(1999\). Opioids. In B.)-277.9(S. McCrady &)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0776 Tw [(E.)-282.9(E. Epstein \(Eds.\), )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.007 0 TD 0.0775 Tw [(Addictions: A)-338(comprehensive guidebook)]TJ /F2 1 Tf -10.007 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(\(pp.)-277.9(141l61\). New )38.9(Y)122.4(ork: Oxford University Press.)]TJ 18.835 -2.75 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (B)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 228.4954 384.119 Tm 0.0067 Tc (ARBARA)Tj 8 0 0 8 255.7509 384.119 Tm 0.0048 Tc -0.0278 Tw (S. M)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 272.7237 384.119 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (C)Tj 8 0 0 8 276.9797 384.119 Tm (C)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 282.795 384.119 Tm 0.0067 Tc (RADY)Tj /F1 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 60 325.119 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(ADHD \(A)54.8(TTENTION-DEFICIT/)]TJ 0 -1.1818 TD 0 Tw [(HYPERACTIVITY)-232.3(DISORDER\))]TJ 10 0 0 10 60 288.119 Tm (Description)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 270.119 Tm 0.0004 Tc 0.0689 Tw (Attention-Decit/Hyperactivity Disorder \(ADHD\) is most)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0822 Tw (commonly characterized by persistent and chronic inatten-)Tj T* -0.0365 Tw (tion and/or excessive motor restlessness and impulsive be-)Tj T* 0.0557 Tw [(havior)83.4(. Earlier names for )61.1(ADHD included Minimal Brain)]TJ T* -0.0047 Tc -0.0927 Tw [(Dysfunction, Hyperkinetic Impulse Disorder)83.4(, and )61.1(Attention)]TJ T* 0.0005 Tc 0.0688 Tw [(Decit Disorder with or without Hyperactivity)122.2(. Since the)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0776 Tw (1994 publication of the fourth edition of the )Tj /F3 1 Tf 19.7663 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (Diagnostic and)Tj -19.7663 -1.3333 TD 0.0237 Tw (Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)Tj /F2 1 Tf 18.4405 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (\()Tj /F3 1 Tf 0.3328 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (DSM-IV)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.9323 0 TD -0.0002 Tc -0.0374 Tw (\), ADHD)Tj -22.7056 -1.3333 TD -0.0151 Tc -0.0524 Tw (has been reorganized into three subtypes: predominantly in-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0722 Tw (attentive \(ADHD-I\), predominantly hyperactive-impulsive)Tj T* -0.0029 Tc -0.0945 Tw (\(ADHD-HI\), and combined \(ADHD-C\). The inattentive sub-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0407 Tw (type requires six or more symptoms of inattention and ve)Tj T* -0.0092 Tc -0.0931 Tw (or fewer hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. The hyperactive-)Tj T* 0.022 Tc 0.0674 Tw (impulsive subtype consists of six or more symptoms of)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.2543 Tw (hyperactivity-impulsivity and ve or fewer inattentive)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.032 Tw (symptoms. The combined subtype requires six or more out)Tj T* -0.0118 Tc -0.0955 Tw (of nine symptoms from both the inattentive and hyperactive-)Tj 29.3333 72.0277 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0421 Tw (impulsive categories. Symptoms on the inattentive list are)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD 0.0109 Tw (related to poor attention and organizational skills, forget-)Tj T* -0.0007 Tw [(fulness, and distractibility)122.2(. Symptoms on the hyperactive-)]TJ T* 0.0242 Tw (impulsive list refer to restlessness, excessive talking, and)Tj T* -0.1008 Tw [(interrupting. According )-61.2(to )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.1489 0 TD 0 Tw [(DSM-IV)155.7(,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.1926 0 TD -0.0396 Tw (the symptoms must be)Tj -16.3415 -1.3333 TD 0.0018 Tw (present for at least 6 months and observable by 7 years of)Tj T* -0.005 Tw (age. For the purpose of diagnosis, symptom manifestation)Tj T* -0.0091 Tw (should be developmentally inappropriate and exhibited in)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (two or more settings \(e.g., home and school\).)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 324 600.3687 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (Prevalence)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 324 582.3687 Tm 0.0199 Tc 0.0832 Tw [(Prevalence rates of )61.3(ADHD in the childhood population)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0023 Tw [(vary)122.2(, with expert opinion most often citing an incidence of)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1549 Tw [(approximately 35% \(American Psychiatric )61.3(Association,)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0647 Tw (1994\). Prevalence rates in adults are more speculative, but)Tj T* -0.0091 Tw [(are estimated to be about 4.7% \(Barkley)122.2(, 1998\). The disor-)]TJ T* 0.0578 Tw (der is more common in males, with Barkley \(1998\) citing)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (three males to one female for nonreferred samples.