The Ethics of Suicide: Historical Sources

Paperback | October 7, 2015

EditorMargaret Pabst Battin

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Is suicide wrong, profoundly morally wrong? Almost always wrong, but excusable in a few cases? Sometimes morally permissible? Imprudent, but not wrong? Is it sick, a matter of mental illness? Is it a private matter or a largely social one? Could it sometimes be right, or a "noble duty," oreven a fundamental human right? Whether it is called "suicide" or not, what role may a person play in the end of his or her own life?This collection of primary sources - the principal texts of ethical interest from major writers in western and nonwestern cultures, from the principal religious traditions, and from oral cultures where observer reports of traditional practices are available, spanning Europe, Asia, the Middle East,Africa, Oceania, the Arctic, and North and South America - facilitates exploration of many controversial practical issues: physician-assisted suicide or aid-in-dying; suicide in social or political protest; self-sacrifice and martyrdom; suicides of honor or loyalty; religious and ritual practicesthat lead to death, including sati or widow-burning, hara-kiri, and sallekhana, or fasting unto death; and suicide bombings, kamikaze missions, jihad, and other tactical and military suicides. This collection has no interest in taking sides in controversies about the ethics of suicide; rather, rather, it serves to expand the character of these debates, by showing them to be multi-dimensional, a complex and vital part of human ethical thought.

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Is suicide wrong, profoundly morally wrong? Almost always wrong, but excusable in a few cases? Sometimes morally permissible? Imprudent, but not wrong? Is it sick, a matter of mental illness? Is it a private matter or a largely social one? Could it sometimes be right, or a "noble duty," oreven a fundamental human right? Whether it is c...

Margaret Pabst Battin is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy and Adjunct Professor of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Ethics and Humanities, at the University of Utah.

other books by Margaret Pabst Battin

Format:PaperbackDimensions:800 pages, 10 × 7 × 0.68 inPublished:October 7, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:0195135997

ISBN - 13:9780195135992

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Table of Contents

I. Introduction: Sources of Conflict in Contemporary Controversies about SuicideII. SelectionsEgyptian Didactic Tale (c. 2180-c. 2050 B.C.)Dialogue of a Man With His SoulThe Vedas, Brahmanas, and Upanishads (c. 1500-c. 500 B.C.)Rig VedaBrahma PuranaPadme PuranaSkanda PuranaChandogya UpanishadIsha UpanishadThe Hebrew Bible and Apocrypha (c. 12-1st centuries B.C.)Genesis The Prohibition of SuicideExodus: The Ten CommandmentsJudges: Samson and the PhilistinesI Samuel-II Samuel: Saul and his Armor-BearerJob: The Sufferings of JobII Maccabees: The Suicide of RazisDaniel: Shadrach, Meschach, Abednego and the Fiery FurnaceHomer (c. 8th century B.C.)The Iliad: The Deaths of Hector and AchillesDharmashastra (c. 600 B.C. - 200 A.D.)Gautama SutraApastamba SutraVasistha SutraThe Laws of ManuThe Jain Tradition (599-527 B.C. to 5th century A.D.)Acaranga Sutra: LiberationTattvartha Sutra: Passionless