The Elements of Philosophy: Readings from Past and Present

Paperback | November 21, 2007

EditorTamar Szabo Gendler, Susanna Siegel, Steven M. Cahn

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This book is a comprehensive collection of historical and contemporary readings across the major fields of philosophy. With depth and quality, this introductory anthology offers a selection of readings that is both extensive and expansive; the readings span twenty-five centuries. With depthand quality, this introductory anthology offers a selection of readings that is both extensive and expansive; the readings span centuries. From two thousand five-hundred years ago to just a few years ago, the selections include whole works or excerpts from such classic thinkers as Plato, Aristotle,Blaise Pascal, John Locke, and John Stuart Mill and such contemporary thinkers as Noam Chomsky, Thomas Nagel, Robert Nozick, Derek Parfit, and Hilary Putnam. The selections are organized topically into five parts: Religion and Belief, Moral and Political Philosophy, Metaphysics and Epistemology,Philosophy of Mind and Language, and Life and Death. The product of the collaboration of three highly respected scholars in their fields - Tamar Szabo Gendler, Susanna Siegel, and Steven M. Cahn - The Elements of Philosophy also includes introductions from the editors, explanatory footnotes, and aglossary.

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This book is a comprehensive collection of historical and contemporary readings across the major fields of philosophy. With depth and quality, this introductory anthology offers a selection of readings that is both extensive and expansive; the readings span twenty-five centuries. With depthand quality, this introductory anthology offer...

Tamar Szabo Gendler is Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Cognitive Sciences Program at Yale University. Susanna Siegel is Professor of Philosophy at Harvard University. Steven Cahn is Professor of Philosophy at the Graduate School and University Center in the City University of New York.

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Hardcover|Nov 2 2000

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:832 pages, 7.4 × 9.21 × 1.42 inPublished:November 21, 2007Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195335422