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 324 480.3687 Tm 0 Tw (Diagnosis)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 324 462.3687 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.0739 Tw [(The diagnosis of )61.2(ADHD remains difcult, with no single)]TJ T* 0.0648 Tw (test to assess it and a heavy reliance on subjective mea-)Tj T* 0.002 Tc 0.0673 Tw [(sures. )61.1(A)-286.1(comprehensive evaluation of )61.2(ADHD in adults or)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.003 Tw (children should assess the presence or absence of sympto-)Tj T* 0.0458 Tw [(matology)122.2(, differential diagnosis from other disorders that)]TJ T* 0.0595 Tw [(mimic )61.1(ADHD, and the possibility of comorbid psychiatric)]TJ T* 0.0126 Tw [(disorders. )61.2(At a minimum, the evaluation should include a)]TJ T* 0.0694 Tw [(clinical interview)99.9(, a medical evaluation conducted within)]TJ T* -0.0042 Tc -0.0931 Tw [(the past year)83.4(, standardized behavior rating scales from par-)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0696 Tw (ents and teachers, and direct observation of the patient.)Tj T* 0.0149 Tc 0.1001 Tw (The evaluation for both children and adults includes a)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0586 Tw (family history as well as documentation regarding devel-)Tj T* 0.0161 Tc 0.0682 Tw [(opmental, social, and academic functioning. )61.1(An evalua-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0668 Tw (tion for adults should also include information regarding)Tj T* 0.0563 Tw (their childhood via academic records and transcripts and)Tj T* -0.0048 Tw (retrospective-childhood ratings by the adult patient and a)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0859 Tw (parent or another individual who knew the patient as a)Tj T* -0.0023 Tc -0.095 Tw [(child. Common conditions that may coexist with )61.2(ADHD and)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0324 Tw [(warrant screening include Oppositional Deant Disorder)83.4(,)]TJ T* -0.0571 Tw [(Conduct Disorder)83.4(, Bipolar Disorder)83.4(, )61.2(Antisocial Personality)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.086 Tw [(Disorder \(for adults\), and learning disorders. )61.2(An assess-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0642 Tw (ment of intellectual, academic, neuropsychological, and at-)Tj T* 0.0116 Tw (tentional functioning is desirable for purposes of differen-)Tj T* -0.0141 Tc -0.0932 Tw (tial diagnosis, as well as for pointing out individual strengths)Tj T* -0.005 Tc -0.0923 Tw (and weaknesses. Psychoeducational testing can also be use-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0189 Tw (ful when a low level of intellectual functioning or a learn-)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw [(ing disability mimics or coexists with )61.1(ADHD.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 324 120.3687 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (T)Tj 0.4819 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (reatment)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 324 102.3687 Tm 0 Tc (T)Tj 0.6051 0 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.0781 Tw [(reatment of )61.2(ADHD should be individualized depending)]TJ -0.6051 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0188 Tw [(upon the presenting concerns. T)66.8(reatment approaches may)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0958 Tw (include behavioral interventions combined with medica-)Tj /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 206.3014 749.9608 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(ADHD \(A)54.8(TTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY)-232.3(DISORDER\))]TJ 9 0 0 9 553.9936 749.9661 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (11)Tj ET Q endstream endobj 44 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 45 0 obj > endobj 46 0 obj > endobj 47 0 obj > endobj 48 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 48 726.3687 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0.0196 Tw [(tion. Interventions begin with education about )61.1(ADHD, its)]TJ 0 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1008 Tw [(etiology)122.2(, and its treatment. Behavioral interventions for)]TJ T* -0.0002 Tc -0.0971 Tw (children include social skills training, school interventions,)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0686 Tw (and parent training in contingency management. Behav-)Tj T* -0.018 Tw (ioral treatments for adults often focus on developmentally)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.5675 Tw (appropriate self-monitoring techniques \(e.g., a self-)Tj T* 0.1215 Tw (prescribed reward for completing a goal\), time manage-)Tj T* 0.0044 Tc 0.065 Tw (ment skills, organizational skills, social skills, and voca-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.005 Tw [(tional counseling. )61.2(Adults may also choose to have an indi-)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw (vidual therapist or coach to monitor daily progress.