End is Not SuicideUpasakadasah: Ten Chapters on Lay Attenders: The Story of AnandaConfucius (551-479 B.C.)The AnalectsThe Book of Filial PietySophocles (c. 496-406 B.C.)AjaxOedipus at ColonusEuripides (c. 484-406 B.C.)Suppliant Women:The Suicide of Evadne, Watched by her FatherThe Hippocratic Corpus (c. 450-c. 350 B.C.)The Hippocratic OathAbout MaidensPlato (c. 424-c. 348 B.C.)Apology: On Being Condemned to DeathPhaedo: The Death of SocratesThe Republic: On MedicineThe Laws: Recidivist Criminals and Penalties for SuicideAristotle (384-322 B.C.)Nicomachean EthicsMencius (c. 372-c. 289 B.C.)The MenciusQu Yuan (c. 340-278 B.C.)Embracing SandChrysippus (c. 280-c. 206 B.C.)The Stoics' Five Reasons for SuicideSima Qian (145 or 135-86 B.C.)Records of the Grand Historian: The Basic Annals of Xiang YuRecords of the Grand Historian: The Assassin and his SisterLetter in Reply to Ren ShaoqingCicero (106-43 B.C.)Tusculan DisputationsOn EndsOn Old AgeThe Questions of King Milinda (c. 100 B.C.-c.200 A.D.)On SuicideLivy (c. 59 B.C.-17 A.D.)The History of Rome: The Rape of LucretiaSeneca (4 B.C.-65 A.D.)Moral Letters to LuciliusLetter 70: On the Proper Time to Slip the CableLetter 77: On Taking One's Own LifeLetter 78: On the Healing Power of the MindValerius Maximus (fl. c. 14-c. 31)Memorable Doings and SayingsPliny the Elder (23-79 A.D.)Natural HistoryOf GodNature of the EarthIgnatius of Antioch (c. 30 or 50-117)Epistle: To the RomansJosephus (37-c. 100)The Jewish WarThe Defeat at JotapaMass Suicide at MasadaPlutarch (c. 46-c. 120)Moralia: The Women of MiletusParallel Lives: Cato the YoungerThe New Testament (c. 50-c. 150)Matthew: The Death of JudasActs: Paul Prevents a SuicideI Corinthians: The Body as TemplePhilippians: Paul in Prison: On the Desire to DieThe Lotus Sutra (c. 50-c. 200)Tacitus (c. 55-c.117)The Annals: The Death of SenecaEpictetus (c. 55-c. 135)DiscoursesHow From the Doctrine of Our Relationship to God We Are ToDeduce its ConsequencesHow We Should Bear IllnessOf FreedomPliny the Younger (62-113)LettersTo Calestrius TiroTo Catilius SeverusTo Marcilius NeposTo Calpurnius MacerJustin Martyr (c. 100-165)The Second Apology: Why Christians Do Not Kill ThemselvesClement of Alexandria (c. 150-c. 215)The Praises of MartyrdomThose Who Offered Themselves for Martyrdom ReprovedTertullian (c. 160-c. 220)To the MartyrsThe Crown of MartyrdomBhagavad-Gita (3rd century)The Way to Eternal BrahmanGenesis Rabbah (compiled 3rd-5th century)Commentary on Genesis 9:5Plotinus (204/205-270)from The EnneadsFourth Tractate: On HappinessSeventh Tractate: On the Primal Good and Secondary Forms of GoodNinth Tractate: The Reasoned 'Dismissal'Lactantius (c. 240-c. 320)The Divine InstitutesEusebius (c. 260-339)Ecclesiastical HistoryAmbrose (337/340-397)Of Virgins: Letter to MarcellinaAugustine (354-430)The City of GodOn Free Choice and the WillThe Babylonian Talmud (3rd-6th centuries)Bava KamaAvodah ZarahGittinSemahotBana (late 6th century--early 7th century)Harsha-Carita, The Death of the Great King: On SatiKadambariThe Quran (traditional date c. 632-c.650)Surahs 2.54, 2.154, 2.195, 2.207, 3.145, 3.169-70, 4.29-30, 4.66, 4.74-80, 9.111, 18.6Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari and Muslim al-Hajjaj (810-870; c. 817/821-875)HadithYa'qub al-Qirqisani (c. 890-c.960)The Book of Lighthouses and WatchtowersAhmad ibn Fadlan (fl. 920s)The Risala: By