ISBN - 13:9780195335422

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Preface: Acknowledgements: About the Editors: Note to the Reader: Note to the Instructor: INTRODUCTIONSimon Blackburn, "What is Philosophy?"Simon Blackburn, "The Elements of Logic"I. RELIGION AND BELIEFIntroductionA. Traditional Arguments for and Against the Existence of GodThe Ontological Argument--and RepliesAnselm, "The Ontological Argument"Gaunilo, "In Behalf of the Fool"G.E. Moore, "Is Existence a Predicate?"William Rowe, "Why the Ontological Argument Fails"The Cosmological Argument, the Argument from Design--and RepliesRichard Taylor, "The Cosmological Argument"William Paley, "The Argument from Design"Ernest Nagel, "Does God Exist?"The Problem of Evil--and RepliesJohn Hick, "The Problem of Evil"Steven M. Cahn, "The Problem of Goodness"B. Grounds for BeliefPascal, "The Wager"W.K. Clifford, "The Ethics of Belief"William James, "The Will to Believe"Robert McKim, "The Hiddenness of God"C. God and Science: Contemporary DiscussionsNicholas Everitt, "Theism and Modern Science"II. MORAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHYMORAL PHILOSOPHYIntroductionA. Three Major Ethical TheoriesUtilitarianismJohn Stuart Mill, "Utilitarianism"J. J. C. Smart, "Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism"Bernard Williams, "Utilitarianism, Integrity and Responsibility"DeontologyImmanuel Kant, Selections from The Grounding for the Metaphysics of MoralsOnora O'Neill, "A Simplified Account of Kant's Ethics"Virtue EthicsAristotle, Selections from The Nicomachean EthicsRosalind Hursthouse, "Normative Virtue Ethics"B. Some ApplicationsMoral Duties to the PoorPeter Singer, "Rich and Poor"Garrett Hardin, "Lifeboat Ethics: The Case Against Helping the Poor"Thomas Pogge, "'Aiding' the Global Poor"Vegetarianism and AnimalsAlastair Norcross, "Puppies, Pigs, and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases"Carl Cohen, "A Critique of the Alleged Moral Basis of Vegetarianism"C. Puzzles and ChallengesPuzzling CasesJudith Jarvis Thomson, "The Trolley Problem"Thomas Nagel, "Moral Luck"The Value of MoralityPlato, "Glaucon's Challenge from The Republic"Susan Wolf, "Moral Saints"The Universality of MoralityJames Rachels, "Egoism and Moral Skepticism"James Rachels, "The Challenge of Cultural Relativism"Morality and Social ScienceJennifer Saul, "Women's Different Voice"Cass Sunstein, "Heurisitics and Morality"POLITICAL PHILOSOPHYIntroductionD. Justice, Equality and the StateThomas Hobbes, from LeviathanJohn Rawls, "Justice as Fairness" from A Theory of JusticeRobert Nozick, "Distributive Justice" from Anarchy, State and UtopiaE. Just WarGeorge Mavrodes, "Conventions and the Morality of War"Robert Fullwinder, "War and Innocence"Lawrence A. Alexander, "Self-Defense and Non-Combatants"III. METAPHYSICS AND EPISTEMOLOGYKNOWLEDGE AND REALITYIntroductionA. Defining KnowledgePlato, "What is Knowledge?" (Selection from The Meno)Edmund Gettier, "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?"Robert Nozick, "Knowledge"B. Skepticism and ResponsesDescartes, Meditations 1and2G.E. Moore, "Proof of an External World"G.E. Moore, "Certainty"Robert Nozick, "Skepticism"Jonathan Vogel, "Cartesian Skepticism and Inference to the Best Explanation"C. Knowledge and the Nature of RealityPlato, "The Allegory of the Cave"George Berkeley, Selections from "On the Principles of Human Knowledge"W.V.O. Quine, "Posits and Reality"Hilary Putnam, "Brains in a Vat"David Chalmers, "The Matrix as Metaphysics"Robert Nozick, "Fiction"D. InductionDavid Hume, "Induction"Wesley Salmon, Selections from The Problem of InductionNelson Goodman, "The New Riddle of Induction"METAPHYSICAL PERPLEXITIESIntroductionE. Time and Time TravelAlbert Einstein, "Time and the Relativity of Simultaneity"Theodore Sider, "Time"David Lewis, "The Paradoxes of Time Travel"F. Free WillA.J. Ayer, "Freedom and Necessity"Roderick Chisholm, "Human Freedom and the Self"Harry Frankfurt, "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person"P.F. Strawson, "Freedom and Resentment"G. Identity and Personal IdentityJohn Locke, "Of Identity and Diversity"Bernard Williams, "The Self and the Future"Derek Parfit, "Personal Identity"IV. PHILOSOPHY OF MIND AND LANGUAGEMINDIntroductionA. Metaphysics of MindDualism and BehaviorismRene Descartes, Meditation 6Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti, "A Comparison of Nyaya and Cartesian Dualism"Gilbert Ryle, "Descartes' Myth"PhysicalismDaniel Stoljar, "Physicalism"J. J. C. Smart, "Sensations and Brain Processes"Paul Churchland, "Eliminative Materialism and Propositional Attitudes"Challenges to PhysicalismSaul Kripke, "The Modal Argument"Frank Jackson, "Epiphenomenal Qualia"B. Consciousness and PerceptionConsciousnessThomas Nagel, "What is it Like to be a Bat?"Daniel Dennett, "Quining Qualia"Ned Block, "Concepts of Consciousness"Minds and MachinesA.M. Turing, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"John Searle, "Can Computers Think?"PerceptionJ.J. Valberg, The Puzzle of ExperienceA.J. Ayer, "The Argument from Illusion: A Defense of Sense Data"J.L. Austin, "The Argument from Illusion: A Critique of Sense Data"LANGUAGEIntroductionC. Language, Meaning and ReferencePaul Grice, "Logic and Conversation"Noam Chomsky, "Language and Problems of Knowledge"John Perry, "The Problem of the Essential Indexical"V. LIFE AND DEATHIntroductionA. LifePlato, "On the Harmony of the Soul" from The RepublicJean-Paul Sartre, "Existentialism is a Humanism"Derek Parfit, "What Makes Someone's Life Go Best?"Thomas Nagel, "The Absurd"B. DeathThomas Nagel, "Death"Walter Kaufmann, "Death without Dread"

Editorial Reviews

"The Elements of Philosophy is a carefully composed and arranged collection with useful introductions, notes, and glossary. With such an impressive range and variety of selections, any introductory class on philosophy can hardly do better than to start here."--Alex Byrne, MassachusettsInstitute of Technology