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0191 Tw (The use of pharmacological interventions is warranted)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1389 Tw (if the symptoms are interfering signicantly with func-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0419 Tw (tioning at home, school, or work. Psychostimulant medica-)Tj T* 0.0042 Tw (tions \(e.g., methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine\) are)Tj T* -0.0772 Tw [(considered safe and effective treatments for )61.2(ADHD and are)]TJ T* 0.004 Tc 0.0654 Tw (used to treat children as well as adults whose diagnoses)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0118 Tw (have been conrmed. Stimulants, typically considered the)Tj T* -0.0317 Tw (rst line of defense, can produce improvements in impulse)Tj T* -0.0227 Tw [(control, attention, on-task behavior)83.4(, and social behavior)83.4(. )61.2(A)]TJ T* -0.0389 Tw (number of new delivery systems for psychostimulant med-)Tj T* 0.0461 Tw (ications have become available that have the potential to)Tj T* -0.0365 Tw (reduce dosing from the older regimen of two to three times)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw [(a day to once a day)122.2(.)]TJ 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0043 Tc -0.093 Tw (Other medications, including bupropion and tricyclic an-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0063 Tw (tidepressants, are considered when there are concerns re-)Tj T* -0.0496 Tw (garding substance abuse or coexisting depression, or when)Tj T* 0.0589 Tw (the stimulants produce signicant side effects. There are)Tj T* 0.0045 Tw (several new nonstimulant compounds under development)Tj T* 0.0208 Tw [(for the disorder)83.4(. These compounds target the norepineph-)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw (rinergic, histaminergic, and dopaminergic systems.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 48 348.3687 Tm (Neurobiologic Bases of ADHD)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 48 330.3687 Tm -0.0751 Tw [(The etiology of )61.2(ADHD is unknown, although the disorder is)]TJ T* 0.0676 Tw (now considered a disorder of the brain and development.)Tj T* 0.0226 Tw (There has been a wave of recent genetic studies that sug-)Tj T* 0.0041 Tc 0.0653 Tw (gest that a substantial genetic component contributes to)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0677 Tw [(the disorder)83.4(. Most of the genetic research has focused on)]TJ T* -0.0278 Tw (candidate genes involved in dopaminergic transmission.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.3133 Tw (Dysfunction in both dopaminergic and norepineph-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.4732 Tw (rinergic neurotransmitter systems are implicated in)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0702 Tw (ADHD. Both clinical and preclinical pharmacological stud-)Tj T* 0.0361 Tw [(ies support the role of these neurotransmitters in )61.2(ADHD,)]TJ T* -0.0812 Tw [(with additional conrmation for the role of catecholamine)39(s)]TJ T* -0.0148 Tw (involvement arising from the observation that compounds)Tj T* 0.0541 Tw [(known to improve )61.2(ADHD symptoms affect catecholamine)]TJ T* -0.0397 Tw (transmission. Neuroimaging research into brain structure)Tj T* -0.0013 Tc -0.0961 Tw [(and the function of )61.1(ADHD in children and adults has shown)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0718 Tw [(signicant differences between subjects with )61.2(ADHD and)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0292 Tw (controls in frontal, basal ganglia, and cerebellar anatomy)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.2622 Tw [(and function. )61.2(A)-483.8(number of functional imaging studies)]TJ T* 0.0915 Tw (demonstrate decreased neuronal activity in the anterior)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0164 Tw (cingulate and associated projection areas in subjects with)Tj T* -0.006 Tw [(ADHD. )61.1(A)-210.6(combination of methods using behavioral, imag-)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1641 Tw (ing, and genetic techniques should increase our under-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (standing of the etiology of the disorder in the future.)Tj /F4 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 312 726.369 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (REFERENCES)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0 -2.25 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1098 Tw [(American )61.1(Academy of Child and )61.1(Adolescent Psychiatry)122.3(. \(1997\).)]TJ 1.5 -1.375 TD 0.0249 Tc 0.1172 Tw (Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of)Tj T* 0.0199 Tc 0.3142 Tw [(children, adolescents, and adults with )61.3(Attention-Decit/)]TJ T* 0.0024 Tc 0.067 Tw [(Hyperactivity Disorder)83.4(. )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11.3305 0 TD 0.0669 Tw (Journal of the American Academy of)Tj -11.3305 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)61.2(, 36)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 16.4868 0 TD (\(Supp.