From the perspective of human society, one of the most significant occurrences of the twentieth century has been the demographic transition --- the movement from tragic and wastefully high death and birth rates to low rates in many countries. Many other countries, however, are still at onlythe early or intermediate stages of this process. In these countries, means need to be found to accelerate the transition. This book brings new evidence to bear on aspects of the demographic trasition, with contributions from leading demographers, anthropologists, sociologists, and historians. Thebook ranges widely over the history and current experience of both developed and developing countries, with particular emphasis on Asia and Africa. The new field of anthropological demography is strongly represented, with contributions challenging much conventional wisdom.