the River Volga, 922: Viking Ship-BurialAbu Hayyan al-Tawhidi (922/932-1023)Borrowed Lights: On SuicideMurasaki Shikibu (970-1031)The Tale of GenjiJetsun Milarepa (c. 1052-c. 1135)Songs of MilarepaAbu-Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali (1056-1111)Revival of the Religious SciencesTosafot (12th-14th centuries)On Avodah Zarah 18aTosafot on the TorahHenry de Bracton (c. 1210-1268)On the Laws and Customs of England: Where a Man CommitsFelony Upon His Own PersonThe Norse Sagas (c. 1220-c.1400)Ynglinga Saga: Odin Marks Himself with a Spear [1930] [1844Gautrek's Saga: The Family CliffNjal's Saga: The Burning of NjalThomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274)Summa Theologiae: Whether One is Allowed to Kill OneselfAngela of Foligno (1248-1309)The Book of Divine ConsolationDante Alighieri (1265-1321)The Divine Comedy: InfernoAbu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Battuta (1304-1368/69 A.D.)from Rihla: On Sati and Religious SuicideThomas More (1478-1535)UtopiaA Dialogue of Comfort Against TribulationMartin Luther (1483-1546)Table-TalkFrancisco de Vitoria (c.1483/92-1546)Lecture on HomicideCommentary on [Thomas Aquinas] Summa Theologiae IIa IIae Q. 64John Calvin (1509-1564)Sermons on JobSolomon ben Jehiel Luria (1510-1573)On Bava KammaCentral and South American Native Cultures(documented 1526-1621)AztecCodex Chimalpopoca (1570)The Death of QuetzalcoatlLetters from Mexico (1519-20)(Hern n Cortes, 1519-20)General History of the Things of New Spain (The Florentine Codex)The Festival in the Month of ToxcatlThe Sun, Moon, and Stars, and the Binding of the Years(Bernardino de Sahagen, c. 1565)Monarchia IndianaChimalpopoca's Victory in Death(Juan de Torquemada, 1609-15)In Defense of the Indians(Bartolome de Las Casas, 1548-1550)Maya:Popol Vuh:History of the Twins Hunahpu and XbalanqueHow the People Obtained Fire(dictated in K'iche', c. 1554-1558; Francisco Ximenez, c. 1701)An Account of the Affairs of YucatanIxtab: Goddess of the Gallows(Diego de Landa, c. 1570)Caribbean:Natural History of the West IndiesSuicide on the Death of the Chief(Gonzalo Fern ndez de Oviedo, 1526)La Historia General de las IndiasSuicide, Smallpox, and the Arrival of the Spaniards(Francisco Lopez de Gomara, 1552)Hhistory of the New WorldSuffering at the Hands of the Spaniards(Girolamo Benzoni, 1565)Inca:The IndiasThe Burial of Wives(Pedro de Cieza de Leon, 1553)Natural and Moral History of the IndiesOf Superstitions They Used to the Dead(Jose de Acosta, 1589)La Extirpacion de la Idolatria en el PeruWhat Those Who Hang Themselves Really Are(Pablo Jose de Arriaga, 1621)Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592Of CannibalsA Custom of the Island of CeaAbu'l Fazl ibn Mubarak (1551-1602)Biography of the Emperor Akbar: On Jauhar and SakaWillliam Shakespeare (1564-1616)Hamlet, Prince of DenmarkAntony and CleopatraJohn Donne (1572-1631)BiathanatosRobert Burton (1577-1640)Anatomy of MelancholyJohn Sym (1581?-1638)Lifes Preservative Against Self-KillingThomas Hobbes (1588-1679)LeviathanA Dialogue of the Common Laws of EnglandBaruch Spinoza (1632-1677)EthicsSamuel von Pufendorf (1632-1694)Of the Law of Nature and Nations )John Locke (1632-1704)Second Treatise of Government: "Of the State of Nature"Samuel Pepys (1633-1703)Diary, January 21, 1668Huang Liuhong (1633-c. 1710)A Complete Book Concerning Happiness and BenevolenceNorth American Native Cultures (documented 1635-1970)Northeast:Ojibwa:Mrs. Cochran Becoming a Windigo(R. Landes, 1932-1935)Micmac:The Gaspesians: Suicide, Shame, and Despair.