\), 85S121S.)Tj -17.9868 -1.75 TD -0.0346 Tw [(American Psychiatric )61.1(Association. \(1994\). )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 19.2978 0 TD -0.0002 Tc -0.0345 Tw (Diagnostic and statisti-)Tj -17.7978 -1.375 TD 0.0198 Tc 0.0645 Tw (cal manual of mental disorders)Tj /F2 1 Tf 15.5795 0 TD [(\(4th ed.\). W)83.3(ashington, DC:)]TJ -15.5795 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(Author)83.4(.)]TJ -1.5 -1.75 TD -0.0005 Tc -0.0969 Tw [(Barkley)122.1(, R.)-277.7(A. \(1998\). )]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.8015 0 TD (Attention Decit Hyperactivity Disorder)Tj /F2 1 Tf 18.1264 0 TD 0 Tw (\(2nd)Tj -26.4278 -1.375 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(ed.\). New )38.9(Y)122.4(ork: Guilford Press.)]TJ 10.85 -2.875 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (J)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 415.2872 580.369 Tm 0.0068 Tc (ULIE)Tj 8 0 0 8 432.7347 580.369 Tm 0.0048 Tc -0.0278 Tw (B. S)Tj 5.84 0 0 5.28 447.9321 580.369 Tm 0.0068 Tc 0 Tw (CHWEITZER)Tj /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 410.8 569.369 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (Maryland Psychiatric Research Center)Tj /F5 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 312 544.369 Tm (See also:)Tj /F1 1 Tf 4.0006 0 TD (Behavior Therapy; Genetics; Neurotransmitters;)Tj -3.0006 -1.3333 TD 0 Tw (Self-control)Tj 11 0 0 11 312 462.369 Tm -0.0278 Tw (ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 312 438.369 Tm -0.0274 Tw (Adolescence can be dened as the period in life when most)Tj T* -0.0232 Tw [(of a person)39(s biological, cognitive, psychological, and social)]TJ T* -0.0092 Tc -0.0931 Tw (characteristics are changing in an interrelated manner from)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0831 Tw (what is considered childlike to what is considered adultlike)Tj T* -0.0101 Tc -0.0909 Tw [(\(Lerner & Spanier)83.5(, 1980\). When most of one)39.1(s characteristics)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (are in this state of change one is an adolescent.)Tj 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0971 Tw (Adolescence requires adjustments to changes in the self,)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.047 Tw [(family)122.2(, peer group, and institutions. There are individual)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1474 Tw (differences in the timing, speed, and outcomes of these)Tj T* 0.0011 Tc 0.0682 Tw (transitions, changes caused by variation in the timing of)Tj T* 0.004 Tc 0.0654 Tw (connections among biological, psychological, and societal)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0827 Tw (factors, and not merely )Tj /F3 1 Tf 11.393 0 TD 0 Tw (one)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.9352 0 TD 0.0827 Tw (of these factors acting alone)Tj -13.3282 -1.3333 TD 0.1169 Tw [(\(Brooks-Gunn & Petersen, 1983; Lerner)83.4(, 2002\). )61.1(A)-338.6(major)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0758 Tw (source of diversity in development is the systemic relations)Tj T* -0.0389 Tw (adolescents have with people and institutions in their con-)Tj T* -0.0898 Tw [(text \(Bandura, 1964; Block, 1971; Douvan & )61.2(Adelson, 1966;)]TJ T* -0.0002 Tc -0.0277 Tw [(Lerner)83.3(, 2002; Offer)83.3(,)0( 1969\).)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 312 216.369 Tm -0.0001 Tc (Multiple Levels of Context are Inuential)Tj 0 -1.2 TD 0 Tw [(During)-250.1(Adolescence)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 312 186.369 Tm -0.0049 Tc -0.0924 Tw (Adolescence is a period of rapid transitions in physical char-)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0593 Tw (acteristics. The quality and timing of hormonal or other bi-)Tj T* 0.0447 Tw [(ological changes inuence, and are inuenced by)122.2(, psycho-)]TJ T* -0.0247 Tw [(logical, social, cultural, and historical factors \(Elder)83.4(, 1998;)]TJ T* -0.0452 Tw [(Gottlieb, 1997; Magnusson & Stattin, 1998; T)66.8(anner)83.4(, 1991\).)]TJ 1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0763 Tw (Biological effects interact with contextual and experien-)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD 0.0484 Tw (tial factors to inuence psychological and social function-)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1425 Tw [(ing)-50()-50.1(for example, academic achievement \(Lerner)83.5(, 2002;)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0461 Tw (Lerner & Galambos, 1998; Simmons & Blyth, 1987\). Evi-)Tj T* 0.0039 Tc 0.0655 Tw (dence does not support the claim that behavioral distur-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0636 Tw (bances are a universal part of adolescence \(e.g., Hall, 1904;)Tj /F1 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 245.6619 749.9608 Tm -0.0278 Tw (ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT)Tj 9 0 0 9 48 749.9661 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (12)Tj ET Q endstream endobj 49 0 obj >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState >>> endobj 50 0 obj > endobj 51 0 obj >stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 