The period following the death of Aurangzeb has been viewed as the beginning of the decline and decay of the Mughal empire. Examining two contrasting regions of north India-Awadh and Punjab-this pioneering work shows how the period 1707-48 saw the emergence of a new order with local andregional idioms. Muzaffar Alam focuses on the interplay of imperial collapse with regional restructuring. He contends that even as the empire declined, there emerged a new, regionally-based political order, maintained and controlled by former Mughal rulers. From agrarian uprisings to the jagirdarisystem, the Sikhs to the Zamindars, this book presents a bold new interpretation of an important transition in this period. This edition comes with a new introduction. This book is an important reading for students, scholars, and teachers of Mughal history and early modern India.