(Chrestien Le Clercq, 1675-1686)Huron:Le Jeune's Relation(Jean de Brebeuf; Father Paul le Jeune 1635-36)The Suicide of Children(Anthony F.C. Wallace, citing LeMercier, 1600's)Iroquois:Suicide(Father Joseph Francois Lafitau, 1712-17)Suicide of the Widowed(Baron de Lahontan, 1703)The Song of Death(Baron de Lahontan, 1703)Seneca:Murder and Suicide (Mrs. Mary Jemison, 1817)The Code of Handsome Lake(Edward Cornplanter, Arthur C. Parker, 1850, 1913The Suicide as Earthbound(Jesse Cornplanter)Southeast:Cherokee:Varieties of Shame: Time of Death, Pollution, and the Disfigurement of Smallpox(James Adair, 1775)Natchez:The Favorite Wife of the Chief Sun(Jean-Bernard Bossu, 1751-1762)Great Plains:Comanche:Elderly Persons "Thrown Away"(Ernest Wallace and Edward Adamson Hoebel, 1933, 1945)Suicide from Overwhelming Shame(Edward Adamson Hoebel, 1940)Arapaho:The Rarity of Suicide; When the Camp Moved(M. Inez Hilger, 1935-1942)Sioux:Suicide among Sioux Women(John Bradbury, 1809-11)Cheyenne:Two Twists in Battle(Karl N. Llewellyn and Edward Adamson Hoebel, 1941)Mandan:Smallpox and the End of a Household(Alfred W. Bowers, 1930-1931)Crow:Crazy-Dog Wishing to Die(Robert H. Lowie, 1913)The Lowest of the Low(William Wildschut, 1918-1927; 1960)Gros Ventre:Singing the 'Brave-Song'(Regina Flannery, 1940-48)Blackfoot:Suicide to Avoid Marriage(George Bird Grinnell, 1888)The Sandhills(Adolf Hungry Wolf, 1977)Kit-sta-ka Rejoins her Husband After the Sun Dance(Walter McClintock, 1910)When Wakes-Up-Last Murdered All of his Children(Walter McClintock, 1968)Southwest:Navajo:Notes on Navajo Suicide(Leland C. Wyman and Betty Thorne, 1945)The Destination of Witches and Suicides(Leland C. Wyman, W.W. Hill, and Iva Osanai, 1942)Reasons for Suicide(D. Leighton and C. Kluckhohn, 1947)Ending One's Life by Wishing to Die(Franc Johnson Newcomb, 1915-1940)Crazy Violence(B. Kaplan and D. Johnson, 1964)Navajo Suicide(Jerrold E. Levy, 1965)Hopi:Making Arrangements for Suicide(Edmund Nequatewa, 1936)How the Hopi Marked the Boundary Line(Edmund Nequatewa, 1936)Girls Going Quvisti(Mischa Titiev, 1932-1940)Ute:Postmenopausal Women(John Wesley Powell, 1867-1880)Pueblo:Suicides as Cloud Beings(Elsie Clews Parsons, 1939)Ritual Revenge(Ruth Benedict, 1934)Jicarilla Apache:Apache War Customs(M.E. Opler, 1936)Mojave:The First Death: Matavilye, and Suicide in Childbirth, Weaning, and Twins(George Devereux, 1961)West and Northwest Coast:Pomo:Psychological Suicide(B.W. Aginsky, 1934-35)Wintu and others:Suicide in Northeastern California(Erminie W. Voegelin, 1937)Klamath:The Stigma of Suicide(Lucy Thompson, 1916)SalishStrained Sex Relations(V. F. Ray, 1928-1930)SalishSuicide by Hanging(W. Cline, 1930)KwakiutlShame(Ruth Benedict, 1934)Chilkotin/TalkotinBarbarities Practised on Widows(Ross Cox, citing M'Gillivray 1794-95)TlingitHolding Others Responsible for Suicide(Aurel Krause, 1881-1882; 1956)Slaves: An Honor to Die at the Master's Funeral(Albert F. Niblack, 1887)Paying Damages for Suicide(Livingston F. Jones, 1893-1914; 1914)KaskaSuicide and Intoxication(John Joseph Honigmann, 1943-1945)Daidoji Yuzan (1639-1730)Beginner's Book of BushidoIncrease Mather (1639-1723)A Call to the TemptedChikamatsu Monzaemon (1653-1725)The Love