In 1989-90 the collapse of state socialism and the end of the Cold War brought dramatic changes for the defence industries of East-Central Europe. Initially it seemed that the resources devoted to the Cold War confrontation might become available for investment in non-military economic andsocial progress. However, by 1994 this optimism had given way to recognition that the transformation would involve significant costs and could not be accomplished quickly. The Defence Industry in East-Central Europe charts the development of the industries of the Visegrad countries - Czechoslovakia and its successor states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia; Poland; and Hungary. In the first part, national case studies underline the different approaches to reformadopted in the individual countries. The second part uses unique information derived from extensive interviews at enterprises in each of the four countries to examine the transformation of industry from a producer perspective.