The Elements of Inductive Logic by Thomas FowlerThe Elements of Inductive Logic by Thomas Fowler

The Elements of Inductive Logic

byThomas Fowler

Paperback | February 7, 2012

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated.1883 Excerpt: ... CHAPTER II. Of Processes subsidiary to Induction. OF the various mental processes subsidiary to Induction proper, it will be sufficient for our purpose to discuss Observation and Experiment, Classification (including Nomenclature and Terminology), and Hypothesis. § i. Of Observation and Experiment. These words are now so familiar, that they hardly require any explanation. To observe is to watch with attention phenomena as they occur, to exberiment (or, to adopt more ordinary language, to perform an experiment is, not only to observe, but also to place the phenomena under peculiarly favourable circumstances, as a preliminary to observation. Thus, every experiment implies an observation, but it also implies something more. In an experiment, I arrange or create the circumstances under which I wish to make my observation. Thus, if two bodies are falling to the ground, and I attend to the phenomenon, I am said to observe it, but, if I place the bodies under the exhausted receiver of an air-pump, or cause them to be dropped under any special circumstances whatever, I may be said not only to make an observation, but also to perform an experiment. Bacon has not inaptly compared experiment with the torture of witnessesMr. Mill distinguishes between the two processes, by saying that in observation we find our instance in nature, in experiment we make it, by an artificial arrangement of circumstances. 'When, as in astronomy, we endeavour to ascertain causes by simply watching their effects, we observe; when, as in our laboratories, we interfere arbitrarily with the causes or circumstances of a phenomenon, we are said to experiment'1! As Observation often involves little or no conscious effort, while Experiment always implies an artificial arrangement of circumsta...
Title:The Elements of Inductive LogicFormat:PaperbackDimensions:106 pages, 9.69 × 7.44 × 0.22 inPublished:February 7, 2012Publisher:General Books LLCLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0217075517

ISBN - 13:9780217075510