Suicides at SonesakiJohn Adams (1662-1720)An Essay Concerning Self-MurtherCotton Mather (1663-1728)Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcrafts and PossessionsIsaac Watts (1674-1748)A Defense Against the Temptation to Self-MurtherMontesquieu (1689-1755)Persian LettersConsiderations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their DeclineThe Spirit of the LawsVoltaire (1694-1778)Philosophical DictionaryCaleb Fleming (1698-1779)A Dissertation Upon the Unnatural Crime ofSelf-Murder (1773)John Wesley (1703-1791)Thoughts on SuicideDavid Hume (1711-1776)Essay on SuicideTo John Home of NinewellsJean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)Julie, or The New Heloise, Letters 114, 115William Blackstone (1723-1780)Commentaries on the Laws of England: HomicidePaul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723-1789)The System of NatureImmanuel Kant (1724-1804)Grounding for the Metaphysics of MoralsThe Metaphysical Principles of Virtue: Man's Duty to Himself Insofar asHe Is an Animal BeingLectures on Ethics: Duties Towards The Body in Regard to LifeCesare Beccaria (1738-1794)Of Crimes and PunishmentsThomas Jefferson (1743-1826)A Bill for Proportioning Crimes and Punishments in Cases Heretofore CapitalLetter to Dr. Samuel Brown, July 14, 1813Olaudah Equiano (c. 1745-1797)The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or GustavusVassa, the African, Written by HimselfRichard Hey (1745-1835)Dissertation on SuicideJeremy Bentham (1748-1832)Principles of Penal LawPrinciples of Judicial ProcedureJohann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)The Sorrows of Young WertherPoetry and Truth from My Own LifeWilliam Godwin (1756-1836)Enquiry Concerning Political JusticeMemoirs of the Author of a Vindication of the Rights of WomanJohann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814)The Science of Ethics as Based on the Science of KnowledgeEphraim Zalman Margolioth (1762-1828)Bet EfrayimAnn Louise Germaine de Stall (1766-1817)On the Influence of the PassionsReflections on SuicideGeorg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831)The Philosophy of RightNovalis (1772-1801)Novices of SaisJean-tienne-Dominique Esquirol (1772-1840)Mental Maladies: Treatise on InsanityRammohun Roy (1774-1833)Conference Between an Advocate For, and an Opponent Of, the Practice of Burning Widows AliveThomas de Quincey (1785-1859)Essays in Philosophy: On SuicideArthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)The World as Will and IdeaStudies in Pessimism: On SuicideGiacomo Leopardi (1798-1837)Dialogue between Plotinus and PorphyryJohn Stuart Mill (1806-1873)AutobiographyDeaths of Casimir Perier and Georges CuvierPenal Code for IndiaDiary, March 8, 1854On LibertyForbes Winslow (1810-1874)The Anatomy of Suicide: Can SuicideBe Prevented by Legislative Enactment?Karl Marx (1818-1883)Peuchet on SuicideFlorence Nightingale (1820-1910)Note, Christmas Eve, 1850From Nightingale's draft novelDraft for Suggestions for Thought to Searchers After Religious Truth (1860)Notes on NursingNote to Benjamin Jowett (c. 1866)Reflections on Robert Falconer (1868)"Truth and Feeling," 1871 or laterMysticism and Eastern ReligionsOceanic Cultures (documented 1820-1983)MelanesiaFiji:The Principal Wife of the Chief(William Mariner, 1820)Elderly Parents and the Time to Die(Charles Wilkes, 1845)Deaths of the Old Chief