The English Language: A Linguistic History

Paperback | December 13, 2005

byLaurel J. Brinton, Leslie K. Arnovick

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The English Language surveys the development of the English language from its Indo-European past to the present day. Beginning with a discussion of how language changes, the text examines historical change in English from its Indo-European start through its major periods (Old English, MiddleEnglish, Early Modern English, and Modern English).

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The English Language surveys the development of the English language from its Indo-European past to the present day. Beginning with a discussion of how language changes, the text examines historical change in English from its Indo-European start through its major periods (Old English, MiddleEnglish, Early Modern English, and Modern Eng...

Lauren Brinton and Leslie Arnovick are both in the Department of English at the University of British Columbia.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:524 pages, 9 × 7 × 1 inPublished:December 13, 2005Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195422058

ISBN - 13:9780195422054

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Table of Contents

List of Tables, Figures, and Sample TextsPrefaceChapter 1: Studying the History of EnglishOverviewObjectivesWhy Study the History of English?A Definition of LanguageThe Components of LanguageLinguistic Change in EnglishThe Periods of EnglishAn Example of Linguistic ChangeThe Nature of Linguistic ChangeThe Inevitability of ChangeThe Arbitrary Nature of the Linguistic SignThe Origin of LanguageAttitudes Toward Linguistic ChangeLinguistic CorruptionPrescriptivism versus DescriptivismResources for Studying the History of EnglishGeneral DictionariesHistorical and Etymological DictionariesHistorical Grammar and SyntaxConcordances and Historical CorporaRecommended Web LinksFurther ReadingFurther Viewing Chapter 2: The Sounds and Writing of EnglishOverviewObjectivesThe Sounds of EnglishThe Phonetic AlphabetThe PhonemeThe Production of SpeechConsonantsThe Consonant Sounds of EnglishVowelsThe Vowels of EnglishStressThe Writing of EnglishThe History of WritingThe Origin of the AlphabetRecommended Web LinksFurther Reading Chapter 3: Causes and Mechanisms of Language ChangeOverviewObjectivesCauses of ChangeInternalExternalMechanisms of Phonological ChangeDetermining Sounds from Written RecordsThe Nature of Sound ChangeTypes of Sound ChangeMechanisms of Morphological and Syntactic ChangeAnalogyGrammaticalizationConservative and Innovative ChangesMechanisms of Semantic ChangeTypes of Semantic ChangeSome Generalizations About Semantic ChangeRecommended Web LinksFurther Reading Chapter 4: The Indo-European Language Family and Proto-Indo-EuropeanOverviewObjectivesClassification of LanguagesTypological ClassificationGenealogical ClassificationLanguage FamiliesThe Indo-European Language FamilyThe Discovery of Indo-EuropeanThe Branches of Indo-EuropeanSatem LanguagesCentum LanguagesProto-LanguageReconstructionProto-Indo-EuropeanLinguistic FeaturesSocietyHomelandNostratic TheoryRecommended Web LinksFurther ReadingFurther Viewing Chapter 5: Germanic and the Development of Old EnglishOverviewObjectivesProto-GermanicGrammatical and Lexical Changes from PIE to GermanicPhonological Changes from PIE to GermanicGrimm's LawVerner's LawAccent Shift and Ordering of ChangesVowel ChangesSecond Sound Shift and Mechanisms of ChangeA Brief History of Anglo-Saxon EnglandThe Germanic Settlement of EnglandThe Christianization of the Anglo-SaxonsThe Scandinavian Invasions of EnglandThe Records of the Anglo-SaxonsThe Dialects of Old EnglishThe Written Records of Old EnglishRecommended Web LinksFurther Reading Chapter 6: The Sounds and Words of Old EnglishOverviewObjectivesThe Orthographic System of Old EnglishThe Phonological System of Old EnglishConsonantsVowelsSound ChangesThe Word Stock of the Anglo-SaxonsThe Continuity of Germanic Vocabulary in EnglishBorrowing in Old EnglishWord Formation in Old EnglishStressRecommended Web LinksFurther Reading Chapter 7: The Grammar of Old EnglishOverviewObjectivesThe Nominal SystemThe Grammatical Categories of the NounPronounsNounsDemonstratives, Adjectives, and AdverbsAgreementCase UsageThe Verbal SystemVerb ClassesThe Grammatical Categories of the VerbInflectional Endings of the VerbSyntaxVerbal PeriphrasesWord OrderRecommended Web LinksFurther ReadingFurther Viewing Chapter 8: The Rise of Middle English: Words and SoundsOverviewObjectivesFrench and English in Medieval EnglandThe Norman ConquestThe Establishment of FrenchThe Re-establishment of EnglishThe Word Stock of Middle EnglishFrench InfluenceLatin InfluenceThe Written Records of Middle EnglishMiddle English DialectsMiddle English LiteratureOrthographic ChangesConsonant ChangesVowel ChangesQualitative ChangesQuantitative ChangesRecommended Web LinksFurther Reading Chapter 9: The Grammar of Middle English and Rise of a Written StandardOverviewObjectivesVowel Reduction and its EffectsGrammatical Developments in Middle EnglishAdjectives and NounsPronounsLoss of Grammatical GenderVerbsSyntaxChange from Synthetic to AnalyticMiddle English as a Creole?The Rise of a Standard DialectRecommended Web LinksFurther Reading Chapter 10: The Sounds and Inflections of Early Modern EnglishOverviewObjectivesThe Great Vowel ShiftNature of the ShiftDetails of the ShiftChanges in the Short Vowels and DiphthongsChanges in ConsonantsRenaissance RespellingsChanges in Nominal Inflected FormsNounsPronounsCase UsageChanges in Verbal Inflected FormsVerb ClassesInflectional EndingsRecommended Web LinksFurther Reading Chapter 11: Early Modern English Verbal Constructions and Eighteenth-Century PrescriptivismOverviewObjectivesEarly Modern English SyntaxReflexive and Impersonal VerbsThe Subjunctive and the Modal AuxiliariesVerbal PeriphrasesDoWord OrderThe Rise of PrescriptivismRenaissance Concerns About the LanguageSocial, Linguistic, and Philosophical Reasons for PrescriptivismImportant Prescriptive Grammarians of the Eighteenth CenturyAims of the Eighteenth-Century GrammariansAscertainmentAn AcademyMethods of the Eighteenth-Century GrammariansAuthorityModel of LatinEtymologyReasonThe Question of UsageDictionariesRecommended Web LinksFurther ReadingFurther Viewing Chapter 12: Modern EnglishOverviewObjectivesGrammatical and Lexical Changes Since Early Modern EnglishGrammatical ChangesModern BorrowingsThe Oxford English DictionaryThe Development of National VarietiesBritish versus North American EnglishCanadian EnglishAustralian and New Zealand EnglishAfrican EnglishCaribbean EnglishImportant Regional VarietiesEnglish in the British IslesEnglish in the United StatesChanges in ProgressNeologismsGrammatical ChangesRecommended Web LinksFurther ReadingFurther Viewing Exercise KeyGlossary of Linguistic TermsReferencesIndex