792 m 0 792 l f q 0.2 i -1 793 614 -794 re 0 792 m W n 0 792.015 612 -792 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 726.3687 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.062 Tw (Freud, 1969\) or that general psychological or social disrup-)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.4492 Tw (tions mark adolescence. For example, the biological)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.021 Tw (changes of early pubertal maturation have been linked to)Tj T* -0.0274 Tw (delinquency in adolescent girls, but only among those who)Tj T* -0.0915 Tw [(attended mixed-sex schools \(Caspi, L)61.2(y)0.1(nam, Moftt & Silva,)]TJ T* -0.051 Tw (1993\) or among girls who socialized with older peers \(Mag-)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (nusson & Stattin, 1998\).)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 60 625.3687 Tm (Changing Relations among Adolescents and Their)Tj 0 -1.2 TD (Contexts Produce Development in Adolescence)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 595.3687 Tm 0.0402 Tw (The varying relations between adolescents and their con-)Tj 0 -1.3333 TD -0.0859 Tw (texts constitute the basic process of development in this pe-)Tj T* -0.0715 Tw (riod and underlie both positive and negative outcomes that)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.3509 Tw [(occur \(Lerner)83.4(, 2002\). Most developmental trajectories)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0444 Tw (across adolescence involve positive adjustment on the part)Tj T* -0.0533 Tw (of the adolescent. For most youth there is a continuation of)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1548 Tw (warm and accepting relations with parents \(Grotevant,)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0289 Tw (1998\). The most optimal development occurs among youth)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.2913 Tw (who are afforded the individual and ecological assets)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0674 Tw (needed not only for positive development but also for thriv-)Tj T* -0.0278 Tw (ing \(Benson, 1997; Damon, 1997\).)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 60 446.3687 Tm 0 Tw (Conclusions)Tj /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 60 428.3687 Tm -0.1001 Tc (To)Tj 1.0668 0 TD ( )Tj 0.244 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0339 Tw (advance basic knowledge and the applications aimed at)Tj -1.3108 -1.3333 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.08 Tw (enhancing youth development, scholarship should be di-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0271 Tw (rected toward elucidating the developmental course of di-)Tj T* 0.0268 Tw (verse adolescents and how their individual and ecological)Tj T* -0.0874 Tw [(strengths)-50()-50.1(and those of families and communities)-50()-50.1(result)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1176 Tw [(in healthy)122.2(, positive development. Policies and programs)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0228 Tw (must be aimed not only at the amelioration or prevention)Tj T* 0.055 Tw [(of problems; rather)83.4(, actions must be directed toward pro-)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.279 Tw [(moting positive youth development \(Lerner)83.5(, Fisher)83.4(, &)]TJ T* 0 Tc 0 Tw (W)Tj 0.9197 0 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw (einberg, 2000\).)Tj 0.4137 -1.3333 TD 0.0013 Tc 0.0681 Tw (The stereotype that there is only one type of pathway)Tj -1.3333 -1.3333 TD -0.0027 Tc -0.0947 Tw (across adolescence is not viable in the face of current knowl-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0535 Tw [(edge about adolescent diversity)122.2(. In future research and ap-)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1277 Tw (plications, scholars and practitioners must extend their)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0918 Tw (conception of adolescence to focus on changing relations be-)Tj T* 0.0031 Tc 0.0662 Tw (tween individual youth characteristics and their distinct)Tj T* (ecologies. Understanding these relations may enable the)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0142 Tw (strengths of all young people to be translated into actions,)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0695 Tw [(resulting in successful contributions to self, family)122.3(, com-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0278 Tw [(munity)122.2(, and civil society)122.2(.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 60 177.3687 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (REFERENCES)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0 -2.25 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0811 Tw [(Bandura, )61.2(A. \(1964\). 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197665 %%EOF

Table of Contents

Preface vii

A - Z 1 - 1041

Biographies 1047

Author Index 1077

Subject Index 1097

Editorial Reviews

"The writers here get to the core of their subjects and outline them with cogent detail." ("Electric Review"; 1/1/2005)