and his Wives (Thomas Williams, 1858)Solomon Islands:Tikopian Attitudes Towards Suicide(Raymond Firth, 1967)Papua New Guinea:Kiriwina/The Trobriand Islands:Suicide as an Act of JusticeExpiation and Insult: Jumping from a Palm(Bronislaw Malinowski, 1916, 1926)The Kaliai: Good Death, Bad Death(David R. Counts and Dorothy Ayers Counts, 1983-84)Micronesia:Guam:A Tale of Two Lovers: Tying Their Hair Together(Freycinet, 1819)Chuuk:Sea Spirit Spasms(Frank Joseph Mahony, (1950-1968), 1970)Group Rejection and Suicide(Thomas Gladwin and Seymour Bernard Sarason, 1953)Polynesia:Samoa:"Who Will Go With Me?"(George Turner, 1884)Tonga:The Love-Sick of Vavau(Basil Thomson, 1886-1891, 1894)Niue Island:Traditions of Niue(Edwin M. Loeb, 1926)Pukapuka, Cook Islands:After Defeat in Fighting: Burying Oneself Alive(Ernest Beaglehole and Pearl Beaglehole, 1938)Marquesas:Coconut Rites for SuicideTahia-noho-uu (E. S. Craighill Handy, 1920-1921, 1923, 1930)Mangareva, Gambier Islands:Cliff Suicide: The Privilege of Women(Te Rangi Hiroa [Sir Peter H. Buck], 1938)New Zealand:The Maori Myth of TaneThe Myth of Rakuru(John White, 1887)Maori: Tupu and Mate(J. Prtyz Johansen, 1954)The SpiritThe Dying Maori Chief and his Old and Young Wives(Frederick Edward Maning, 1922)HawaiiThe Secrecy of the Bones of a Chief(Laura C. Green and Martha Warren Beckwith, 1926)Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881)The Diary of a WriterIn Lieu of a Preface on the Great and Little Bears, on thePrayer of the Great Goethe, And, Generally, on Bad HabitsTwo SuicidesThe VerdictArbitrary AssertionsA Few Words About YouthOn Suicides and HaughtinessThe Boy Celebrating His Saint's DayThe Dream of a Strange Man: A Fantastic StoryRobert Ingersoll (1833-1899)Is Suicide a Sin?A.B. Mitford, Lord Redesdale (1837-1916)An Account of the Hara-KiriArctic Cultures (documented 1840-1940)Eskimo of Diomede IslandFather and SonAleutAre the Aleut Prone to Commit Suicide?(documented by Veniaminov, 1840)St. Lawrence EskimoNotes on Eskimo Patterns of Suicide(documented by Leighton and Hughes 1940)IngalikSuicide as Shameful or Insane(documented by Osgood, 1937)Copper EskimoDeath Taboos(documented by Rasmussen 1921-24)Suicide as Rare(documented by Jenness 1913-18)Eskimo of Cumberland SoundMan's Two Souls: The Afterlife(documented by Boas 1883-84)Caribou EskimoMoral Rights, Social Obligations(documented by Birket-Smith 1921-24)Netsilik EskimoFamine; On the Treatment of the Aged(documented by Rasmussen 1921-24)Iglulik EskimoThe Moon SpiritDeath, and Life in the Land of the DeadThose Who Were Left Behind(documented by Rasmussen 1921-24)Hudson Bay InuitDesertion of Old Women(documented by Turner 1882-84, 1889-90)Eskimo of Baffin IslandTheological Questions(documented by Hall 1860-62)Tribal Life(documented by Bilby 1923)Labrador EskimoRespect for the Aged(documented by Hawkes 1914)Greenland EskimoThe Old Woman and the Cliff(documented by Nansen 1893)Eduard von Hartmann (1842-1906)Philosophy of the UnconsciousWilliam James (1842-1910)The Principles of PsychologyIs Life Worth Living?Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)Thus Spake Zarathustra: Voluntary DeathThe Twilight of the Idols: A Moral for DoctorsAfrican Traditional SubSaharan Cultures (documented 1853--)African Origin Myths: Man Desires Death[compiled by Hans Abrahamsson]Dogon:The Souls of the Dogons[documented by Solange de Ganay, field date 1937-39]LoDagaa:The Day of Death: Restraining the Bereaved to Prevent Suicide[documented by Jack Goody, 1962]Akan:The Detection of Witches: Ordeal and PunishmentAshanti:Law and Constitution: A Suicide's Trial[documented by Capt. R. S. Rattray, 1929]Funeral Rites for Babies and Kings[documented by Capt. R. S. Rattray, 1929][1923/27]The Price of Intrigue with Women of Royal Blood[documented by A. B. Ellis, 1887]Fante:Killing Oneself "Upon the Head of Another": The Tragedy ofAdjuah Amissah[documented by Brodie Cruickshank, 1853]GU:The Prohibition of Death[documented by M. J. Field, 1937]Ewe:The Criminality of Suicide[documented by A.B. Ellis, 1890]Yoruba:The Kings of the Yoruba[documented by Samuel Johnson, 1897]Sango: The God of Thunder and LightningThe King's Natural and Official MothersChildren Born to DieWearing the Death ClothThe Fate of DespotsYoruba Laws and Customs: Suicide[documented by A. K. Ajisafe, 1924]Igbo:Evil Spirits[documented by Northcote W. Thomas, 1913]Sacrifices, Death, and Burial[documented by G. T. Basden, 1938]A Murderer Must Hang HimselfAn Old Woman's Prearranged Funeral[documented by G. T. Basden, 1921]Zulu:The Timely DeathGodusa: The Old Woman and the Antbear's Hole[documented by R.C.A. Samuelson, 1929]Ukugodusa: The First Woman Who Became a Christian[documented by L. H. Samuelson, 1912]The Burial of a King[documented by R.C.A. Samuelson, 1929]Banyoro:The Ghost of a SuicideDinka:The Folktale of the Four TruthsBurial Alive: The Master of the Fishing-SpearHindu Widow, Anonymous (1889)Hindu Widows. By One of ThemselvesSigmund Freud (1856-1939)The Psychopathology of Everyday LifeContributions to a Discussion on SuicideMourning and MelancholiaThe Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a WomanThe Economic Problem of MasochismEmile Durkheim (1858-1917)SuicideCharlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935)The Living of Charlotte Perkins GilmanSuicide Note, August 17, 1935The Right to Die-IMohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948)Indian Home RuleAn Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with TruthNon-Violence in Peace and WarAlfred Adler (1870-1937)SuicideCarl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)Letters:July 10, 1946;July 25, 1946;Oct. 13, 1951;Nov. 10, 1955John Haynes Holmes (1879-1964)Is Suicide Justifiable?Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)Mrs. DallowayA Room of One's OwnJournal, May 15, 1941Letter to Leonard Woolf, March 18, 1941Paul Tillich (1886-1965)The Courage to BeLudwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)Notebooks 1914-1916LettersMao Zedong (1893-1976)The Suicide of Miss ZhaoSzmul Zygielbojm (1895-1943)Letter to the President and Prime Minister of the Republic of PolandPaul-Louis Landsberg (1901-1944)The Moral Problem of SuicideDietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945)Ethics: Last and Penultimate ThingsAlbert Camus (1913-1960)The Myth of SisyphusNotebooksJapanese Naval Special Attack Force (Kamikaze Corps) (b. 1920s)Last Letters Home (1944-1945)Murtaza Mutahhari (1920-1979)The Martyr: On Jihad, Suicide and MartyrdomThich Nhat Hanh (1926-)The Lotus in a Sea of FireMary Rose Barrington (1926- )Apologia for SuicideDaniel Callahan (1930- )Reason, Self-determination, and Physician-Assisted SuicideSylvia Plath (1932-1963)The Bell JarPeter Y. Windt (?-)The Concept of Suicide